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REVISION PLAN
Select Project:
Project 1 Initial Draft
Reviews by Instructor & Peers
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Report View
Instructor:
∠ RIVERA NICHOLLS ALEJANDRO
View Review
Reviewer Rubric Comments
Reviewer In-Text Comments
Criteria Name
Criteria Comment
Comment Type Comment Text
Introduction:
Background
the background explain the
importance of the
experiment and use an
example cite it in the theory
describe each test, what
piece of information are you
looking for in each one finish
the intro with the hypothesis
objective what are you
trying to accomplish and
what are you doing to
accomplish it use
paragraphs to separate
different ideas
Detailed
Comments
No Comment
Community
Comments
No Comment
Introduction:
Hypothesis and
Objectives
Part 2 Methods
Part 1 Results
Results:
table and title need to be in
the same page the
calculations using the
formulas you do not need
words here all the
calculations need to be
present include the balance
equation of the reaction
Calculations
Introduction:
Theory
Part 1 Methods
you need to describe what
you did mass, volumes and
glassware used all the
chemicals used need to be
in the safety
Methods: Safety
Part 2 Results
Part 2
Discussion
Conclusion
all the comments go in the
discussion go to the point in
the conclusion show if the
experiment was successful;
then the nature of the salt
and finally show what was
the most valuable piece of
information that allowed you
to identify your salt
References
use the number to show
where the information was
used in the text a url is not
enough information
Part 1
Discussion
discuss each test and from
each one show what allowed
you to identify the unknown
use the values to compare
them and support your
arguments discuss the
errors to explain why some
values differ from the
expected results
Discussion
Continued
Research
Connection
Overall Format
Student:
what technique did they use
to determine it and what
were their results
∠ STUDENT 1
View Peer Review
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∠ STUDENT 2
View Peer Review
UNRATED
Student’s Revision Plan:
Now that you have received responses from your peers and your instructor, use that personalized
feedback to construct a Revision Plan.
Directons: Using complete sentences, provide answers to prompt questions.
Summary
Analysis
Revision Plan
Summarize the higher-order
feedback you received from your
peers/instructors(s). Note
patterns/contradictions.
What peer/instructor
feedback will inform your
revision? Be specific and
provide rationale.
Based on your self-review and
peer/instructor reviews, detail the steps
you will take to improve the quality of
your writing project.
Grade the Revision Plan:
Submit
Instructor Overall Comment
Instructor Grade
Not Graded Yet
1
Inorganic Contaminants Present in a Sample of Water
Name: Saif ALkaabi
CHM2440L
Date: Feb 26,1018
2
I. Introduction
The test for the presence of inorganic contaminants present in a water sample is
a very important and practical laboratory procedure. A very practical application of
testing the presence of inorganic salts in a water sample is on the quality assurance of
drinking water. Since water is a vital to life, it is considered very important to consider
and assure water quality especially after treatment. The contaminants in a water sample
can be tested through two general methods: quantitative and qualitative tests.
The different tests that allow for the characterization of the inorganic salts present
in a water sample include pH testing, solubility test, conductivity test, flame test,
precipitation test with Silver nitrate and Barium chloride and gravimetric analysis. The
pH of the water sample will give an idea on the presence of minerals that are in a water
sample. The solubility test on the other hand will characterize the salts present in a
water sample since the solubility of most inorganic compounds with water is known.
With conductivity test, the number of ions that are in the water sample can be estimated.
The flame test on the other hand will determine what the specific compound is through
the emission of a distinct color. Reaction with Silver nitrate would form a solid
compound if there is an anion present. Depending on the color of the precipitate, the
identity of the anion can now be possibly determined. Finally, gravimetric analysis will
identify the amount of the sample present in the water sample
These tests were done in the experiment with a known sample (salt). These were
done to assess the accuracy of the said methods. Knowing the exact sample, it was then
possible to compare the results obtained with the qualitative and quantitative tests that
were done in the experiment.
3
II. Procedures and Methods
A. Preparation of 1 wt% solution for the unknown and “salt used” (MgSO4)
B. pH Testing
C. Solubility test
D. Conductivity testing
E. Flame test
F. Precipitation test with Silver nitrate and Barium chloride
G. Preparation of solutions for gravimetric analysis
H. Gravimetric analysis
Table 1. Safety information of the materials used
Chemical
Potential danger



HCl
May be acid to metals, causes severe
skin burns and eye damage, may
cause respiratory irritation

Precautions
Prevention
do not breathe
dust, fume, gas,
mist/vapors. spray
Wash face, hands
and any art of the
skin immediately
upon contact
Wear protective
gloves/protective
clothing/eye
protection/face
protection.
Materials
The materials used in this experiment include goggles, Bunsen burner, a lab coat,
water, beakers, spatula, Barium chloride, Silver nitrate, HCl
4
III. Results
Table 2. Results from pH test using the 1 wt% solution.
Trial
Unknown sample
1
8.5
2
8.3
3
8.4
Average
8.4
“salt used” (MgSO4)
9.1
8.8
8.6
8.8
Table 3. Results from observable properties (qualitative analysis)
Trial
Unknown sample
“salt used” (MgSO4)
Color of the sample
White
White
Color of the flame
No color
No color
Table 4. Solubility test results
Trial
Unknown sample
Acetone
Insoluble
Slightly soluble, cloudy
Ethanol
mixture, salt suspended
3M HCl
Insoluble
Slightly soluble, cloudy
3M NaOH
mixture, salt suspended
“salt used”
Insoluble
Slightly soluble, cloudy
mixture, salt suspended
Insoluble
Slightly soluble, cloudy
mixture, salt suspended
Table 5. Conductivity test results on a 1wt% solution
Trial
Unknown sample (mS)
“salt used” (mS)
1
5.52
4.99
2
5.54
6.32
3
5.9
6.00
Average
5.65
5.77
Table 6. Results from precipitation test with the 1 wt% solution
Trial
Unknown
Unknown
“salt used” “salt used” with
sample with
sample with
with Silver Barium chloride
Silver nitrate
Barium chloride
nitrate
1
Did not form a
Formed a
Did not
Formed a
precipitate
precipitate
form a
precipitate
precipitate
2
Did not form a
Formed a
Did not
Formed a
precipitate
precipitate
form a
precipitate
precipitate
3
Did not form a
Formed a
Did not
Formed a
precipitate
precipitate
form a
precipitate
precipitate
Table 7. Results from gravimetric analysis
5
Trial
1
2
3
Average
Unknown
sample (g)
0.06
0.07
0.02
0.05
Percent yield
“salt used”
Percent yield
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.026
4%
8%
19%
10%
(theoretical yield: 0.26 g
MgCO3)
23%
27%
8%
19%
Calculations:
a. Preparation of a 1 wt% solution
1 wt% solution means that for every 99 grams of water, 1 gram of the
compound is dissolved
b. Average of 3 trials
For the unknown sample, it is calculated as follows:
Average =
0.06+0.07+0.02
3
=
0.15
3
= 𝟎. 𝟎𝟓
c. Theoretical yield from gravimetric analysis
d. Percent yield
Trial 1 % yield = (0.06 g / 0.23 g) x 100% = 23%
IV. Discussion
From Table 2, it can be seen that like MgSO4, the unknown sample has an
average which is basic (pH > 7.0). The average pH of the sample is 8.4 which is very
comparable and close to MgSO4. Knowing this fact, it can be deduced that the unknown
sample has a metal that combines with water to form a hydroxide salt that causes the
solution to be basic. From Table 3, the unknown sample is seen to have similar
properties with MgSO4. In terms of the physical color of the unknown sample, it is the
same as MgSO4 where both are colorless. Upon conducting a flame test, both the
6
unknown sample and MgSO4 produced a colorless flame. This is indicative of the
presence of magnesium metal for the unknown sample since only magnesium is known
to have a colorless or white flame.
In terms of solubility, the unknown sample and MgSO4 both exhibit the same
solubility characteristics. It was noted that both are insoluble in acetone and HCl. Both
were found to be slightly soluble in ethanol and NaOH. The conductivity test shows
that both samples (unknown sample and the MgSO4 sample) have very close
measurements at 5.65 mS and 5.77 mS respectively which means that the number of
dissolved ions (cations and anions) are of similar or close quantities. This also supports
that the two samples have similar solubility. In terms of reaction with Silver nitrate and
Barium chloride, the unknown sample and MgSO4 exhibit the same reactions. Both
samples did not react with Silver nitrate in all three trials. On the other hand, both
samples reacted with Barium chloride. This is an expected reaction (single
displacement reaction) for the Magnesium ion. Though all tests show very similar
results for the unknown sample and MgSO4, this is not the case for the gravimetric
analysis of both samples. The average percentage yield for the unknown sample is 19%
while it is only 10% for MgSO4.
V. Conclusion
Though there was a slight difference in terms of the gravimetric analysis of the
unknown sample and MgSO4, it can be noted that in all the tests conducted, this was
the only test wherein the two samples do not have the same results. However, it should
be noted that this test is also the most difficult to obtain precise results. In other words,
this test is subject to many experimental errors unlike the qualitative tests that were
done. In terms of the other tests available, the most compelling evidence that the two
samples (unknown sample and MgSO4) are the same is the flame test, solubility test
7
and conductivity test. The flame test results indicate that the metal present in the sample
is magnesium because only magnesium exhibit a white/colorless flame in a flame test.
In terms of solubility, the anion can only be sulfate because it is no coincidence that the
two samples reacted in the same manner. Finally, the conductivity test suggests that the
two samples have a similar number of anions and cations that dissolved in the solution
which can only possibly happen in either two cases. The first case is if the salt is a
strong electrolyte and the second case is when the samples are weak electrolytes but are
composed of the same ions (cations and anions). The first case cannot be possible since
the samples did not fully dissolve in water which means that they are not strong
electrolytes. This can only mean that the two sample are the same and the identity of
the unknown sample is MgSO4.
VI. Research Connection
A somewhat similar study on the determination of an inorganic material is done
by Li et al. (2016). Their study is entitled “Precise and fast determination of inorganic
magnesium in coccolithophore calcite” and instead of using the qualitative and
quantitative methods described here, their study on the other hand used a selective
removal of organically bound magnesium from phytoplankton. In their study, there
were able to develop a new reliable method for determining inorganic magnesium and
the Mg/Ca ratio in coccolithophore calcite. The method that they were able to produce
successfully tested laboratory cultured calcifying and non-calcifying coccolithophores
samples.
8
References
1
USF Laboratory Toolbox:
http://chemistry.usf.edu/undergraduate/genchemlab/toolbox
2
Stoichiometry:
http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Analytical_Chemistry/Chemical_Reaction/Stoichiomerty
_and_Blancing_Reactions
3
Solubility:
https://www.chem.wisc.edu/deptiles/genchem/sstutorial/Text11/Tx112/tx112.html
4
Flame test:
http://chemistry.about.com/od/analyticalchemistry/a/flameteat.htam
5
Principles of conductivity:
http://libaray.thinkquest.org/2923/test.html.
anderson, L.; figueroa, john; lykourinou., vasiliki. general chemistry 1 laboratory
manual, 2nd ed.; University of south florida, 2017.
6
Li, Y., Muller, M., Paull, B., Nestrenko, P. (2016). Precise and fast determination of
inorganic magnesium in coccolithophore calcite. Chemical Geology Vol. .437, 25
October 2016, p. 1 – 6.
Template for Lab report
Cover page
Title
Name
Class
I.​
​Introduction
1 page:
– where you describe why you did the experiment
– describe the theory about the different test
– describe what you did to prove the theory
II.​
​Procedures
and methods
A.​ P
​ reparation of a 1wt% solution for Unknown and ​“​salt used​”
B.
pH Testing
C.
Solubility test
D.​ C
​ onductivity Testing
E.
Flame Test
F.
Precipitation test with Silver Nitrate and Barium Chloride
G.​ P
​ reparation of solutions for gravimetric analysis
H.​ ​ Gravimetric analysis
Table 1: Safety information
Chemical
Potential Danger
Precautions
III.​
​Results
Table 2: Results from pH test on a 1wt% solution
Trial
Unknown sample
“​salt used​” (MgSo4)
1
8.5
9.1
2
8.3
8.8
3
8.4
8.6
average
8.4
8.8
Table 3: Results observable properties
Trial
Unknown sample
“​salt used​”
Color of the sample
White
White
Color of the flame
No color
No color
Table 4: Results from solubility test on a solid sample
Trial
Unknown sample
“​salt used​”
Acetone
Insoluble
Insoluble
Ethanol
Slightly soluble, cloudy
Slightly soluble, cloudy
mixture, salt suspended
mixture, salt suspended
3M HCl
Insoluble
Insoluble
3M NaOH
Slightly soluble, cloudy
Slightly soluble, cloudy
mixture, salt suspended
mixture, salt suspended
Water
Table 5: Results from conductivity test on a 1wt% solution
Trial
Unknown sample (mS)
“​salt used​” (mS)
1
5.52
4.99
2
5.54
6.32
3
5.9
6.0
average
5.65
5.77
Table 6: Results from precipitation test on a 1wt% solution
Trial
Unknown sample
Unknown sample
“​salt used​”​ with
“​salt used​”​ with
with silver nitrate
with barium chloride
silver nitrate
barium chloride
1
Did not form
Formed precipitate
precipitate
2
Did not form
precipitate
Formed precipitate
precipitate
3
Did not form
Did not form
Did not form
precipitate
Formed precipitate
precipitate
Did not form
precipitate
Formed
precipitate
Formed
precipitate
Formed
precipitate
Table 7: Results from gravimetric analysis
Trial
Unknown sample
Percent yield
“​salt used​”
Percent yield
Theoretical yield
.26 g MgCO3
1
.06
23 %
.01
4%
2
.07
27%
.02
8%
3
.02
8%
.05
19%
average
.05
19%
.026
10%
Calculations
a.
Preparation of a 1wt% solution
b.
Average of 3 trials for ​“​pick one test​”
c.
Theoretical yield from gravimetric analysis
d.
IV.​
Percent yield
​Discussion
Discuss all the test and from each one show what allows you identify the unknown.
V.​
​Conclusion
Conclude on your results.
What was your unknown salt a what was the most valuable test to identify it.
VI.​
​Research
connection
Find a research paper that you find interesting
What were they trying to do?
What was the main experiment?
What did they find?
References
ACS style
1 References in order of appearances, and use the number to cite them in the text
2 References in order of appearances, and use the number to cite them in the text
3 References in order of appearances, and use the number to cite them in the text
4 References in order of appearances, and use the number to cite them in the text
General Chemistry I Lab Report Rubric – Project 1: Inorganic salts present in water samples
Sections
Sub-Sections / Descriptions
Requirements
Total
Describe why it may be necessary to
identify unknown chemicals in day-to-day
life with specific examples.
Background: A summary of a real-world
example(s) and / or application(s) that
affirm the importance / help introduce the
chemistry of this lab.
Note: Do not use the examples in the
laboratory manual. If included in your
laboratory report, no credit will be given.
The example(s) and / or application(s)
provided should demonstrate:
– Research context for the problem(s)
/3
and / or question(s) the experiment
seeks to address.
– Relate the problem to scientific theory,
i.e. the qualitative/quantitative tests.
– Explain how and why this research is
important to conduct in the laboratory.
Concepts that can be included but are not
limited to:
Qualitative/Quantitative analysis
-Solubility
-Conductivity
Introduction
Theory: Provide an overview of the key
scientific concepts / theories that explain
how the experiment works.
-pH
-Flame test
/3
-Gravimetric analysis
-Volumetric analysis
The overall goal of this section should be
to help familiarize your readers (who may
be non-scientists) with the topics you
have introduced and the importance of
your work.
Hypothesis: A hypothesis should
logically express what the researcher
thinks the overall outcome of the lab
should be.
Objectives: The goal to be achieved at the
end of each part of the experiment and a
summary on how those goals will be
attained.
Hypothesis: From the physical properties
of your unknown (texture, color, etc.),
what chemical do you hypothesize your
unknown to be.
Remember to include your rationale for
why you think your hypothesis is
reasonable.
Objectives: Explain the objective for each
week of the experiment.
– Provide a brief explanation of the
investigational method you will
execute for each objective.
/3
The two main tasks of this section are to:
Part 1 Methods: This section should
contain all of the details recorded in your
notebook on how the experiments were
carried out.
This includes numerical details such as
mass, volume, temperature, reaction time,
etc.
Describe the exact laboratory apparatus
and laboratory procedure a researcher
utilized to collected empirical data.
– i.e. exact masses, volumes, glassware
(with sizes), chemicals, equipment, etc.
Describe the process of how to analyze
the collected empirical data.
/3
Provide a step-by-step procedure for:
-Solubility
Note: Each experiment should have its
own appropriate subheading.
-Conductivity
-pH test
-Flame test
-Analysis of ions
The two main tasks of this section are to:
Describe the exact laboratory apparatus
and laboratory procedure a researcher
utilized to collected empirical data.
– i.e. exact masses, volumes, glassware
(with sizes), chemicals, equipment, etc.
Methods
Part 2 Methods: See description above.
/3
Describe the process of how to analyze
the collected empirical data.
Provide a step-by-step procedure for:
-Gravimetric analysis, or
-Volumetric analysis
Use a table to organize the safety
information for each chemical utilized
during the course of the experiment.
Safety: Should contain information on the
chemicals used in this experiment and the
necessary precautions taken when using
them.
There should also be information on any
other physical hazards (i.e. fire, sharp
objects, etc.) and the precautions you
took.
Please provide all the information stated
below for each chemical utilized:

Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
Molecular Weight
Potential Hazards
Safety Equipment Needed
Please provide safety information on all
laboratory equipment (excluding
glassware) when applicable (ex. hot plate)
– Equipment Name
– Precautions Used
/3
Part 1 Results: This section should
contain all of the empirical data you
obtained or calculated from the
experiment you performed.
Use a table to organize the empirical data
you collected per trial for all the tests
carried out.
This includes but is not limited to:
-Initial masses/volumes
The data should be displayed
appropriately, i.e. tabulated, graphed, etc.
to make it easy for the reader to refer back
to it in the corr …
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