Expert Answer :Introduction to Humanities

  

Solved by verified expert:INTRODUCTION TO HUMANITIES, UNIT 1 Discussion: It has been said that literature can serve as both a “window” and a “mirror.” The textbook reading this week states, “A short story offers readers an open window to a world that they can enter” (p. 74). Throughout this course, you will be reading a variety of literature, from short stories to poetry to drama. Think about the value of reading fiction. Some people might say that, since fiction means “not true,” reading these fictional stories are at best just entertainment and at worst a waste of time. Discuss some reasons that reading creative works of literature can be beneficial or valuable. To develop your response, cite various benefits or reasons to read fiction or other types of creative literature and give specific examples to support your response. Talk about personal examples to develop your ideas and cite evidence from other sources. Your initial response should be at least 250 words AND should include two references. Please note below I have included the text book which needs to be used as a reference. Let’s introduce ourselves by talking a little about what we like to read. In your initial post, write about what you like to read—newspapers, blogs, books, journals, magazines? Do you like poetry, short stories, novels? Or do you like nonfiction? Who are some of your favorite authors? Please note I like to read things like – Twilight, Fifty Shades, and cookbooks. (I am not much of a reader, I do not have the time. I do not like poetry.) In your post, which should be a minimum of 250 words, also answer the following: Why is it important to make reading a regular habit? How can reading influence your writing? Reference: Matthews, R. T., Noble, T. F., & Platt, F. D. (2014). Experience humanities (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Complete: Complete Section: a minimum of 1,200 words (Approximately 400+ words per question) and three scholarly sources including the book reference. Questions: 1.) Discuss the three cultures that arose in Mesopotamia from 3000-1600 B.C. 2.) Discuss three innovations that came about during the Bronze Age (3000-1200 B.C.) in Mesopotamia and Egypt. 3.) Discuss how the cultures of Mesopotamia and Egypt were alike and different.
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Experience Humanities
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Roy T. Matthews & F. DeWitt Platt
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
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THE UNIVERSITY M
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Thomas F. X. Noble
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Experience Humanities
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The Great Sphinx. Ca. 2560 BCE. 65′ high × 240′ long. Giza, Egypt. Huge and majestic, the
great Sphinx, a lion with a man’s face, stood silent sentinel before the great Pyramid.
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Prehistory and the Rise of Civilization
in the Near East and Egypt
Preview Questions
1. What are the chief
signs of the emergence
of civilization in
Mesopotamia and
Egypt?
2. How did geography
influence the
development of
government, society,
and culture in
Mesopotamia and
Egypt?
3. How were the cultures
of Mesopotamia
and Egypt alike and
different?
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of “Western civilization” and, for a somewhat shorter time, to speak of
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the many cultures that have made up Western civilization. What do these
I people first spoke about “the West,” they were referterms mean? When
S But western Europe was the product of cultures
ring to western Europe.
T lived around the Mediterranean Sea in antiquity, and
and peoples who had
eventually EuropeIexported its cultures to much of the rest of the globe.
“West” is thereforeA
as much an idea as a place. Civilization is in a way the
largest unit withinN
which any one person might feel comfortable. It is an
organizing principle that implies common institutions, economic systems,
,
For some two hundred years, it has been customary to speak
social structures, and values that extend over space and time. Culture is
a more restricted term. On one very general level, it means high culture:
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totality of expressions and behaviors that characterize a readily identifiMin a specific place and time. Every civilization enfolds
able group of people
I one time and across long periods of time. Mesopotamany cultures, at any
Egreece and Rome, were cultures within ancient Westmia and Egypt, like
the fine arts and philosophy, for example. On another level, it means the
ern civilization, and they contributed powerfully to an enduring tradition.
The two structures
5 to the left, the great Sphinx and one of the great
Pyramids, are probably
5 familiar to readers of this book. Why should that
be so? After all, they
6 are five thousand years old. The reasons are many,
but among the most prominent are history and tradition. These monu-
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have become a part of who we are. Standing as they do at the beginning
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ments have a history and they have entered the Western tradition. They
of Western civilization, they invite us to reflect on the people who erected
them. What kinds of political power, social structure, and wealth permitted such monuments? What do they tell us about those people’s tastes and
sensibilities? Why did they choose to represent themselves in this way?
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CHAPTER One: Prehistory and the Rise of Civilization in the Near East and Egypt
Prehistory and
Early Cultures
Human beings long preceded culture and civilization. The remote ancestors of modern human beings
emerged in Africa at least four million years ago. That
is merely a moment in comparison to the roughly
4.5 billion years that planet Earth can boast. To put
those huge numbers into perspective, let us imagine a
calendar: if Earth appeared on January 1, then human
ancestors showed up around the end of August, but
civilization, and history, commenced a few minutes
before midnight on December 31.
Perhaps two million years ago, the genus Homo, or
the hominids, made its appearance whereas Homo sapiens,
the immediate ancestor of modern humans, emerged
around two hundred thousand years ago. For a very
long time, therefore, the key story was the development of the human species itself. Unfortunately, knowledge about these hominids is limited and fragmentary.
They were hunters and gatherers, lived in natural shelters such as caves, and did not possess complex social
structures. Hominids invented crude stone tools, used
fire, and probably developed speech—a major breakthrough that enabled them to communicate in ways
denied to animals. Their first stone tools were simple
choppers and, later, hand axes, pointed tools, and scrapers, all chiseled with care. Hominids and Homo sapiens
span the Paleolithic period, the Old Stone Age, a time
roughly coterminous with the geological Pleistocene,
the Ice Age, about 2,000,000 BCE to about 10,000 BCE.
Paleolithic Period
The latter millennia of the Paleolithic period are somewhat better known than earlier ones owing to discoveries in widely dispersed places. Homo sapiens had
migrated across the Eastern Hemisphere and even the
Western Hemisphere, reaching the latter by means
of a land bridge that connected Siberia and Alaska.
People had begun to use more sophisticated tools,
such as fishhooks, bows and arrows, and needles (Figure 1.1). Most impressively, however, late Paleolithic
peoples began to express themselves in art. Ice Age
cave paintings of reindeer, bison, rhinoceroses, lions,
and horses in Altamira, Spain, and in Lascaux and the
Ardèche region of France date from the Upper Paleo­
lithic (40,000–10,000 BCE) and are the earliest examples
of human art (Figure 1.2). The purposes of the paintings in the Chauvet caves in the Ardèche region remain a mystery, but those at Altamira and Lascaux
were probably elements in hunting rituals. By paintC ing numerous wild animals pierced with arrows, the
H artists were attempting to ensure a successful hunt.
Another type of Upper Paleolithic art is seen in the
R carved
female figurine found at Willendorf, Austria
I (Figure 1.3). Made of limestone, the statue is faceless
rotund. The distended stomach and full breasts
S and
suggest that the figure may have been a mother godT dess used as a fertility symbol to represent the creI ative power of nature. As a mythological figure, the
mother goddess appeared in many ancient cultures,
A beginning in Paleolithic times; approximately thirty
N thousand miniature sculptures in clay, marble, bone,
copper, and gold have been uncovered at about three
, thousand sites in southeastern Europe alone. The
supremacy of the mother goddess was expressed in
the earliest myths of creation, which told of the lifeJ giving and nurturing powers of the female. The WilA lendorf figurine, with its emphasized breasts, navel,
and vulva, symbolic of creativity, may have been used
Min religious ceremonies to ensure the propagation of
I the tribe or to guarantee a bountiful food supply. The
also reveals the aesthetic interests of the sculpE statue
tor, who took care to depict the goddess’s hands resting on her breasts and her hair in tightly knit rows.
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Figure 1.1 The Ice Man. South Tyrol
Museum of Archaeology. In 1991 hikers
in the Alps discovered the body of a man
in melting ice. He turned out to be over five
thousand years old. He died in a bloody fight
after having eaten a last meal of bread and
goat meat. He possessed a bow and arrows,
a copper hatchet, and several pouches and
containers. The Ice Man was about 5 feet
2 inches tall and had lived a very hard life.
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Prehistory and Early Cultures
Figure 1.2 Herd of Rhinoceroses. Ca. 32,000–30,000 BCE. Chauvet
Cave, Ardèche region, France. This naturalistic detail of a panel painting
includes lions, bison, and a young mammoth (not visible here) moving across
a vast expanse of the cave wall. The repeated black lines of the rhinoceroses’
horns and backs create a sense of depth and give energy to the work.
The Neolithic Revolution
As the last glaciers retreated from Europe, during the
Holocene (Recent) epoch of geological time, humans
had to adapt to new living conditions. The brief Mesolithic period (Middle Stone Age) proved to be a decisive
turning point. In the most important development in
human history, hunters and gatherers became farmers
and herders. Thus began, some ten thousand years ago,
the Neolithic period, or New Stone Age. As Homo sapiens became farmers and herders, they gained knowledge about agriculture and developed wooden tools
and other technologies for farming and herding. Their
stone tools became more advanced than those in the
Mesolithic period and included knives and hammers.
Along with the domestication of animals, the animaldrawn plow was introduced to Mesopotamia, thus
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Figure 1.3
Figurine from Willendorf. Ca. 25,000 BCE. Ht. 4 3/8″.
Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. Discovered in about 1908 CE,
this female statuette measures just under 5 inches high. Carved from
limestone, it still shows evidence of having been painted red. Many other
statues like it have been discovered, but this one remains the most famous
because of the unusual balance it strikes between symbolism and realism.
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6
CHAPTER ONE: Prehistory and the Rise of Civilization in the Near East and Egypt
Timeline 1.1
GEOLOGICAL TIME AND PREHISTORIC CULTURAL PERIODS
All dates approximate and BCE
1,800,000
10,000
Pliocene
Holocene (Recent)
Pleistocene (Ice Age)
GEOLOGICAL TIME
5,000,000
2,000,000
200,000
Lower
Paleolithic
40,000
Middle
Paleolithic
PALEOLITHIC
(Old Stone Age)
Hominids
Genus
Homo
300,000–200,000
Homo sapiens
CULTURAL PERIODS
increasing the yield of crops. After 3500 BCE, the rise
of the new technologies accelerated, making this one of
the most fruitful eras for change that the world has ever
known. In transportation the changes included two
innovations: the boat (with and without sails) and the
wheel—each with enormous potential for commerce,
travel, and warfare. In construction and building, the
discovery and use of kiln-fired bricks made houses,
temples, and palaces possible. Five new technologies
changed the domestic scene: weaving, dyeing (using
animal and vegetable dyes), tanning, pottery making
(both plain and kiln-fired), and lighting with oil lamps.
Large-scale irrigation in dry lands expanded crop
yields and brought new plants under cultivation, such
as wheat, flax, millet, barley, and spices.
In Southeast Asia, Central America, parts of South
America, and the Near East, humans ceased their nomadic existence and learned to domesticate wild animals. They learned to plow the earth and sow seeds,
providing themselves with a more reliable, predictable
food supply than in earlier times, which in turn permitted increased population, permanent settlements,
and eventually urban centers. This agrarian pattern of
life dominated the West until about 150 years ago.
The Age of Metals
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The Neolithic Revolution expanded across the Near
East and probably into Europe and Africa. Between
6000 and 3000 BCE, human beings also learned to
mine and use copper, signifying the end of the Neolithic period and ushering in the Age of Metals. In
about 3000 BCE, artisans combined copper and tin
to produce bronze, a strong alloy, which they used in
their tools, weapons, and jewelry.
The Bronze Age extended from about 3000 to about
1200 BCE. A herald of the Age of Metals was the
mat76655_Ch01_001-031.indd 6
10,000
Upper
Paleolithic
8000
Mesolithic
Neolithic
(New Stone Age)
3000
Age of
Metals
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S mastery of gold and silver metalworking. Gold and silT ver were first reduced from their ores after 3500 BCE,
I but their scarcity made them too precious for general
use. The shift from stone tools to bronze tools occurred
A at first in only a few areas in the Near East, China,
N and Southeast Asia. Elsewhere, especially in Europe,
Mesoamerica, and the Andes of South America, stone
, continued as the dominant material for tools.
From Mesopotamia, where the earliest successful
bronze was produced by anonymous artisans, this
J metalworking tradition was transmitted to Egypt,
A Greece, and elsewhere. It produced a host of new techWriting is the hallmark of this period, with
Mnologies.
Egyptians putting words on papyrus, a flat writing
I surface made from pressed reeds, and Mesopotamians
words on clay tablets. With the invention of
E incising
writing, the silence of the prehistoric period gave way
to the voice of the historic period.
5 Other technologies improved the lives of people
during the Bronze Age. Construction methods moved
5 along two different paths: in Egypt, stone building
6 techniques arose, and in Mesopotamia, stepped temples, made of dried bricks, became the chief building
7 style. Advances in transport were made, with sailB boats plying their wares on Egypt’s Nile and wooden
ships maneuvering in the Mediterranean. Copper and
U tin were in short supply in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
To ensure a continuous supply of these metals, complex trading ties and mining operations had to be established. Copper was found in neighboring Anatolia
(modern Turkey), but tin was scarce, as it was mined
in only a few places, in modern Serbia and Bulgaria
at first, and in Cornwall, in modern England, after
2500 BCE. Domestic life made extraordinary advances
in Mesopotamia, with many changes that are still
part of life today, including baking bread in ovens,
brewing beer, and distilling perfumes. In Egypt and
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The Rise of Civilization: Mesopotamia
Learning Through Maps
MAP 1.1 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA
AND EGYPT
up
SO
PO
hr
Jerusalem
R.
M
AKKAD
BABYLONIA
Babylon
Dead Sea
SUMER
Ur
Giza
Memphis
UPPER EGYPT
Thebes
Luxor
ARABIAN DESERT
Re
N
ile
R.
ea
dS
NUBIA
Fourth Cataract
0
0
250
500
Areas of greatest fertility
Mesopotamia, making glass and wine became common, and, in Egypt, the invention of hand mirrors and
the sundial lent new perspectives for people to experience. Urban culture also led to the widespread use of
calendars, in both Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The Iron Age began in about 1200 BCE, but the
making of iron has been dated to about 2000 BCE. Iron
technology soon led to new devices, fashioned from
either iron or steel, such as iron-tipped plows, weaponry, buckets, and locks and keys. Warriors quickly
realized that sturdy iron defeats brittle bronze every
time. Indeed, the outcome of some wars between 1200
and 1000 BCE was determined by which side wielded
iron weapons.
THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION:
MESOPOTAMIA
Civilization is based on a Latin word meaning “city”
and “citizen.” It was the Neolithic Revolution that
made cities possible. That revolution depended on
agriculture and the domestication of animals. Those
mat76655_Ch01_001-031.indd 7
TA Persepolis
IN
S
This map shows the two earliest civilizations
of the Near East: Mesopotamia and Egypt.
1. Notice that much of Mesopotamia is
contained within the area known as the Fertile
Crescent and that Egypt is settled mainly
along the Nile River. 2. Locate the cities in
Mesopotamia and Egypt. 3. Compare and
contrast the role and importance of rivers
in these civilizations. 4. Why was Egypt less
exposed to external influences than was
Mesopotamia?
Cn
HGulf
R
I
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T
I500 mi
1000 km
A
N
,
ia
rs
Amarna
First Cataract
PERSIA
Pe
LOWER
EGYPT
MEDIA
IA
N
OU
M
OS
GR
LEBANON
PALESTINE
Nineveh
ZA
a
PHOENICIA tes
TA
R.
Mediterranean Sea
ME
E
CYPRUS
Caspian
Sea
CRESCE
ILE
NT
RT ASSYRIA
is
gr
Ti
FE
ASIA MINOR
(Anatolia)
SYRIA
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I MHS63
mat76620_m0101.eps
processes
brought the division of labor, government,
First proof
Ereligion,
priestly classes, arts and crafts, and sciences.
Taken together, along with writing, these elements
up to civilization. Western civilization arose in
5add
Mesopotamia and Egypt (about 3500–3000 BCE). Both
5regions were ruled by kings who were supported by
6educated priestly classes and shared power with an
economic and military elite. Their economies were
7slave based; their societies were hierarchical and stratBified. Both had elaborate palaces and temples for governmental and ceremonial purposes.
U Mesopotamia is a Greek word meaning “between
the rivers.” The valleys of the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates formed part of what is known as the Fertile
Crescent, which starts at the Persian Gulf, runs slightly
northwestward through the region between the rivers (roughly modern Iraq), and then turns westerly
to the Mediterranean Sea and curves south along the
shoreline toward Egypt (Map 1.1). This arc of land contained most of the fertile soil in the Near East, many
heavily traveled trade routes, and early centers of civilization. The hill country and Zagros Mountains rise
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8
CHAPTER ONE: Prehistory and the Rise of Civilization in the Near East and Egypt
Timeline 1.2
MESOPOTAMIAN CIVILIZATIONS
3000
All dates approximate and BCE
2350
Sumerian
to the east of the Tigris-Euphrates valley, and the vast
Arabian Desert stretches to the west. The rivers flow
down to the Persian Gulf, draining an area approximately 600 miles long and 250 miles wide. Near the
mouth of the gulf, in the river delta, human wanderers
settled in about 6000 BCE.
The Sumerian, Akkadian,
and Babylonian Kingdoms
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Three successive cultures—Sumerian, Akkadian, and
Babylonian—flourished in Mesopotamia for nearly fifteen hundred years (Timeline 1.2). As historian Samuel
Kramer asserts, “History begins at Sumer.”
The rulers of Sumer sought a just and stable society
and fostered a rich cultural life. Sumer’s most inspirational king, Gilgamesh [GILL-guh-mesh], ruled about
2700 BCE at Ur, one of the thirty or so cities of Sumer.
His heroic adventures and exploits were later immortalized in the poem The Epic of Gilgamesh. A later
ruler, Urukagina [Ur-oo-KA-gee-na], is known for reforming law codes and revitalizing the economy near
the end of the Sumerian period (2350 BCE). But Urukagina’s successors were unable to maintain Sumer’s
power, and the cities became easy prey for the Akkadians of northern Mesopotamia.
Akkadian rulers between about 2350 and 2000 BCE
incorporated Sumerian culture into their own society
and carried this hybrid culture far beyond the TigrisEuphrates valley. According to legends—which are
similar to the later story of the Hebrew leader Moses—
Sargon (r. about 2334–2279 BCE), the first and greatest
Akkadian ruler, was born of lowly origins and abandoned at birth in the reed marshes; yet Sargon survived and rose to prominence at the Sumerian court.
Excavated inscriptions reveal that Sargon conquered
the Sumerians and founded a far-flung empire to the
east and northeast. At its height, Sargon’s power was
felt from Egypt to India, but his successors, lacking his
leadership and skill, could not maintain the Akkadian
Empire.
Babylonia was the third culture in Mesopotamia.
From northern Mesopotamia, their power base, the
Babylonians governed the entire valley from about
2000 to 1600 BCE. Under their most successful military
leader and renowned lawgiver, Hammurabi [ham-uhRAHB-e] (r. 1792–1750 BCE), the Babylonians reached
their political and cultural ascendancy.
mat76655_Ch01_001-031.indd 8
2000
Akkadian
1600
Babylonian
Agriculture dominated the economy of Mesopo­
tamia. Harsh living conditions and unpredictable
floods forced the inhabitants to learn to control the
rivers through irrigation systems and cooperative tilling of the soil. Farmers eventually dug a complex canal
system to irrigate cultivated plots at increasing disC tances from the river. As production increased, prosH perity allowed larger populations to thrive. Villages
grew into small cities—with populations rangR soon
ing from ten thousand to fifty thousand—surrounded
I by hamlets and tilled fields. Trade developed with
areas, and wheeled vehicles—perfected by
S nearby
the Sumerians—and sailboats carried goods up and
T down the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers …
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