Expert Answer :developing the content of your professional BSIT p


Solved by verified expert:ITS 4103 week 3 project Professional Portfolio In this assignment, you will start developing the content of your professional portfolio. You will select a high-stake assignment from a course you took in your BSIT journey for inclusion in your professional portfolio. This is typically the Week 5 assignments in your courses. Also, you will provide the rationale for the relevance in demonstrating the skills required for your targeted job market as a System Analyst as you identified in Week 1. prepare a 180-200 words summary, addressing: the objectives it serveswhy the piece is relevantrationale for its relevance in demonstrating the skills required for your targeted job market(System Analyst)

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Running Head: Project Planning and Management
Week 5 Project
Project Planning and Management
Software Engineering Fundamentals
Project Planning and Management
There are multiple SDLC methodologies for any software project. List and explain at least
three of these approaches along with their respective advantages and disadvantages.
a) Waterfall Model.
This model involves a sequential flow of processes from the top flowing steadily
downward. The phases of software implementation resemble a waterfall hence given the
name waterfall model. Each phase of the development process will only begin if the
previous phase has been completed successfully. The waterfall approach does not define
the way to go back to the previous phase in cases where changes need to be handled. It was
the earliest approach and was widely used for most software development. The Request for
Proposals (RFPs) for a project using this model must be clearly defined since it does not
focus on changing requirements (Sami, 2017).

Structures approach.

It is very difficult to go back to the
previous stage to handle some

It is easy to explain to the client.

It is very difficult and expensive to
adjust the scope.

Defines stages and approaches

In addition to the detailed plan, it
is very expensive and requires a
lot of time.

Helps to plan and schedule

Each stage is verified before
shifting to the next. This ensures
errors and misunderstanding are
detected earlier.

Each phase has its own
b) V-Shaped Model.
This model is an extension of the waterfall model. Its process steps are bent upward after
the implantation and coding phase hence forking a typical V shape. The main difference
Project Planning and Management
between the two models is that the V-shaped model has an early test palling. Projects using
this model must have clearly defined requirements, development technologies and tools
must be clearly defined and well-known (Sami, 2017).

Easy to use
• Just like waterfall model, the V-Shaped
model is inflexible.

Each phase has specific deliverables.
• Changing the scope, it very difficult and

It has high chances of success
compared to waterfall model due to
its earlier test plan early on during
the project life cycle.
• No early prototypes of the software are
produced since the software is developed
during the implementation phase.

It is simple and easy to use.
• The V-shaped model does not provide a
clear path for problems discovered during
the testing phases.

It works well where requirements are
clearly defined.
• In addition to the detailed plan, the model
is expensive and time-consuming.

Allows for product verification and
validation in the early stages.
c) Prototyping Model.
This model refers to the activity of creating prototypes for the given software application
project. It is an activity that occurs in software development for example when an
incomplete version of the software program is being developed. This model solves the
problem of misunderstanding of the customer requirements by visualizing some
components of the software. In addition to that, it also overcomes the limitation of waterfall
model to reduce the iterations due to its inflexibility. The requirements are said to be frozen
after the final prototype is developed. This model has different types and it is used in any
software development logic cycle model when developing a system that has user
interactions (Sami, 2017).
Project Planning and Management

Reduces time and costs.

Developers may misunderstand
user objectives.

Improves user involvement.

A lot of time is used in developing

It is expensive to develop since
each prototype has some expense.

Insufficient analysis as users may
confuse between a prototype and a
finished system.
d) Spiral model
This model combines both the features of prototyping and waterfall model with the aim
of combining their advantages i.e. top-down and bottom-up concepts. It is mainly
considered for large and complex projects. Most of its phases and the order of the phases
resembles those of waterfall model separated by planning, risk assessment and creation of
prototypes and simulations. It is used in large applications which are built in small phases
(Sami, 2017).

Important issues are discovered
earlier in the development resulting
in more realistic budgets, schedule,

Very expensive and time-consuming
to reach the final product.

Early involvement of developers.

Special skills are required to evaluate
the risks and assumptions.

Manages risks and develops the
system into phases.

Highly customized limiting reusability
Which SDLC methodology will you use to develop this project? Why? Justify why you
would use this approach versus any other approach.
The best SDLC methodology to use to develop the project is Spiral model. Since the company is
working on a complex system where requirement keeps on changing, the spiral model would be
the best to use to take both the advantages of waterfall model and prototyping models i.e. making
Project Planning and Management
it easier to plan and explain the system to both the client and the new developers and reduce the
development time and cost (Writer, 2010).
Which are the key risk areas for the project? Illustrate.
Budget/Financial risk: these are the risks associated with budget overruns. They result in
Improper Budget Estimation, Improper Tracking of Finances, Expansion of Project Scope,
underutilization of resources, unexpected expansion of project scope (Gundlach, 2011).
Schedule / Delivery Related/ Time-Related Planning Risks: these risks result from essential
time-related risks and running behind schedule which ends up impacting the delivery of the project.
The main reasons for this risk are Improper Resources Allocation, Incorrect Time Estimation, etc.
(Gundlach, 2011).
Operational / Procedural Risks: these are risks related to the project’s day-to-day activities. The
main reasons for these include conflicting priorities, Improper Process Implementation, lack of
clarity in responsibilities, lack of sufficient training, etc. (Gundlach, 2011)
How will you plan to manage, mitigate, and remove identified risk areas as part of your
project plan?
The first step will be to identify any potential risk and determine whether it is valid enough to be
dealt with by the management team.
Having identified all the potential risks that are worth being dealt with by the management team,
the second step is to analyze, research and evaluate the risks. It involves different resources from
the project such as project manager, stakeholders, subject-matter-experts, and decision makers
will be involved at this stage.
After identifying and analyzing the risk, the next step will be the final determination. The final
determination will be to mitigate or update the risk management plan to account for the potential
risks. Risks that fall under the risk management plan threshold will be accepted or even removed
from the project consideration.
Project Planning and Management
The last stage will involve the removal of all the identified and analyzed risks that were not
acceptable in the determination stage. The management team will now mitigate all the risks to
indicate that they no longer want to spend time on them (Darter, 2015).
There are multiple approaches to estimate the cost of any software project. List and
explain at least two of these approaches? Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each
Expert Judgment: this approach involves consulting cost estimation experts who have either
worked on a similar project before or has intensive knowledge of the software hence they can
give an accurate cost estimate.
Cost estimation is based on project characteristic data.
Uses experts experience and knowledge.
It can identify the difference between the completed and the proposed project and estimate their
There must be a similarity between the projects. For a project to use this budgeting approach,
there must be another similar project that was implemented successfully.
The estimate of the new project is based on known effort values from the analogous values. The
effort put by the team involved may not be the same hence the outcomes might also be the same.
Bottom-Up estimation: in this approach, the project manager(s) tallies their cost from the
bottom towards the top accounting for each expected cost. Though it is a basic method of
estimating, it is one of the most accurate methods of cost estimation (Cedia, 2015).
Decentralized and Participative. This is a participative approach that encourages inputs from any
organization’s stakeholder.
Greater Employee Motivation. The decentralized and participative nature of bottom-up
budgeting motivates the employees and makes them feel involved.
Project Planning and Management
It is time-consuming. Every budget created by the project manager(s) must reference the present
budgets and spending patterns.
Lack of expertise. Though the leader in charge of budgets might have the required skills for
budgeting, this approach relies on the project manager who may be specialized in other fields
(Hartman, 2017).
Which approach will you use to estimate the overall cost of the project? Why? Justify your
choice. Why do you think that other approaches will be less appropriate?
Bottom-Up Estimation approach will be used to estimate the overall cost of the project. This is
because it is the most accurate than the other methods since it the budgeting it looked at a
granular perspective. Other approaches will be less appropriate since their estimation is based on
past analogous projects and data hence their case/result might be very different from the new
project depending on the team and its effort.
Project Planning and Management
Cedia. (2015). Cost Estimating: Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down. Retrieved from cedia:
Darter, K. (2015). Four Stages to Project Risk Removal. Retrieved from projectsmart:
Gundlach, M. (2011). Risks Involved in Software Project Management. Retrieved from brighthubpm:
Hartman, D. (2017). Disadvantages of the Bottom-Up Approach in Budgeting. Retrieved from bizfluent:
Sami, M. (2017). Personal website – Software Engineering Practices. Retrieved from melsata.
Writer, S. (2010). Top 10 Software Development Risks. Retrieved from itproportal:

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