Expert Answer :150-200 words discussion board

  

Solved by verified expert:Initial PostChapters 6 and 7 discuss the early Federal period, the beginning of our nation’s development. During this time the nation doubled it size stretching all the way to the Rocky Mountains and south to Florida. It won respect from the British in the War of 1812. The fledgling nation had survived. There were cultural, political, social, technological, and economic changes during this time as well.Pick a person or decision made in this period 1789-1815.Why do you think the person or decision is significant to the development of the United States?Explain your choice using facts and evidence from the reading and/or resources for Week 7. You must use the reading for this week which begins on page 171 “Completing the Structure” through Chapter 7 of the text.
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Elastic or Necessary and Proper clause
The debate that began in the Washington administration and continues is over the question whether
Congress is able to enact legislation concerning things that are not specifically mentioned in the
Constitution as granted to the Congress. It is what we call the debate between a strict or literal
interpretation of the Constitution and a loose interpretation of the Constitution.
The debate in the Washington administration was over the Bank of the United States. Since nowhere in
Article 1, section 8 (that delegates powers to the Congress) does it specifically state Congress can
charter a bank. There is a list in Article I. section 8 of what powers are given to the Congress and what it
can specifically do. We call these enumerated powers as they are listed out.
However in Article 1 section 8’s last paragraph it states” To make all laws which shall be necessary and
proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.”
This last paragraph has been called the “necessary and proper clause” or the elastic clause…as to make
any laws necessary and proper for the functioning of the above list stretches the powers that one can
interpret as given to Congress.
For example Hamilton argued that Congress could charter a bank as it was necessary to carry out
functions specifically granted in that list such as laying and collecting taxes and borrowing money.
Hamilton favored interpreting Article 1, section 8 “loosely”.
Jefferson on the other hand believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution. He said to use the
“elastic” or “necessary and proper clause” to argue Congress could charter a bank would open up too
much power for the federal government. Parties developed over these debates on policy and on how to
interpret the Constitution.
Election of 1800
The “Revolution” of 1800
▪ Jefferson and Burr tie
▪ 36 ballot deadlock
▪ Judiciary Act of 1801
Jefferson’s
Presidency
Chapter Seven, Brinkley
Jefferson’s Background
First Inaugural Address
▪ Themes
Cutting the Debt
▪ Persuaded Congress to abolish all
internal taxes
▪ Reduced government spending
▪ Cut executive department
▪ Reduced ambassadors from 5 to 3
▪ Scaled down armed forces
▪ Cut federal debt in half
War with Barbary Pirates
1801-1805
▪ 1801 Background
▪ Jefferson helped establish West
Point
▪ Jefferson built up naval forces
Conclusion 1805
▪ Jefferson sends
forces
▪ Tripoli makes deal
▪ U.S. pays ransom
▪ All tribute stops
1815
Naval Spending Rises
▪ 1802: $ 500,000
▪ 1806: $1,600,000
Conflict with the Courts
▪ Attack on the
Judiciary-why?
Marbury v. Madison
▪ Marbury appointed Justice of the
Peace
▪ Appointed under Judiciary Act 1801
▪ Marshall failed to deliver his
commission
▪ Marbury goes to the Supreme Court
▪ John Marshall is Chief Justice
Marshall’s Decision
▪ Marbury retains his commission
▪ Clause in the Judiciary Act 1789
requiring Madison to deliver it
unconstitutional
▪ Establishes judicial review
Attempts to control courts
▪ Tried to impeach
Federalist judges
▪ Succeeded in one
▪ Judge insane
▪ Judges become
less partisan from
bench
Jefferson and Napoleon
▪ Jefferson instructs Livingston to purchase
New Orleans
▪ Livingston proposed French sell all
Louisiana
▪ Napoleon offers it for $ 15 million
▪ Was it constitutional?
The Louisiana Purchase
Lewis and Clark
Expedition
▪ Why
▪ Results and importance
Jefferson and
Slavery
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/front
line/shows/jefferson/
Jefferson’s 2nd Term
Conflict on the Seas
▪ Both Britain and France violate
neutral rights
▪ British considered the worse
offender because of impressment
Chesapeake-Leopard Incident
▪ 10 miles off
Virginia
▪ Leopard fires
killing 3
Americans
▪ 18 Americans
wounded
Results
▪ Jefferson expels British ships from
American waters
▪ Jefferson demands end to impressment
▪ British offer:
▪ to return 3 of 4 captured
▪ recall the Leopard’s commanding officer
▪ compensation for those killed
Peaceable Coercion
▪ Embargo Act
1807
▪ Prohibited all
exports
Peaceable Coercion
▪ Embargo Act
▪ Wholesale
evasion
▪ Jefferson
suspends
habeas corpus
▪ Jefferson uses
martial law
Non-Intercourse Act
▪ Congress abolishes Embargo Act
▪ New act forbid trade with Britain and
France
▪ Legislation expired in 1810
▪ Other tensions between U.S. and
Britain
The New Republic
Chapter 6
Washington’s Administration
Washington’s Administration
• Washington elected President
• Adams elected Vice-President
• Inauguration on April 30, 1789
The First Congress
• Bill of Rights drafted by Madison
– Passed Sept. 1789
– 10 ratified 12-15-91
• Federal Courts organized
– lower courts organized
• Cabinet
Hamilton’s Plans-Funding and Assumption
• Pay the federal debt by taxing whiskey
and imports, a tariff
• Sell government bonds and pay interest
– Bondholders have stake in new
government
Debate over Funding and Assumption
• Why were some states against?
• Compromise
Hamilton’s Plan–Bank of the United
States
• Bank chartered by the federal
government
– provide loans and currency to business
– house the nation’s currency
– issue bank notes
Debate over the Bank
• Hamilton : Constitution permitted
a bank
– “implied powers” Article I section 8
– “all things necessary and proper to
carry out its duties
– do anything not expressly prohibited
Jefferson’s Argument Against the Bank
• Strict interpretation of the Constitution
• Constitution does not grant Congress
the power to charter a bank
• Washington accepted Hamilton’s
arguments
Republican Opposition
• Feared too strong a central government
• Disliked Federalist program such as
tariff, whiskey tax, and B.U.S.
• Disliked Federalists using their control
over appointments to reward
supporters
Differing visions
Jefferson
• agrarian America with citizen-farmers
– suspicious of large cities fearing urban
mobs
– felt cities increase number of propertyless
– applauded the French Revolution
Divisions of the Parties
• Republicans
– commercial
farmers in the
North
– planters in the
South
– appalled by
aristocratic tone
of the Federalist
• Federalists
– strongest in New
England
– area had
commercial ties
to Great Britain
– tradition of
hierarchy and
order
Whiskey Rebellion
• Background
• What happened
• Results
– Washington calls out militias of 3 states
– force of 15,000
– rebellion collapsed and tax collected
• Significance
Foreign Policy Under Washington
• Neutrality Act of 1793
• Jays Treaty 1794
– fails to achieve new goals of
compensation for British attacks on
American shipping
– British agree to leave the Northwest
Pinckney Treaty 1795
• Spain grants right to navigate the
Mississippi and deposit goods at New
Orleans
• agrees to fix the northern boundary of
Florida where Americans desired
• required Spanish to prevent Indians in
Florida from raiding across the border
Washington’s Farewell Address
• Washington chooses to step down after
two terms
– Key points
– Significance
Election of 1796
• John Adams President
• Thomas Jefferson becomes VicePresident
• Federalist party divided
Quasi War with France
• French vessels capture American ships
• Adams sends Pinckney, Marshall, and
Gerry to France in 1797
• Tallyrand’s agents demand a “bribe’
before negotiations can begin
• Result was a wave of anti French
sentiment
Aftermath of the XYZ Affair




Adams cuts off trade to France
Creates a Department of the Navy
Constructs new ships
Authorizes American vessels to capture
French armed ships
• France agrees to new terms in 1800
Repression and Protest in the Adams
Administration
• Federalists control Congress due to
conflict with France
• Fear of French immigrants fleeing
France during French revolution
• Alien and Sedition Acts passed
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
• Jefferson and Madison wrote them
• Based on “compact theory”
– Constitution was a compact of the states
– The states decided what was
constitutional
Federalist Achievements

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