Solved by verified expert:There is total 4 thing you need to do about the book name City of Bones by Cassandra Clare（this source need from the book, cannot use the movie as the source) ;( I will show you a example same thing just difference source, I would like you to keep the same format as the example I give to you)1:Application of the Hero’s Journey for Jace(There will be a ppt and a document explain how to do)2:Application of the Hero’s Journey for Clary(There will be a ppt and a document explain how to do)3:Character Analysis:(there will be a document show you how to do)Do a character analysis for each of the following characters:Clary FrayJace WaylandSimon LewisAlec LightwoodIsabelle LightwoodLuke GarrowayMagnus BaneValentine Morgenstern4:Critical Thinking:(there will be a document show you how to do)
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The Application of the Hero’s Journey
Stage One: The Call to Adventure
– The hero starts off in a mundane situation of normality from which some information is received
that acts as a call to head off into the unknown
Stage Two: Refusal of the Call
– Often when the call is given, the future hero refuses to heed it. This may be from a sense of duty
or obligation, fear, insecurity, a sense of inadequacy, etc.
Stage Three: Supernatural Aid
– Once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or unconsciously, his or her guide and
magical helper appears, or becomes known.
Stage Four: Crossing of the First Threshold
– This is the point where the person actually crosses into the field of adventure, leaving the known
limits of his or her world and venturing into an unknown and dangerous realm, where the rules
and limits are not known.
Stage Five: Belly of the Whale
– The belly of the whale represents the final separation from the hero’s known world and self. By
entering this stage, the person shows their willingness to undergo a metamorphosis
Stage Six: The Road of Trials
– The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or ordeals that the person must undergo to begin the
transformation. Often the person fails one or more of these tests, which often occur in threes.
Stage Seven: The Meeting with the Goddess
– This is the point when the person experiences a love that has the power and significance of the
all-powerful, all encompassing, unconditional love that a fortunate infant may experience with
his or her mother.
Stage Eight: Woman as Temptress
– This step is about those material temptations that may lead the hero to abandon or stray from
his or her quest.
Stage Nine: Atonement with the Father
– In this step the person must confront and be initiated by whatever holds the ultimate power in
his or her life. In many myths and stories this is the father, or a fathering figure who has life and
death power. This is the center point of the journey.
Stage Ten: Apotheosis
– When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond
the pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge, love, compassion and bliss.
Stage Eleven: The Ultimate Boon
– The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what the person went on the
journey to get. All the previous steps serve to prepare and purify the person for this step.
Stage Twelve: Refusal of the Return
– Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other world, the hero may not want to return to
the ordinary world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man.
Stage Thirteen: The Magic Flight
– Sometimes the hero must escape with the boon. This can be just as adventurous and dangerous
returning from the journey as it was to go on it.
Stage Fourteen: Rescue from Without
– Oftentimes the hero needs a powerful guides to bring them back to everyday life, especially if
the person has been wounded or weakened by the experience.
Stage Fifteen: The Crossing of the Return Threshold
– Retaining the wisdom gained on the quest, integrating that wisdom into a human life, and
possibly sharing the wisdom with the rest of the world.
Stage Sixteen: Master of Two Worlds
– Achieving a balance between the material and spiritual (the inner and outer world.)
Stage Seventeen: Freedom to Live
– Mastery leads to freedom from the fear of death, which in turn is the freedom to live. This is
sometimes referred to as living in the moment, neither anticipating the future nor regretting the
Close Reading of a Text
Answer each bullet point in each section thoroughly. You may do this in an outline
1. Historical Context
There are a lot of ways to look at a piece of literature. One of these is to understand how it fits into the
historical context. Look at when the work was first published (don’t get this confused with the printing
date of whatever text you have). For example, Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was
published in 1884 at a time when the question of race was of supreme importance after the events of
the Civil War. Racism plays a large part in the novel, centering on Huck’s view of Jim in contrast to the
way society views him. Apply this same perspective to the text you’re reading. You should consider what
is happening both at the time of publication and at the time period in which the text is set; consider why
the author chose to tell this story now and why they picked this time period to write about. Focus on
events and movements that are culturally significant, not just random events that might have occurred.
For example, Ozzy Osborne biting off the head of a live bat during one of his concerts is probably not
going to have much significance to one of our books, but the Second Wave of Feminism drawing to an
end in the 1980s very well may. DO NOT just look up “things that happened in” whatever year and pick
What else culturally significant to the text was happening at the time the text was written
What else culturally significant to the text was happening at the time the story is set (if it’s
different from the time period it was written in)?
What political or social events were occurring?
Does the author make mention of these either directly or indirectly?
How do any historical events affect the text?
2. Narrative Point of View
All literary texts share one character in common: the narrator. The narrator is the person who is telling
the story. However, there are different types of narrators, depending on the story. Narrators can be
either first person or third person. A first person narrator uses “I” and tells the story from their own
point of view, allowing their personal experiences and perspectives to color the way they tell the story.
In first person narratives, the narrator is often the protagonist, or main character. However, sometimes
in a first person narrative, the narrator is a secondary character who observes and reports on the
actions of the protagonist.
Narrators can also be third person. This is when the author uses the pronouns “he,” “she,” and “they.”
Although not as obvious as in first person cases, third person narrators can also affect the story. Third
person narrators can be either omniscient or limited. An omniscient narrator knows everything that has
happened and understands all of the implications. A limited narrator only knows as much as a character
or characters do. Each of these have different impacts on the story.
Narrators might also be something other than a character, so keep this in mind.
What type of narrator does the text have?
o First person or third? Protagonist or secondary? Omniscient or limited?
How do you know?
What impact does this have on the story?
How would the story be different with a different type of narrator?
Symbols are persons, places, or things in a narrative that have significance beyond a literal
understanding. The craft of storytelling depends on symbols to present ideas and point toward new
meanings. Most frequently, a specific object will be used to refer to (or symbolize) a more abstract
concept. The repeated appearance of an object suggests a non-literal, or figurative, meaning attached to
the object. Symbols are often found in the book’s title, at the beginning and end of the story, within a
profound action, or in the name or personality of a character. The life of a novel is perpetuated by
generations of readers interpreting and reinterpreting the main symbols. By identifying and
understanding symbols, readers can reveal new interpretations of the novel. An example of a symbol
would be something like Harry’s scar in the Harry Potter series. While it’s literally the mark left behind
from when Voldemort tried to kill him, I’m looking for the symbolic meaning, which could be that it
represents his defeat of Voldemort and his role as the Chosen One.
What are some symbols that you identified in the text? You need to name at least three.
What do these symbols stand for?
What impact do they have on the story?
Why do you think the author chose these particular symbol(s)?
4. Plot Devices
The author crafts a plot structure to create expectations, increase suspense, and develop characters.
The pacing of events can make a novel either predictable or riveting. Foreshadowing and flashbacks
allow the author to defy the constraints of time. Sometimes an author can confound a simple plot by
telling stories within stories. In a conventional work of fiction, the peak of the story’s conflict—the
climax—is followed by the resolution, or denouement, in which the effects of that climactic action are
What plot devices does the author use to make the plot more complex?
How do these impact the text?
What do you consider the climax of the story? Why?
What is the resolution?
Themes are the central, recurring subjects of a novel. As characters grapple with circumstances such as
racism, class, or unrequited love, profound questions will arise in the reader’s mind about human life,
social pressures, and societal expectations. Classic themes include intellectual freedom versus
censorship, the relationship between one’s personal moral code and larger political justice, and spiritual
faith versus rational considerations. A novel often reconsiders these age-old debates by presenting them
in new contexts or from new points of view.
What are some themes that you noticed in the novel? You need at least three.
What are some examples from the text where you see these themes?
Why does the author include these themes?
Character Analysis – I have identified most of the important characters in each story and
listed them for you. You need to do a character analysis for each of these characters.
There are only three questions for each character, but below each of them I’ve given you
some examples of ways to answer them, such as types of characters, or ways of
describing them and the significance of their appearances or behavior.
1. Identify what type of character this is. A character could be two or three
Characters can be
protagonists, The main character around whom most of the work revolves. This
does not always mean the good guy.
antagonists, The person who the protagonist is against. This is often the villain,
but not always, and could even be a force of nature, set of circumstances, an
major, These are the main characters. They dominate the story. Often there are
only one or two major characters.
minor, These are the characters who help tell the major character’s tale by letting
major characters interact and reveal their personalities, situations, stories. They
are usually static (unchanging).
dynamic (changing), See below under “Look at specific things.”
stereotypical (stock), This is the absent minded professor, the jolly fat person, the
foils, These are the people whose job is to contrast with the major character. This
can happen in two ways: One: The foil can be the opposite of the major character,
so the major’s virtues and strengths are that much “brighter” in reflection; Two:
The foil can be someone like the major character, with light versions of the
major’s virtues and strengths so that the major comes off as even stronger.
round (3 dimensional), This means the character has more than one facet to their
personality. They are not just a hardcore gamer, but they also play basketball on
flat (1 dimensional), This is the character who is only viewed through one side.
This is the hardcore gamer. That’s all there is to the character.
2. Describe the character – this means both physical (if it’s significant) and their
Is their name significant? Look for both literal and symbolic meanings,
and consider if they reflect the character
What is the character like? Are they funny, intelligent, devious, etc.
What does the character do that defines their character? Do they save
people, manipulate them, threaten them, etc.
What does the character look like? This may not actually be important. It
depends on the character. So consider whether or not their appearance is
symbolic or representative of their character.
3.Discuss the conflict in the story and the character’s place in it
Often the characters are described in relation to the conflict within the story.
man vs. man: This is the protagonist versus the antagonist. Snow White versus
the Wicked Queen.
man vs. machine: This is when the machine is the enemy. Many robot-centric
novels have this issue. (This is sometimes considered a subset of man vs.
man vs. nature: Robinson Crusoe on the island. Hansel and Gretel lost in the
man vs. animal: Captain Ahab versus the white whale in Moby Dick. The wolf
in “The Three Little Pigs.” –Usually the animal is a predator and the man has
become prey for some reason. It could be humorous, though, the man is trying
to catch the dog, who runs away and has the main character chasing him all
over creation. (This is sometimes considered a subset of man vs. nature.)
man vs. fate or destiny: Sleeping Beauty can’t help pricking her finger. A man
who has been late several times (due to circumstances beyond his control) gets
in a traffic jam and is an hour late to work and gets fired. The fact that it has
happened several times and is not his fault is the crucial point.
man vs. society: This is when a character battles societal norms. Winston
Smith in 1984. Huck in The Adventures of Huckleberrry Finn.
man vs. himself: This is when the character has an ethical dilemma, stealing to
feed his family or watch them starve. Lie to the government and save the
people in the basement or tell the truth and have them taken away. This is the
cartoon equivalent of the devil and the angel on either shoulder.
man vs. his mind: This is the character with internal problems that are not
ethical, but mental. An example, as was pointed out in the comments, is the
character with schizophrenia or one who is bipolar. How does the character
deal with his/her limitations? What do they have to overcome? How do they
overcome it? Is it harder or easier to overcome something that is a part of the
character than it is to overcome something that is outside of the character?
A good character analysis might look something like this:
1. Luke Skywalker – protagonist, all of the action centers around him.
Dynamic, round – his personality changes from the beginning of the
movie (naïve, impulsive farm boy who doesn’t want to get involved, to
heroic pilot who saves the day and keeps calm in battle)
2. Young, late teens. Naïve and inexperienced. He has little experience
with the galaxy, having never been far from his home, let alone off his
planet. He’s impulsive and immature at first, but eventually gains a
little maturity and control. Although self-centered at first, he ends up
doing what is best for the galaxy, not himself.
▪ Physically, he’s a typical hero type – cute, blonde, and blueeyed.
▪ His name is significant – Luke – from Lucius – the
Lightbringer, as he embodies the Light Side of the Force. His
name is also derivative of George Lucas and he may represent
Lucas and his fight against the evil Empire of the large movie
studios. Skywalker – he walks the sky, this may embody his
destiny in the larger galaxy.
3. Conflict –
▪ man vs man – Luke vs Vader and Tarkin
▪ man vs machine – Luke vs the Death Star and the TIEs
▪ man vs society – Luke vs the Empire
▪ Man vs himself – Luke vs his impulsiveness, his
The Hero’s Journey
The Origins of the Hero’s Journey
• In 1949, scholar Joseph Campbell published his preeminent work, The Hero with a
Thousand Faces, in which he explored the idea that every story shares the same basic
• He used the term “monomyth” to describe this phenomenon and based his work
on ideas such as Carl Jung’s idea of archetypes.
• Since then, many scholars have either used or adapted Campbell’s work to fit their
needs, such as Maureen Murdock who felt that the journey’s stages didn’t apply to
female characters and created the Heroines Journey.
• In 1987, the term “Hero’s Journey” was used in a documentary to describe
Campbell’s work on the ultimate narrative archetype.
The Stage’s of the Hero’s Journey
• The Hero’s Journey is generally divided into 17 steps, split into three
Call to Adventure
Refusal of the Call
Crossing of the First Threshold
Belly of the Whale
The Stages of the Hero’s Journey Cont.
• Road of Trials
• Meeting with the Goddess
• Woman as Temptress
• Atonement with the Father
• Ultimate Boon
The Stages of the Hero’s Journey Cont.
• Refusal of the Return
• Magic Flight
• Rescue from Without
• Crossing of the Return Threshold
• Master of Two Worlds
• Freedom to Live
Stage One: The Call to Adventure
“… a forest, a kingdom underground, beneath the waves, or above the sky, a secret island, lofty mountaintop, or profound dream state; but it is always a place of
strangely fluid and polymorphous beings, unimaginable torments, super human deeds, and impossible delight. The hero can go forth of his own volition to accomplish
the adventure, as did Theseus when he arrived in his father’s city, Athens, and heard the horrible history of the Minotaur; or he may be carried or sent abroad by some
benign or malignant agent as was Odysseus, driven about the Mediterranean by the winds of the angered god, Poseidon. The adventure may begin as a mere blunder…
or still again, one may be only casually strolling when some passing phenomenon catches the wandering eye and lures one away from the frequented paths of man.
Examples might be multiplied, ad infinitum, from every corner of the world.”
The hero generally begins in some type of mundane, normal situation. (A peasant, a farm boy, an everyday sort of situation). Something occurs (a problem, challenge,
or request). This prompts the hero to leave behind his ordinary life and venture into the unknown.
The normality of the hero’s initial situation creates a bond between the hero and the audience. If an ordinary person like the hero can be called upon to set off on
some great adventure, then it could happen to anyone. The audience identifies with the hero.
The call also generates tension or conflict. Will the hero respond to the call? Should he? After all, it might be the right thing to do, but it’s also probably dangerous
and the hero might be better served just staying at home. This is the first step that might separate the hero from ordinary people – he’s chooses to accept the call into
unknown and possibly dangerous circumstances because he’s a hero at heart, regardless of his ordinary upbringing.
This can differ depending on the story – sometimes the hero doesn’t choose to answer the call; he’s forced to under various circumstances. Many times, the call may
be ignored until the hero has no choice. Frequently, a mentor or teacher of some kind provides encouragement in acceptance of the call.
Harry Potter: Harry receives the letter from Hogworts
Shrek: the invasion of Shrek’s swamp by all the fairy tale creatures
• “Refusal of the summons converts the adventure into its negative. Walled in boredom, hard work, or ‘culture,’ the subject
loses the power of significant affirmative action and becomes a victim to be saved. His flowering world beco …
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