Expert Answer :Case Study

  

Solved by verified expert:Case study: Zynga and the launch of Farmville1. Read once, don’t do anything2. Twice, write question about it3. Third, what would be the 4 questions you would ask if you use this case study to teach your class@Grated on your 4 questions and 4 answers*4 questions: based on the Organization Development(OD) and Change Management, especially for OD*4 answers: answer these 4 questions you asked by yourself, use bullet points*double space, bullet points(answers are bullet points), 2-4 pages*”6 grade level writing (keep it simple, stupid” , summaries the case, how do you look at in OD perspective)# I attached notes what I learned in the class, you can review this to make a better answer related this class. And I assigned 10 days to finish this assignment. So please read the case and the class notes carefully, then do the assignment!
zynga_and_the_launch_of_farmville.pdf

class_notes.pdf

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BSCI 633 Organization Development and Change
– Class 2




Potential Conflicts with OD
o Conflict with profit making
o Conflict with managerial prerogatives
Quote
o “Organizations are like kids, it’s all about development. If you give them good,
strong values, a clear vision of the future, and the view that everything is possible,
they will grow up to be like that and … vice versa.”(Henrietta Zalkind, Down
East Partnership for Children)
Underlying Values
o Concept of people
o Concern of science
o Democratic principles
o The helping relationship
Organizational Level Diagnosis
Transformation
Outputs
Strategy
Performance
Design Factors
Productivity
Culture
Satisfacation
Inputs
General
Environment
Industry Struture

After Diagnosis
o Feeding back the information
o Choosing interventions







2
o Managing change
o Institutionalizing change
Survey Feedback
o Small meeting to feedback survey results
o Meeting used to formulate change
o Managers conduct meetings to indicate commitment
Team Building
o Improved group processes
o Communication
o Goal clarification
o Role clarification
o Task orientation
Re-Engineering
o Job redesign
o Teamwork
o Work performed by most appropriate person
o Advanced information technologies used
Measurement Problems
o Difficult to isolate case of outcomes science OD efforts often involve multiple
changes
o May be the result of Hawthorne effects
o Change may be due to maturation or passage of time and not intervention
OD Effectiveness
o More impact on organizational than individual outcomes
o Works better for white collars than blue collars
o Works better if multiple techniques are used
Ethical Issues
o The Role of the OD practitioner
o Who’s values
The Workout: Organization Changes of GE (part 1 of 2)
o GE has training center for managers
o Participants said GE was slow to make changes
o Workout is program that came from sessions

Group Level Diagnosis
Outputs
Inputs
Organization
Design Factors
Transformation
Culture
Group Design
Factors
Team
Effectiveness
Productivity,
Satisfaction
Strategy



The Workout: Organization Changes of GE (part 2 of 2)
o In workout employees take the leadership in bringing about changes
o GE continues to use workout so it can reinvent itself
Challenges for Organizations
o Change avalanching down on us
o Tomorrow’s world different from today’s
o Organizations need to adapt to change
o Organizations in continuous interaction with external forces
Figure 1.1 The organizational Environment
Government
Customers
Stockholders
Organization
Suppliers
Unions
Competitors
3




4
What is OD?
Long-range efforts and programs aimed at improving an organization’s ability to survive
by changing problem-solving and renewal proccesses
OD Is:
o Planned
o Organization wide
o Managed from top
o Increase organization effectiveness
o Planned interventions
o Uses behavioral science knowledge
The Characteristics of OD
o Planed change
o Collaborative approach
o Improve performance
o Humanistic values
o Systems approach
o Scientific approaches
Table 1.1 Major Characteristics of the Field of OD
Characteristics
Focal Areas
1. Change
Change is planned managers to achieve
goals
2. Collaborative Approach
Involves collaborative approach and
involvement
3. Performance Orientation
Emphasis on ways to improve and
enhance performance
4. Humanistic Orientation
Emphasis upon increased opportunity and
use of human potential
5. Systems Approach
Relationship among elements and
excellence
6. Scientific Method
Scientific approaches supplement
practical experience

Individual Level Diagnosis
Inputs
Group Design
Factors
Personal
Characterist-




5
Outputs
Transformation
Job Design
Factors
Individual
Effectiveness
Productivity,
Satisfaction
Why OD?
Most cited reasons for beginning change program:
o The level of competition
o Survival
o Improved performance
Primary Goals of Change Programs
o Increase productivity
o Increase responsiveness
o Improve competitive position
o Increase employee involvement
o Increase employee morale
o Develop new managerial skills
Table 1.2 Major Goals of Large-Scale Change Programs
Goals
Percent of Organization
1. Increase productivity
20
2. Increase responsiveness to clients
19
3. Improve competitive positioning
19
(increase productivity/decrease
costs)
4. Increase employee involvement and 19
participation
5. Increase employee morale
18
6. Develop new managerial skills and 14
strategies
Factors Leading to Emergence of OD
o Need for new organizational forms


o Focus on culture change
o Increase in social awareness
The Only Constant of Change
Figure1.2 Changing Organization of Twenty-First Century
Competitive
Uncertainty
New
Competitiors
*Regulations
*Prices
*Suppliers
Two Organization of the
Twenty-First Century
*Domestic
*Multinational
*Faster
*Quality Conscius
*Employee Involvement
Technology
*New Products
*New
Technologies





6
*Customer Oriented
*Smallr
Changing
Consumers
*Lifestyle
*Trends
Who Does OD? (part 1 of 3)
OD practitioners consist of specialists and those applying OD in daily work:
o Professionals and Specialists trained in OD
o Managers and leaders applying OD
Successful Firms Share These Traits
o Faster
o Quality conscious
o Employee involvement
o Customer oriented
o Smaller
Evolution of OD
Evolved since the late 1940s
NTL Laboratory-Training methods
Survey research and feedback
Who Does OD? (part 2 of 3)
o OD specialists:
§ Internal practitioners – from within organization
§ External practitioners – from outside organization
Who Does OD? (part 3 of 3)
Activities include:
o Team leaders developing teams
o Building learning organizations





o Implementing total quality management
o Creating boundaryless organizations
Organization Culture
A system of shared meanings including:
o Dress
o Patterns of behavior
o Language
o Value system
o Feelings
o Attitudes
o Interactions
o Group norms
Norms (part 1 of 2)
o Organized and shared ideas of what members should do and feel
o How behavior is regulated
Norms (part 2 of 2)
o Pivotal norms – essential to accomplishing organization’s objectives
o Peripheral norms – support and contribute to pivotal norms but not essential to
organization’s objectives
Socialization Process
Process that adapts employees to culture.
New employees become aware of norms.
Employees encounter culture.
Individuals understand power, status, rewards, and sanctions.
Fiure1.3 The Socialization Process
Results
New
Employee
Exceptation
s

7
Encounters
Organizatio
n’s Culture
Adgustmen
t to Culture
Norms
Adjustment to Cultural Norms and Socialization Occurs in 3 Ways
1. Rebellion – rejection of all values and norms
1.Performa
nce
2.Commitm
ent
3.Obtain
goals
2. Conformity – acceptance of all values and norms
3. Creative individualism – acceptance only of pivotal values; rejection of others

Figure 1.4
Rebellion
Rejection of
All Values
and Norms


8
Creative
Individualism
Acceptance Only of
Pivotal Values;
Rejection of All
Others
Conformity
Acceptance of
All Values and
Norms
Psychological Contract
o Unwritten agreement between individuals and organization
o Open-ended so issues may be renegotiated
A Model for Change
OD is continuing process with emphasis on viewing organization as total system of
interacting and interrelated elements

Figure 1.5 Organization Development’s Five Stages
STAGE 1
Anticipate Need
for Change
STAGE 5
STAGE 2
Self-Renewal,
Monitor, and
Stabilize
Develop the
Practitioner – Client
Relationship
STAGE 4
Action Plans,
Strategies, and
Techniques






9
STAGE 3
The Diagnostic
Phase
Five-stage Model for OD Process (part 1 of 5)
Five-stage Model for OD Process (part 2 of 5)
Stage two: Developing practitioner – client relationship
o OD practitioner enters system
o Good first impressions and match important
o Practitioner establishes trust, open communication, shared responsibility
Five-stage Model for OD Process (part 3 of 5)
Stage three: The diagnostic phase
o Practitioner and client gather data about system
o Objective is to understand client’s problems, identify forces causing situation, and
select change strategies
Five-stage Model for OD Process (part 4 of 5)
Stage four: Action plans, strategies, and techniques
o Series of interventions, activities, or programs aimed at increasing effectiveness
o Programs apply OD techniques
Five-stage Model for OD Process (part 5 of 5)
Stage five: Self-renewal, monitor, and stabilize
o As OD program stabilizes, need for practitioner decreases
o Monitor results
o Stabilize change
o Gradual disengagement of OD practitioner
Key Words and Concepts
o Action research model – collecting information, feedback to client, developing
and implementing action programs
o Change leader – person responsible for change
o Client – person or organization that is being assisted
o Creative individualism – questioning of peripheral norms, accepting of pivotal
norms
o External practitioner – person from outside organization who serves as resource
for change
o Internal practitioner – internal resource for change
o Norms – organized and shared ideas regrading what members should do and feel,
how behavior should be regulated, and what sanctions should be applied
o OD specialist – professional who has specialized and trained in OD and related
areas
o Peripheral norms – support and contribute to pivotal norms but not essential to
organization’s objectives
o Pivotal norms – essential to organization’s objectives
o Psychological contract – expectations between individual and organization
o Socialization – process of individual adjusting to organization’s culture

Four Stages of the Learning Cycle
1. Concepts
OD Theories Model
Prior Theories
2. Activity
3. Analysis
Communicating
Problem-Solving
Decision-Making
Analyzing
Comparing
Critiquing
4. Connecting
Reflecting
Generalizing
10

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