Expert Answer :​Toxicology narrative & MSDS comparison


Solved by verified expert:For part I of this assignment, use the NTP testing report or raw company
testing data For part 2 of this assignment, use the Safety Data Sheets of hexane. Compare
the toxicology section of the MSDS to the information found on the ToxNet HSDB
documentation and compare the MSDS to the information found on ToxNext,
then answer the questions below.
1) You are a toxicologist for a company making a specific chemical and you are
tasked with writing a toxicology testing summary of this chemical. Please write a
comprehensive narrative of the toxicology associated with this chemical based
on the testing documentation provided on blackboard.
The company lawyer tells you: (i.e. what you’re grade for this section of the
assignment is based onA) Your toxicology narrative for this summary must be less than 1500 words. B) Your toxicology narrative must summarize how the toxicity testing information
provided supports the conclusions regarding: what organ systems may be significantly affected
 Differentiate between chemically-related effects and those
that do not seem to be related to the chemical but rather
may have occurred due to testing artifact or the animal
models used (e.g. background animal cancer rates)
o what damage may occur, both reversible and irreversible
o Uncertainties in the information/testing available
2) In 1000 words or less, compare and contrast the toxicology section of the
MSDS’s for n-hexane provided with the information found on
ToxNet at:
Answer the following questions.
A) Does the MSDS accurately represent the toxicity of the chemical? Explain
your answer.
B) Does the MSDS provide a comprehensive picture of the toxicity? Why or why
C) Do these sources of toxicity information convey the same message regarding
the hazards of the chemical? If not, how are they different?
D) Do you think the MSDS correctly conveys the toxicity of the chemical?
E) How might you change the MSDS to make it more comprehensive and


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He a lt h
Re a c t iv it y
P e rs o n a l
P ro t e c t io n
Material Safety Data Sheet
Hexanes MSDS
Section 1: Chemical Product and Company Identification
Product Name: Hexanes
Contact Information:, Inc.
14025 Smith Rd.
Houston, Texas 77396
Catalog Codes: SLH2335, SLH2032
CAS#: 110-54-3
US Sales: 1-800-901-7247
International Sales: 1-281-441-4400
RTECS: MN9275000
TSCA: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Hexane
Order Online:
CI#: Not applicable.
CHEMTREC (24HR Emergency Telephone), call:
Chemical Name: Hexane
International CHEMTREC, call: 1-703-527-3887
Chemical Formula: C6-H14
For non-emergency assistance, call: 1-281-441-4400
Section 2: Composition and Information on Ingredients
% by Weight
Toxicological Data on Ingredients: Hexane: ORAL (LD50): Acute: 25000 mg/kg [Rat].
Section 3: Hazards Identification
Potential Acute Health Effects:
Hazardous in case of skin contact (permeator), of ingestion, of inhalation. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant),
of eye contact (irritant).
Potential Chronic Health Effects:
CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast. TERATOGENIC
EFFECTS: Not available. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available. The substance may be toxic to peripheral nervous
system, skin, central nervous system (CNS). Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs
Section 4: First Aid Measures
Eye Contact:
p. 1
Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids
open. Get medical attention if irritation occurs.
Skin Contact: Wash with soap and water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Get medical attention if irritation develops.
Serious Skin Contact:
Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek medical attention.
If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical
attention if symptoms appear.
Serious Inhalation:
Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. If
breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. If the victim is not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Seek medical
Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious
person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention if symptoms appear.
Serious Ingestion: Not available.
Section 5: Fire and Explosion Data
Flammability of the Product: Flammable.
Auto-Ignition Temperature: 225°C (437°F)
Flash Points: CLOSED CUP: -22.5°C (-8.5°F). (TAG)
Flammable Limits: LOWER: 1.15% UPPER: 7.5%
Products of Combustion: These products are carbon oxides (CO, CO2).
Fire Hazards in Presence of Various Substances:
Highly flammable in presence of open flames and sparks, of heat. Non-flammable in presence of shocks.
Explosion Hazards in Presence of Various Substances:
Risks of explosion of the product in presence of mechanical impact: Not available. Risks of explosion of the product in
presence of static discharge: Not available.
Fire Fighting Media and Instructions:
Flammable liquid, insoluble in water. SMALL FIRE: Use DRY chemical powder. LARGE FIRE: Use water spray or fog.
Special Remarks on Fire Hazards:
Extremely flammable liquid and vapor. Vapor may cause flash fire.
Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards: Not available.
Section 6: Accidental Release Measures
Small Spill: Absorb with an inert material and put the spilled material in an appropriate waste disposal.
Large Spill:
Flammable liquid, insoluble in water. Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition. Stop leak if without risk.
Absorb with DRY earth, sand or other non-combustible material. Do not get water inside container. Do not touch spilled
material. Prevent entry into sewers, basements or confined areas; dike if needed. Call for assistance on disposal. Be careful
that the product is not present at a concentration level above TLV. Check TLV on the MSDS and with local authorities.
Section 7: Handling and Storage
p. 2
Keep locked up.. Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition. Ground all equipment containing material.
Do not ingest. Do not breathe gas/fumes/ vapor/spray. Avoid contact with skin. Wear suitable protective clothing. In case
of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment. If ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the
container or the label. Keep away from incompatibles such as oxidizing agents.
Store in a segregated and approved area. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed and
sealed until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame).
Section 8: Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
Engineering Controls:
Provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep the airborne concentrations of vapors below their respective
threshold limit value. Ensure that eyewash stations and safety showers are proximal to the work-station location.
Personal Protection:
Safety glasses. Lab coat. Vapor respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Gloves (impervious).
Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill:
Splash goggles. Full suit. Vapor respirator. Boots. Gloves. A self contained breathing apparatus should be used to avoid
inhalation of the product. Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient; consult a specialist BEFORE handling this
Exposure Limits:
TWA: 500 (ppm) from OSHA (PEL) [United States] Inhalation TWA: 1800 (mg/m3) from OSHA (PEL) [United States] Inhalation
TWA: 176 (mg/m3) from ACGIH (TLV) [United States] SKIN TWA: 50 (ppm) from ACGIH (TLV) [United States] SKIN TWA:
500 STEL: 1000 (ppm) from ACGIH (TLV) [United States] Inhalation TWA: 1760 STEL: 3500 (mg/m3) from ACGIH (TLV)
[United States] Inhalation Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.
Section 9: Physical and Chemical Properties
Physical state and appearance: Liquid.
Odor: Gasoline-like or petroleum-like (Slight.)
Taste: Not available.
Molecular Weight: 86.18g/mole
Color: Clear Colorless.
pH (1% soln/water): Not applicable.
Boiling Point: 68°C (154.4°F)
Melting Point: -95°C (-139°F)
Critical Temperature: Not available.
Specific Gravity: 0.66 (Water = 1)
Vapor Pressure: 17.3 kPa (@ 20°C)
Vapor Density: 2.97 (Air = 1)
Volatility: Not available.
Odor Threshold: 130 ppm
Water/Oil Dist. Coeff.: The product is more soluble in oil; log(oil/water) = 3.9
Ionicity (in Water): Not available.
p. 3
Dispersion Properties: See solubility in water, diethyl ether, acetone.
Soluble in diethyl ether, acetone. Insoluble in cold water, hot water.
Section 10: Stability and Reactivity Data
Stability: The product is stable.
Instability Temperature: Not available.
Conditions of Instability: Heat, ingnition sources, incompatibles.
Incompatibility with various substances: Reactive with oxidizing agents.
Corrosivity: Not available.
Special Remarks on Reactivity: Hexane can react vigorously with strong oxidizers (e.g. chlorine, bromine, fluorine)
Special Remarks on Corrosivity: Not available.
Polymerization: Will not occur.
Section 11: Toxicological Information
Routes of Entry: Absorbed through skin. Dermal contact. Inhalation. Ingestion.
Toxicity to Animals:
toxicity (LD50): 25000 mg/kg [Rat]. Acute toxicity of the gas (LC50): 48000 ppm 4 hours [Rat].
Chronic Effects on Humans:
MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast. May cause damage to the following organs: peripheral nervous
system, skin, central nervous system (CNS).
Other Toxic Effects on Humans:
Very hazardous in case of ingestion, of inhalation. Hazardous in case of skin contact (permeator). Slightly hazardous in case
of skin contact (irritant).
Special Remarks on Toxicity to Animals: Not available.
Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans:
May cause adverse reproductive effects based on animal data. May be tumorigenic based on animal data. May affect genetic
material. Passes through the placental barrier in animal.
Special Remarks on other Toxic Effects on Humans:
Acute Potential Health Effects: Skin: May cause mild skin irritation. It can be absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts.
Eyes: May cause mild eye irritation. Inhalation: May be harmful if inhaled. Inhalation of vapors may cause respiratory tract
irritation. Overexposure may affect, brain, spinal cord, behavior/central and peripheral nervous systems (lightheadness,
dizziness, hallucinations, paralysis, blurred vision, memory loss, headache, euphoria, general anesthetic, muscle weakness,
numbness of the extremeties, asphyxia, unconciousness and possible death), metabolism, respiration, blood, cardiovascular
system, gastrointestinal system (nausea) Ingestion: May be harmful if swallowed. May cause gastrointestinal tract irritation
with abdominal pain and nausea. May also affect the liver, blood, brain, peripheral and central nervous systems. Symptoms of
over exposure by ingestion are similar to that of overexposure by inhalation.
Section 12: Ecological Information
Ecotoxicity: Not available.
BOD5 and COD: Not available.
p. 4
Products of Biodegradation:
Possibly hazardous short term degradation products are not likely. However, long term degradation products may arise.
Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation: The product itself and its products of degradation are not toxic.
Special Remarks on the Products of Biodegradation: Not available.
Section 13: Disposal Considerations
Waste Disposal:
Waste must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local environmental control regulations.
Section 14: Transport Information
DOT Classification: CLASS 3: Flammable liquid.
Identification: : Hexane UNNA: 1208 PG: II
Special Provisions for Transport: Not available.
Section 15: Other Regulatory Information
Federal and State Regulations:
Connecticut hazardous material survey.: Hexanes Illinois toxic substances disclosure to employee act: Hexanes Illinois
chemical safety act: Hexanes New York release reporting list: Hexanes Rhode Island RTK hazardous substances: Hexanes
Pennsylvania RTK: Hexanes Florida: Hexanes Minnesota: Hexanes Massachusetts RTK: Hexanes Massachusetts spill
list: Hexanes New Jersey: Hexanes New Jersey spill list: Hexanes Louisiana spill reporting: Hexanes TSCA 8(b) inventory:
Hexanes SARA 313 toxic chemical notification and release reporting: Hexanes CERCLA: Hazardous substances.: Hexanes:
5000 lbs. (2268 kg)
Other Regulations:
OSHA: Hazardous by definition of Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200). EINECS: This product is on the
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances.
Other Classifications:
WHMIS (Canada):
CLASS B-2: Flammable liquid with a flash point lower than 37.8°C (100°F). CLASS D-2B: Material causing other toxic effects
R11- Highly flammable. R20- Harmful by inhalation. R38- Irritating to skin. R51/53- Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause
long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. R62- Possible risk of impaired fertility. R65- Harmful: may cause lung
damage if swallowed. R67- Vapors may cause drowsiness or dizziness. S9- Keep container in a well-ventilated place. S16Keep away from sources of ignition – No smoking. S29- Do not empty into drains. S33- Take precautionary measures against
static discharges. S36/37- Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. S61- Avoid release to the environment. Refer to
special instructions/Safety data sheets. S62- If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show
HMIS (U.S.A.):
Health Hazard: 2
Fire Hazard: 3
Reactivity: 0
Personal Protection: g
National Fire Protection Association (U.S.A.):
p. 5
Health: 1
Flammability: 3
Reactivity: 0
Specific hazard:
Protective Equipment:
Gloves (impervious). Lab coat. Vapor respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Wear
appropriate respirator when ventilation is inadequate. Safety glasses.
Section 16: Other Information
References: Not available.
Other Special Considerations: Not available.
Created: 10/10/2005 08:19 PM
Last Updated: 05/21/2013 12:00 PM
The information above is believed to be accurate and represents the best information currently available to us. However, we
make no warranty of merchantability or any other warranty, express or implied, with respect to such information, and we assume
no liability resulting from its use. Users should make their own investigations to determine the suitability of the information for
their particular purposes. In no event shall be liable for any claims, losses, or damages of any third party or for
lost profits or any special, indirect, incidental, consequential or exemplary damages, howsoever arising, even if
has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
p. 6
National Toxicology Program
Toxicity Report Series
Number 86
NTP Technical Report
on the Toxicity Studies of
Cedarwood Oil
(CAS No. 8000-27-9)
Administered Dermally
to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice
ember 2016
National Institutes of Health
Public Health Service
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) is an interagency program within the Public Health Service (PHS) of the
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and is headquartered at the National Institute of Environmental
Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health (NIEHS/NIH). Three agencies contribute resources to the
program: NIEHS/NIH, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (NIOSH/CDC), and the National Center for Toxicological Research of the Food and Drug
Administration (NCTR/FDA). Established in 1978, the NTP is charged with coordinating toxicological testing
activities, strengthening the science base in toxicology, developing and validating improved testing methods, and
providing information about potentially toxic substances to health regulatory and research agencies, scientific and
medical communities, and the public.
The Toxicity Study Report series began in 1991. The studies described in the Toxicity Study Report series are
designed and conducted to characterize and evaluate the toxicologic potential of selected substances in laboratory
animals (usually two species, rats and mice). Substances selected for NTP toxicity studies are chosen primarily on
the basis of human exposure, level of production, and chemical structure. The interpretive conclusions presented in
the Toxicity Study Reports are based only on the results of these NTP studies. Extrapolation of these results to other
species, including characterization of hazards and risks to humans, requires analyses beyond the intent of these
reports. Selection per se is not an indicator of a substance’s toxic potential.
The NTP conducts its studies in compliance with its laboratory health and safety guidelines and FDA Good
Laboratory Practice Regulations and must meet or exceed all applicable federal, state, and local health and safety
regulations. Animal care and use are in accordance with the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use
of Animals. Studies are subjected to retrospective quality assurance audits before being presented for public review.
NTP Toxicity Study Reports are indexed in the NIH/NLM PubMed database and are available free of charge
electronically on the NTP website (
National Toxicology Program
Toxicity Report Series
Number 86
NTP Technical Report
on the Toxicity Studies of
Cedarwood Oil
(CAS NO. 8000-27-9)
Administered Dermally
to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice
Natasha R. Catlin, Ph.D., Study Scientist
National Toxicology Program
Post Office Box 12233
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
ember 2016
National Institutes of Health
Public Health Service
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
National Toxicology Program
Dynamac Corporation
Evaluated and interpreted results and reported findings
Prepared quality assessment audits
N.R. Catlin, Ph.D., Study Scientist
R.A. Herbert, D.V.M., Ph.D., Study Pathologist
C.R. Blystone, Ph.D.
P.M. Foster, Ph.D.
M.J. Hooth, Ph.D.
A.P. King-Herbert, D.V.M.
G.E. Kissling, Ph.D.
B.S. McIntyre, Ph.D.
D.E. Malarkey, D.V.M., Ph.D.
S.L. Smith-Roe, Ph.D.
M.D. Stout, Ph.D.
I.O. Surh, Ph.D.
G.S. Travlos, D.V.M.
M.K. Vallant, B.S., M.T.
S. Waidyanatha, Ph.D.
N.J. Walker, Ph.D.
K.L. Witt, M.S.
S. Brecher, Ph.D., Principal Investigator
S. Iyer, B.S.
V.S. Tharakan, D.V.M.
Battelle Columbus Operations
N. Wakamatsu, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Conducted studies and evaluated pathology findings
M.R. Hejtmancik, Ph.D., Principal Investigator
C.A. Colleton, D.V.M.
L.M. Fomby, D.V.M., Ph.D.
M.J. Ryan, D.V.M., Ph.D.
J.D. Toft, II, D.V.M., M.S.
NTP Pathology Working Group
Evaluated slides and contributed to pathology report
(April 5, 2007)
G.D. Hill, D.V.M., Ph.D., Coordinator
ILS, Inc.
S.A. Elmore, D.V.M., M.S.
National Toxicology Program
G.P. Flake, M.D.
National Toxicology Program
R.A. Herbert, D.V.M., Ph.D.
National Toxicology Program
D.E. Malarkey, D.V.M., Ph.D.
National Toxicology Program
J.B. Nold, D.V.M., Ph.D.
National Toxicology Program
NTP Pathology Peer Review
(Special Report)
Evaluated slides and contributed to pathology report
(November 7, 2013)
R.R. Moore, D.V.M., Ph.D., Coordinator
Experimental Pathology Laboratories,
Provided pathology review
M.H. Hamlin, II, D.V.M., Principal Investigator
M.M. Gruebbel, D.V.M., Ph.D.
R.A. Miller, D.V.M., Ph.D.
R.R. Moore, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc.
M.F. Cesta, D.V.M., Ph.D.
National Toxicology Program
G.P. Flake, M.D.
National Toxicology Program
M.M. Gruebbel, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc.
R.A. Herbert, D.V.M., Ph.D.
National Toxicology Program
K. Janardhan, B.V.Sc., M.V.Sc, Ph.D.
ILS, Inc.
Bridge Global Pharmaceutical Services,
D.E. Malarkey, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Provided SMVCE analysis
R.A. Miller, D.V.M., Ph.D.
B.J.T. Muir, Ph.D., Principal Investigator
B. Atkinson, M.Sc.
Y. Wang, M.S.
National Toxicology Program
Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc.
Cedarwood Oil, NTP TOX 86
Social & Scientific Systems, Inc.
Biotechnical Services, Inc.
Provided statistical analyses
Prepared Toxicity Study Report
M.V. Smith, Ph.D., Principal Investigator
L.J. Betz, M.S.
S.F. Harris, B.S.
S.R. Gunnels, M.A., Principal Investigator
L.M. Harper, B.S.
J.I. Irving, M.A.P.
T.S. Kumpe, M.A.
D.C. Serbus, Ph.D.
The draft report on the toxicity studies of cedarwood oil was evaluated by the reviewers listed below. These
reviewers serve as independent scientists, not as representatives of any institution, company, or governmental
agency. In this capacity, reviewers determine if the design and conditions of these NTP studies are appropriate and
ensure that this Toxicity Study Report presents the experimental results and conclusions fully and clearly.
Gregory L. Erexson, Ph.D.
Preclinical Safety
Research & Development
AbbVie, Inc.
North Chicago, IL
Laura A. Hansen, Ph.D.
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Creighton University School of Medicine
Omaha, NE
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………… …
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