Expert Answer :Closing Case

  

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The Strategy of International Business
res ea rch task
389
globaledge.msu.edu
be possible and adaptation to local conditions
will be essential.
2. A. T. Kearney publishes an annual study to help
retailers prioritize their global development strategies by ranking the retail expansion attractiveness
of emerging countries based on a particular set of
criteria. Find the latest version of this Global Retail Development Index. What criteria are used to
identify the attractiveness of the retail environment
in emerging countries? Categorize the top 10 countries by world region. Are there any of these countries that surprise you? Why or why not?
Use the globalEDGE website (globaledge.msu.edu) to
complete the following exercises:
1.
Chapter 13
Your company, a white goods manufacturer
(primarily major kitchen appliances) based in
the United States, has decided to pursue international expansion opportunities in sub-Saharan
Africa. To achieve some economies of scale,
your strategy is to minimize local adaptation.
Focusing on a comparison of two sub-Saharan
African countries of your choice, prepare an
executive summary that features aspects of the
product where standardization will simply not
CLOSING CASE
Global Strategy Levers
Percent
Global strategy is multidimensional and can include a variety of “levers” depending on the company and its situation (e.g., products, industry, country markets). One
global strategy framework that has been used extensively
for a couple of decades is the framework presented by
George Yip and Tomas Hult in Total Global Strategy
(2012). It includes five dimensions, or levers, that drive
how local or global a company is in the marketplace. Basically, setting strategy for a multinational corporation
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requires strategic decision choices along these five levers.
Based on Yip and Hult, the five global strategy levers are:
Market participation involves the choice of countries
in which to operate and the level of activity that the
company decides to engage at in each country.
Products/services involve the extent to which a multinational business offers the same or different products/services in different countries.
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Competitive Moves
Marketing
Products/Services
Market Participation
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Supply Chain Management
390
Part 5
The Strategy and Structure of International Business
Supply chain management, in this context, involves
the choice of where to locate each of the operational
activities that constitute the entire supply chain.
Marketing involves the extent to which a multinational business uses the same marketing mix (e.g.,
brand names, advertising, and other marketing elements in different countries).
Competitive moves involve the extent to which a
multinational business makes competitive moves in
different countries as part of a global competitive
strategy.
Tomas Hult along with coauthors David Closs and
David Frayer examined a number of companies and their
allocation of effort with respect to each of the five global
strategy levers. Ten of those companies are illustrated
here. For example, Mercedes is found to emphasize making global competitive moves vis-à-vis its competitors as
its most important strategic lever and decision choice.
Marketing is important for ABB. The services offered
and the markets in which American Express participates
drive its strategy globally. Microsoft appears reasonably
well balanced in its approach to global strategy making.
The other companies also adopt unique strategic positions for the five global strategy levers.
Sources: G. S. Yip and G. T. M. Hult, Total Global Strategy (Boston: Pearson
Prentice Hall, 2012); G. T. M. Hult, “A Focus on International Competitiveness,”
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 40 (2012), pp. 195–201;
T. Hult, D. Closs, and D. Frayer, Global Supply Chain Management:
Leveraging Processes, Measurement, and Tools for Strategic Corporate Advantage (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2014); J. K. Johanson and G. S. Yip, “Exploiting Globalization Potential: U.S. and Japanese Strategies,” Strategic
Management Journal 15 (1994), pp. 579–601; G. S. Yip, “Global Strategy . . .
in a World of Nations?,” Sloan Management Review 31 (1989), pp. 29–41.
C a se Disc ussion Q uest ion s
1.
Which global strategy lever do you think
is the most universally important across
companies, and why? Which is the least
important, and why?
2. Do you think your answers in question 1 will
change over time; if so, how?
3. FedEx emphasizes supply chain management
the least in driving its corporate global
strategy. But, it is viewed as a supply chain
company—perhaps even a transportation
company. Why do you think the other global
strategy levers are more important for FedEx?
4. Microsoft is known for making competitive
moves globally but competitive moves are its
least emphasized strategy lever; why do you
think that is the case?
5. If you could work for one of the 10 companies
shown in the bar chart based on their global
strategy makeup, which company would it be,
and why?
E n d n o te s
1. More formally, ROIC = Net profit after tax ÷ Capital, where
capital includes the sum of the firm’s equity and debt. This way
of calculating profitability is highly correlated with return on
assets.
5. This point is central to the work of M. E. Porter, Competitive
Advantage (New York: Free Press, 1985). See also chap. 4 in
P. Ghemawat, Commitment: The Dynamic of Strategy (New York:
Free Press, 1991).
2. T. Copeland, T. Koller, and J. Murrin, Valuation: Measuring
and Managing the Value of Companies (New York: Wiley,
2000).
6. M. E. Porter, Competitive Strategy (New York: Free Press,
1980).
3. The concept of consumer surplus is an important one in
economics. For a more detailed exposition, see D. Besanko,
D. Dranove, and M. Shanley, Economics of Strategy (New York:
Wiley, 1996).
4. However, P = V only in the special case where the company has
a perfect monopoly, and where it can charge each customer a
unique price that reflects the value of the product to that customer (i.e., where perfect price discrimination is possible). More
generally, except in the limiting case of perfect price discrimination, even a monopolist will see most consumers capture some of
the value of a product in the form of a consumer surplus.
7. M. E. Porter, “What Is Strategy?,” Harvard Business Review,
On-point Enhanced Edition article, February 1, 2000.
8. Porter, Competitive Advantage.
9. Empirical evidence does seem to indicate that, on average, international expansion is linked to greater firm profitability. For
some examples, see M. A. Hitt, R. E. Hoskisson, and H. Kim,
“International Diversification, Effects on Innovation and Firm
Performance,” Academy of Management Journal 40, no. 4
(1997), pp. 767–98; S. Tallman and J. Li, “Effects of International Diversity and Product Diversity on the Performance of
Multinational Firms,” Academy of Management Journal 39, no. 1
(1996), pp. 179–96.

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