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Solved by verified expert:Before you submit your Final Research Paper, make sure that you haveReviewed the Research Paper Guidelines to ensure your paper addresses all required components and develops a clear position in response to one of the writing prompts provided.Reviewed the Model Final Research Paper and Week 5 Assignment Template in order to understand expectations for the assignment.Incorporated a minimum of five scholarly sources.Provided well-researched evidence to support each claim.Incorporated feedback or suggestions into your revisions.Proofread your final draft for errors in grammar, mechanics, and style.Written a paper that is approximately seven to ten pages total in length, includinga title pagefive to seven pages of body text (1,500 to 2,000 words)a references pageFormatted your paper according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Your Final Research Paper will be assessed on the following components:StructureDevelopmentStyleGrammarAPA formattingResourcesSubmission Information: Complete the tasks above and save the document as a Microsoft Word or PDF file. Submit your assignment via the Assignment Submission button. Please use a naming convention for your assignment file that includes your last name and the week number. So, your Final Research Paper assignment should bear a file name that looks like: smithENG122w5.docx or smithENG122w5.pdf.The Final Research PaperMust have a body length of five to seven double-spaced pages formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought, well-supported claims, and properly cited evidence.Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.Must use and cite at least five scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library.Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
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ENG122: Composition II
Research Paper Guidelines
Research Paper Guidelines
You will spend five weeks completing a 5-7 page academic argument in APA style. Each week is devoted to
one phase of the academic writing process:
1. Topic Selection & Beginning Research
2. Pre-Writing & Organization
3. Draft Writing
4. Revision
5. Editing & Final Draft
Week 1: Topic Selection & Beginning Research
Select a topic from the list of approved topics that begins on page two of this document. You will be working
with the same topic for the next five weeks. Choose a topic that is interesting but be wary of topics that elicit a
strong emotional response. We will be writing an objective academic paper in third-person perspective, which
may be difficult if you feel too personally connected or emotionally passionate.
As you begin to gather research on the topic, start organizing your work into an annotated bibliography. You
will submit your annotated bibliography for grading and feedback at the end of Week 1. You will use a working
thesis statement to guide you. These items may need to be revised before you move forward.
Week 2: Pre-Writing & Organization
After gathering sufficient research, you will begin to build a credible argument about the topic, which may
require revisions to your working thesis statement. You will submit an outline of your academic argument for
grading and feedback at the end of Week 2. The outline may need to be revised before you move forward.
Week 3: Draft Writing
You will utilize your revised annotated bibliography, revised outline, and instructor feedback as tools to write a
rough draft essay. The annotated bibliography provides you with your research notes while the outline guides
you through the structure of your argument. You will submit a rough draft of your academic argument for
grading and feedback at the end of Week 3. You will have time to fully revise and edit your draft over the
remaining two weeks of class.
Week 4: Revision
The revision process contains a number of steps that may overlap and repeat. This includes additional research,
more writing, proofreading, editing, and content revision. You must consider and apply the feedback you
received throughout class as you revise your rough draft. Every student is encouraged to utilize Ashford’s
tutoring and paper review services during revision. You are expected to use Week 4 as an opportunity for
careful and thorough revision.
Week 5: Final Draft
The final week of class will culminate in the submission of a Final Research Paper. This is the final, complete,
error-free version of your academic argument. The final draft is worth 30% of your final grade in this class.
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Writing Prompts – Select One for this Class
Prompts have been organized by subject area. Please review all options before making your final selection.
Consider selecting a topic that is related to your field of study and/or career.
Pay very close attention to the specific details below. Each prompt begins with a broad topic and concludes with
a research question. The research question is the starting point for your research. Your final paper must provide
an argument that directly answers the specific research question from the prompt. If you have questions about
the prompts, please contact your instructor.
Education & Information Literacy
1.
Developing Citizenship in K-12 Schools
The United States Department of Education sets basic guidelines and standards for K-12 education while
each state regulates its own unique standards. Recent emphasis on college preparedness and science,
technology, engineering, and math (STEM) subjects has changed the way students are taught in schools
across the country.
Research Question: How should K-12 schools balance college preparedness, STEM education, and
other curricula to ensure that all graduates are prepared to be well-informed, productive citizens?
2.
Common Core State Standards
Common Core is one of the latest movements in public school reform in the United States. Some states
have adopted Common Core State Standards for math and English language arts/literacy (ELA) while
others have rejected it.
Research Question: What is your home state’s position on Common Core State Standards and what
impact has that position had on schools, teachers, students, and families?
3.
Fake News
Assumptions, invalid arguments, intentional manipulation, lies, fallacies, and propaganda have become
more prevalent in the American public’s consciousness. Professional journalists, bloggers, politicians,
celebrities, and private citizens are struggling to find validity and truth in information in the digital age.
Research Question: Why is “fake news” so hard to identify and what can be done to limit its
influence in society?
4.
Technology & Young Children
Technology can be a learning tool, even in early childhood education. Children are often exposed to
interactive media and mobile devices before learning to walk. Technology is frequently present at home as
well as daycare and school.
Research Question: What is the appropriate use of technology and interactive media in early
childhood education?
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Business & Ethics
5.
New Business Model
Business analysts have alleged that the music industry is faltering due to outdated record label business
practices, inefficient and overly complex artist contract agreements, a failure to evolve with technology,
and other factors.
Research Question: Why is the music industry faltering what can be done to improve the current
business model?
6.
Environmental Responsibility
Manufacturing businesses create goods for public consumption. Disposable products and packaging have
an impact on the marketplace and the environment. Some municipalities have begun regulating the use of
single-use plastic bags, Styrofoam containers, and other disposable items.
Research Question: What should the role of local, state, and federal government be in the regulation
of environmental responsibility in private businesses?
7.
Telecommuting
Telecommuting, the practice of working remotely from an off-site location, is a growing trend in the
American workplace. While there may be positive impacts for the company and employee, there may also
be downsides.
Research Question: How does the practice of telecommuting impact workplace culture, employee
experience, and organizational success?
8.
Gender-based Income Gap
The gender-based income gap has become a topic of conversation in many industries. Popular opinion
suggests that women make less money than men for the same jobs, regardless of experience or education.
Research Question: What is the cause of gender-based income disparity in the United States and
how can it be eliminated?
Behavioral Science & Health Care
9.
Affordable Health Care
Health insurance is a program meant to assist people with the cost of medical services and health-related
procedures. Historically, health insurance was a benefit provided by employers. Over time, individuals
were asked to contribute to the costs of health insurance as well. Individuals who were not offered health
insurance through their employer often struggled to afford health insurance alone or were excluded
entirely. The federal government has been attempting to ensure that all Americans have access to health
insurance and affordable health care.
Research Question: What impact does the cost of health care have on American society and what
should be done to address the problem of high health care costs in the United States?
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10. Prenatal Genetic Testing
More pregnant women are being encouraged to participate in prenatal genetic testing during their first
trimester. However, there is much debate about the appropriateness of genetic testing for all pregnant
women due to the occurrence of misleading results and future privacy concerns for the child.
Research Question: What is the appropriate use of prenatal genetic testing for pregnant women in
the United States?
11. Aging Population
A large generation of aging Americans will require extra behavioral, health, and human services in the
very near future. Some experts have expressed concern that the country is unprepared for a surge in the
geriatric population.
Research Question: What are the needs of aging Americans and what roles should the healthcare
industry and government agencies play in meeting those needs?
12. Psychological Impact of Poverty
Researchers have documented the physical impacts of poverty on the human body, including issues of
health and safety. In addition to the physical impact, poverty can also have a long-lasting psychological
impact on an individual.
Research Question: How does poverty influence the behaviors of an individual and what is the
impact on the broader community?
Criminal Justice & Military Studies
13. Citizen Protests
Americans are afforded the constitutional right to peacefully assemble in protest with certain limitations.
Lawful protests may, however, escalate and result in criminal activity.
Research Question: How can governments and peace officers work together to protect the rights of
citizens while also enforcing laws that may be misunderstood by the public?
14. Police-Worn Body Cameras
The American public has recently rallied to ask for body cameras to be mandatory for all law enforcement
personnel. As districts and municipalities have begun using body cameras, issues of reliability, cost,
storage, privacy, community relations, cause-and-effect, and procedure have arisen.
Research Question: What is an appropriate use of body-worn cameras by police and other law
enforcement personnel in the United States?
15. Cybersecurity
Cyberspace and infrastructure (servers, cables, routers, etc.) are vulnerable to many risks. Cybercriminals
have the ability to operate from remote locations across the globe to find vulnerabilities in the link
between cyberspace and physical systems, records, and infrastructure.
Research Question: How can the Department of Homeland Security and other agencies protect
American assets and citizens from cyber-attack?
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16. Military-Civilian Life Transition
Active military service can be very different from civilian life. Some veterans have a smooth transition to
civilian life at the end of their service while others do not. There are many variables that may influence a
veteran’s experience.
Research Question: What can be done to increase the likelihood of a smooth transition from
military service to civilian life?
Building on GEN103: Information Literacy
17. GEN103 Option
If you have completed GEN103: Information Literacy at Ashford University, you have created a unique
topic and research question that may be appropriate for this class. You may be able to build upon your
prior research if your topic is appropriately narrowed for an academic argument. You must obtain
approval from your instructor to use your GEN103 topic in this class.
If you select this prompt, you must email your GEN103 research question and GEN103 annotated
bibliography to your instructor for approval by Thursday, Week 1 Day 3.
2017.02
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Running head: ETHICAL CANINE ADOPTION
The Ethical Way to Adopt a Canine Companion
Yolanda B. Student
ENG122: English Composition II
Professor I. M. Jackson
August 31, 2016
1
ETHICAL CANINE ADOPTION
2
The Ethical Way to Adopt a Canine Companion
Dogs are important members of many families, especially since they live for many years
and can be with children from childhood all the way through until they become adults. People
without children also enjoy having dogs in their lives as surrogates for the parent-child
relationship. There are many ways to obtain a dog in America and similar western countries.
Many people choose to obtain a puppy from a pet store in a shopping center, mall, or another
commercial storefront. Others seek out puppies from seemingly licensed breeders; however,
many puppies are also supplied by unlicensed or home breeders. Because of the sheer number of
dogs lost or abandoned, shelters and rescue organizations that take care of homeless or unwanted
pets until a forever family can be found. Family pets should be seen as a lifetime guardianship
commitment and not a frivolous financial business transaction. The ramifications of treating
living creatures as consumer goods are great. Due to the pet overpopulation in America and the
exacerbated medical ramifications of selective breeding, it is more ethical to adopt a rescued dog
than to purchase a commercially bred puppy.
Pet overpopulation in America may be the cause of numerous environmental and
sociological problems. Pet overpopulation can lead to larger numbers of unsupervised and
homeless animals across the country. Pet waste left behind by dogs without human guardians is
not just unsightly and smelly; pet waste left in the open can have a major impact on ground water
quality (Paterson, 2011). If pet waste is left on the ground, it seeps into the groundwater, gets
washed into storm drains, makes its way into streams and lakes, and is left as untreated sewage
in the natural water cycle.
Rescue organizations reduce the pet population in America by spaying and neutering all
animals before they are released. There were 3,500 individual animal shelters operating at
ETHICAL CANINE ADOPTION
3
capacity in the United States in the mid 1990s (Motavalli, 1995). The number of shelters and pets
in need is large and has only increased over the years. The numbers grow because too many pets
are allowed to breed freely without control. According to environmentalist Jim Motavalli (1995),
the average female dog can produce two litters a year, which means that one un-spayed girl dog
can be responsible for 67,000 births during her fertile years if her offspring are also left intact
and not spayed or neutered. Such prolific breeding increased the pet population exponentially
with each litter born. Spay and neuter programs have been found to be most effective in reducing
the pet population along with increased adoptions from shelters and rescues (Frank, 2004). A
simple choice to adopt a pet from a shelter can greatly and positively impact the entire ecological
and ethical issues surrounding pet overpopulation today.
Despite the overabundance of dogs available, some people seek out specialty dogs bred in
through commercial enterprise. Designer and purebred dogs are created by artificial genetic
modification through selective breeding practices. Since humans have selectively bred dogs for
physical and behavioral characteristics through inbreeding, pedigree dogs can be plagued by
genetic disease (Farrell, Schoenebeck, Wiener, Clements, & Summers, 2015). Breeders who
work in commercial enterprises are focused on breeding for desirable sellable characteristics
when breeding an animal as a business. With a focus on business, animal welfare can become an
after-thought.
Any selective breeding practices can result in exacerbated medical conditions in canines.
Because historical breed standards were focused on aesthetics and temperament with disregard
for health, increased medical issues are now prevalent in pedigree dogs. Indrebø (2008) found
that it will take “several generations to change the breed through genetic selection in order to
eradicate the unhealthy over-typed dogs” (pp. 1-2). Shelters and rescue organizations do not
ETHICAL CANINE ADOPTION
4
participate in selective breeding for designer or purebred animals. Instead, rescue organizations
accept animals in any variety until a permanent home can be found.
Rescue organizations do not breed animals, therefore not participating in selective
breeding for designer or purebred animals. Pet stores, however, are supplied by breeders who do
participate in selective breeding but may not take the steps necessary to ensure healthy pets. The
only way breeders can ethically create healthy litters is through ongoing diagnostic screening of
all dogs along with genetic testing regardless of arbitrarily chosen aesthetics of the animal
(Farrell et al., 2015). There are ten recommendations for ethical breeding programs that require a
number of actions, including: all breeders must only breed very healthy dogs, breeders must
continually calculate percentages for breeding stock, breeders must limit “matador breeding,”
breeders must immediately exclude female dogs who are unable to give birth naturally, breeders
have to screen all breeding animals for polygenetic diseases, breeders must conduct DNA testing
on all breeding animals, and breeders must practice natural puppy-rearing with birth mothers
(Indrebø, 2008). These recommendations are essential for ethical breeding yet are not mandated
by any regulation or law. Without firm regulations and legal ramifications, commercial breeders
can continue to breed animals for profit and without regard for the health and welfare of animals.
There is a rich history in dog breeding and Kennel Club registration. Some people feel
that pedigree dogs represent an important cultural history. It has been found, however, that desire
for a pure-bred dog is more likely to be based on popular culture trends than more rational or
logical decision-making processes (Ghirlanda, Acerbi, & Herzog, 2014). For instance, films
featuring Lassie led to more demand for the Collie breed. Rin Tin Tin’s popularity led to more
demand for the German Shepard breed. Popular celebrities photographed with purse-dwelling
Chihuahuas increase the demand for teacup-sized Chihuahuas. The desire for designer and
ETHICAL CANINE ADOPTION
5
pedigree dogs is often influenced by fleeting cultural trends rather than complete analysis of the
situation and the animal’s best interests. Such activity negates the assertion that designer and
pedigree breeding is solely an asset to society, particularly since trends do not contain regard for
ethical treatment of animals. Dogs that appear to be designer and pedigree breeds can be found in
shelters alongside obvious mixed-breeds (Strand, 2015). Without documentation, however,
pedigree cannot be proven for a homeless pet.
Just as there is no assurance of breed when adopting from a shelter or rescue group, there
is no guarantee of a healthy pet when adopted from a shelter where the animal’s history is
unknown. While it is true that there is no guarantee of health when a pet is adopted from a
shelter, adoptions fees do not financially supporting breeders who are breeding animals with
disregard for health and welfare. Concerns over the commercialization of dog breeding have led
a number of municipalities across the country to ban the sale of puppy-mill animals due to the
animal welfare concerns (Taylor, 2015). Purebred dogs suffer needlessly and genetic diversity,
as exhibited in mutts from the pound, is preferable for a healthy and stable pet (Jeppsson, 2014).
While there are no guarantees when adopting from a shelter or rescue organization, the overall
impact of adopting pets rather than investing in commercial breeding is positive.
Pet overpopulation is a real concern in America, negatively impacting quality of life and
environmental safety. Additional animals bred through selective breeding for popular
characteristics not only add to the pet population, but they also suffer from exacerbated medical
conditions and genetic disease. Meanwhile, shelters and rescue groups are overflowing with
homeless pets in need. Shelters and rescue groups vaccinate and spay or neuter each pet before
releasing them to pre-screened families, reducing the potential for pet population growth and
assuring better potential quality of life. The sale of commercially-bred puppies from pet stores
ETHICAL CANINE ADOPTION
6
should be banned unless all ethical recommendations become legally mandatory. Therefore,
families should first consider adopting a dog from a shelter or rescue organization rather …
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