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__________ observations are those grounded in the senses (choose the best possible
response).
Face valid
Empirical
Inferential
Reliable
none of the above
In looking at an association or causal relationship between variables, the __________
variable is the causal factor.
independent
dependent
control
extraneous
none of the above
The best measure of central tendency to use when interval level data are extremely
skewed is the mean.
True
False
In a classical experimental design, the control group is exposed to the independent
variable or experimental stimulus variable.
True
False
The study of knowledge and how knowledge is produced is best termed
objectivism
constructivism
deduction
induction
epistemology
A characteristic of a population that is estimated using data obtained from a sample is
called a(n)
statistic
inference
parameter
outlier
none of the above
A characteristic of a population that is estimated using data obtained from a sample is
called a(n)
statistic
inference
parameter
outlier
none of the above
A variable whose attributes are mutually exclusive and subsequently can only be rank
ordered would be measured at the __________ level of measurement.
ratio
interval
ordinal
nominal
none of the above
The spread or dispersion of data around the mean could be measured with the
range
variance
standard deviation
interquartile range
all of the above
PreviousNext
he concrete and specific definition of a concept or variable expressed in terms of how
one intends to measure the concept or variable is best termed the __________.
dimension
construct
attribution
operational definition
none of the above
A __________ is one that would involve the “one-time” random selection of research
subjects who would be subsequently interviewed or otherwise observed on two or
more occasions.
cohort study
panel study
post-hoc study
quartimax study
none of the above
PreviousNext
The hypothesis proposing that a relationship exists between variables is the
complementary hypothesis
null hypothesis
validation hypothesis
alternate hypothesis
generalized hypothesis
PreviousNext
As a measure of dispersion, the __________ is the difference between the minimum
and maximum score in an array or grouping of data.
centroid
median
interquartile range
range
none of the above
PreviousNext
A term applied to a relationship that is coincidental, not causal or likely explained
away by introduction of a, as yet unknown, third variable is best called a
spurious relationship
partial relationship
criterion relationship
marginal relationship
Given a standard normal distribution, you would expect 95% of the cases to fall
within plus/minus one standard deviations.
True
False
The issue of ____________ is raised when, during a data collection period, human
subjects/research subjects change their behavior because they know they are being
observed.
internal validity
external validity
ecological validity
PreviousNext
When working with qualitative or nominal data, the best measure of central tendency
is the mode.
True
False
It is possible for a distribution to have two modes. This would be called a bimodal
distribution.
True
False
A study sought to examine whether men and women differed in their use of
stereotypes or logic in making decisions in uncertain environments. In this study,
the independent variable would be gender.
True
False
n conducting research, ethical considerations are no trivial matter. Is it easier to
protect a research subject’s confidentiality or anonymity?
It is easier to protect a research subject’s anonymity.
It is easier to protect a research subject’s confidentiality.
PreviousNext
The unit of analysis refers to the what or whom actually being studied.
True
False
The idea of “informed consent” involves researchers telling research subjects about all
aspects of the planned research study including such things as possible harmful
effects, a description of any benefits stemming from participation, how confidentiality
will be maintained, and who to contact about research subject rights.
True
False
A desirable property of any measurement instrument in research or of a research
design itself is that it produce a consistent set of observations. Consistency of
measurement or design is best reflected in which of the following terms?
ecological stability
validity
reliability
determination
Public policy refers to what government chooses to do or not to do in the allocation
of valuable resources.
True
False
If you failed to reject or accepted the null hypothesis when it was false, you would
have committed a
Type I error
Type II error
Estimation error
Variability error
The constructivist approach, which is related to the broader issue of ontology, takes
the position that an objective reality exists and can be known.
True
False
The Belmont Report was the product of a larger initiative involving the U.S. federal
government to make available federal money to support research initiatives in the
corporate sector. It was hoped the Belmont Report would stimulate research and get
the American economy out of a lengthy recessionary period.
True
False
Generally speaking, a deductive research project would more likely be quantitatively
driven than an inductive research project.
True
False
PreviousNext
In a positively skewed distribution the mean value is greater than the median value
and the tail of the distribution points to larger numeric values.
True
False
In conducting a cross-sectional study, which of the following strategies might you
rely upon to help establish a cause and effect relationship?
research subject recall or memory of prior events
logical inference
statistical analysis involving use of control variables
All of the above are valid responses
PreviousNext
What is validity? Contrast your definition of validity against the concept of
reliability. Thinking about the idea of developing a sound research design, how
might you design your study to build into it a high degree of internal validity and
external validity?
I have often used the phrase that science is a mode of knowledge production that is
deterministic, empirical, probabilistic and replicable. Discuss what this means by
expressing a response that clearly defines each term and links them all to science as a
knowledge-producing endeavor. As you discuss these points, be sure to contrast
science against the other modes of knowledge production such as the authoritarian,
mystical and logico-rational modes.

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