Expert Answer :Leadership Behavior Case Study 400-500 words

  

Solved by verified expert:You are required to analyse a case study. You are required to answer the case questions. Your paper should focus on the major issues of the case, looking at possible scenarios and solutions to the problems identified. In particular, the case analysis should be linked to theoretical principles, concepts and/or modelsCase Questions:1. Describe and compare the leadership behavior of Ben and Phil. Describe each manager’s use of specific task and relations behaviors.It is expected that you will use at least 3 academic references(Harvard style referencing). Websites, such as Wikipedia, will not be accepted, other than for providing general details and these will not be counted in the minimum references required.
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410
Cases
Cases
but could not find any entry for the appointment. Steve asked Ruth to tell Mr. Ferris that he
would be ready shortly.
The schedules were completed around 11:40. Since it was nearly noon, Steve invited
Mr. Ferris to join him for lunch at a nearby restaurant. During lunch Steve learned that Mr. Ferris
was from one of the firms that provided materials used in the production process at Acme, and
the purpose of the meeting was to inquire about some changes in material specifications the company had requested. As Mr. Ferris talked, Steve realized that he would not be able to answer some
of the technical questions. When they returned to the plant at 1:15, Steve introduced Mr. Ferris
to an engineer who could answer his questions.
Soon after Steve walked back to his office, his boss (Frank Jones) stopped in to ask
about the quality report for last week. Steve explained that he had given top priority to finishing the monthly production report and would do the quality report next. Frank was irritated,
because he needed the quality data to finalize his proposal for new procedures, and he thought
Steve understood this task was more urgent than the production report. He told Steve to get the
quality data to him as soon as possible and left. Steve immediately called Glenda Brown and
asked her to bring the quality data to his office. The task of reviewing the data and preparing a
short summary was not difficult, but it took longer than he anticipated. It was 2:40 by the time
Steve completed the report and attached it to an e-mail to his boss.
Looking at his calendar, Steve noticed that he was already late for a 2:30 meeting of the
plant safety committee. The committee meets weekly to review safety problems, and each
department sends a representative. Steve rushed out to the meeting, which was held in another
part of the plant. The meeting was dull this week, without any important issues or problems
to discuss.
The meeting ended at 3:30, and as Steve walked back through his section of the plant, he
stopped to talk to his assistant manager. Glenda wanted some advice on how to resolve a problem in the production assignments for the next day. They discussed the problem for about a halfhour. When Steve returned to his office at 4:05, his secretary was just leaving. She reported that
Lucy had called before leaving to fly home from the conference.
Steve was feeling tired and decided it was time for him to go home also. As he drove out of
the parking lot, Steve reflected that he was getting further behind in his work. He wondered what
he could do to get better control over his job.
SOURCE: Copyright © 1988 by Gary YukI
QUESTIONS
1. What specific things did Steve do wrong, and what should have been done in each instance?
2. What should Steve do to become more effective as a manager?
Chapter 3: Leadership Behaviors
Consolidated Products
Consolidated Products is a medium-sized manufacturer of consumer products with nonunionized pro~uction workers. Ben Samuels was a plant manager for Consolidated Products
for 10 years, and he was well liked by the employees. They were grateful for the fitness center he
built for employees, and they enjoyed the social activities sponsored by the plant several times a
year, including company picnics and holiday parties. He knew most of the workers by name, and
he spent part of each day walking around the plant to visit with them and ask about their families
or hobbies.
Ben believed that it was important to treat employees properly so they would have a sense of
loyalty to the company. He tried to avoid any layoffs when production demand was slack, figuring that the company could not afford to lose skilled workers who are so difficult to replace. The
workers knew that if they had a special problem, Ben would try to help them. For example, when
someone was injured but wanted to continue working, Ben found another job in the plant that
the person could do despite having a disability. Ben believed that if you treat people right, they
will do a good job for you without close supervision or prodding. Ben applied the same principle
to his supervisors, and he mostly left them alone to run their departments as they saw fit. He did
not set objectives and standards for the plant, and he never asked the supervisors to develop plans
for improving productivity and product quality.
Under Ben, the plant had the lowest turnover among the company’s five plants, but
the second worst record for costs and production levels. When the company was acquired
by another firm, Ben was asked to take early retirement, and Phil Jones was brought in to
replace him.
Phil had a growing reputation as a manager who could get things done, and he quickly
began making changes. Costs were cut by trimming a number of activities such as the fitness
center at the plant, company picnics and parties, and the human relations training programs
for supervisors. Phil believed that training supervisors to be supportive was a waste of
time. His motto was: “If employees don’t want to do the work, get rid of them and find somebody else who does:’
Supervisors were instructed to establish high -performance standards for their departments
and insist that people achieve them. A computer monitoring system was introduced so that the
output of each worker could be checked closely against the standards. Phil told his supervisors
to give any worker who had substandard performance one warning, then if performance did not
improve within two weeks, to fire the person. Phil believed that workers don’t respect a supervisor who is weak and passive. When Phil observed a worker wasting time or making a mistake,
he would reprimand the person right on the spot to set an example. Phil also checked closely on
the performance of his supervisors. Demanding objectives were set for each department, and
weekly meetings were held with each supervisor to review department performance. Finally,
Phil insisted that supervisors check with him first before taking any significant actions that deviated from established plans and policies.
As another cost-cutting move, Phil reduced the frequency of equipment maintenance,
which required machines to be idled when they could be productive. Because the machines
had a good record of reliable operation, Phil believed that the current maintenance schedule was
excessive and was cutting into production. Finally, when business was slow for one of the product lines, Phil laid off workers rather than finding something else for them to do.
By the end ofPhifs first year as plant manager, production costs were reduced by 20 percent
and production output was up by 10 percent. However, three of his seven supervisors left to take
other jobs, and turnover was also high among the machine operators. Some of the turnover was
due to workers who were fired, but competent machine operators were also quitting, and it was
becoming increasingly difficult to find any replacements for them. Finally, talk of unionizing was
increasing among the workers.
SOURCE: Copyright © 1987 by Gary Yuki
411
Week 04 -Leadership and
Decision Making
Charismatic and Transformational leadership
Learning Outcomes
• Describe personal meaning and how it influences attributions of charismatic qualities.
• Describe the behavioral qualities that differentiate charismatic from noncharismatic
leaders.
• Discuss the effects of charismatic leadership on followers.
• Describe the characteristics that distinguish charismatic from noncharismatic leaders.
• Discuss how one can acquire charismatic qualities.
• Explain the difference between socialized and personalized charismatic leaders.
• Distinguish between charismatic and transformational leadership.
• Explain the difference between transformational and transactional leadership.
• Explain the four phases of the transformation process.
2
Charismatic and
Transformational Leaders
• Often have a more heightened sense of who
they are
• Seem to have a clearer picture of their
personal meaning or purpose in life sooner
• Seek to actualize their personal meaning
through leadership
3
Charisma

4
Is “a distinct social relationship between the leader and follower, in which
the leader presents a revolutionary idea, a transcendent image or ideal
which goes beyond the immediate…or the reasonable; while the follower
accepts this course of action not because of its rational likelihood of
success…but because of an effective belief in the extraordinary qualities
of the leader”
Weber’s Conceptualization
of Charisma

Weber used the term “charisma” to explain a form of influence based not
on traditional or legal–rational authority systems but rather on follower
perceptions that a leader is endowed with the gift of divine inspiration or
supernatural qualities

Charisma has been called “a fire that ignites followers’ energy and
commitment, producing results above and beyond the call of duty”
5
Weber’s Conceptualization
of Charisma (cont.)

6
Weber saw in a charismatic leader someone who:
– Single-handedly visualizes a transcendent mission or course of
action
– Compels potential followers to act because they believe the leader is
extraordinarily gifted
– Performs acts of heroism
– Has an ability to inspire and build confidence


Espouses revolutionary ideals
Possesses oratorical ability

Has a “powerful aura”
Differentiating Between
Charismatic and Noncharismatic
Leaders

There are four behavior attributes that distinguish charismatic from
noncharismatic leaders:
– Dissatisfaction with status quo



7
Compelling nature of the vision
Use of unconventional strategies for achieving desired change
A realistic assessment of resource needs and other constraints for
achieving desired change
Differentiating Between
Charismatic and Noncharismatic
Leaders (cont.)

Dissatisfaction with the status quo
– Charismatic leaders are very much opposed to the status quo and
strive to change it

8
Noncharismatic leaders essentially agree with the status quo and
strive to maintain it
Differentiating Between Charismatic and Noncharismatic
Leaders (cont.)
• Vision formulation and articulation
– Charismatic leaders have the ability to articulate an ideological
and inspirational vision—a transcendent vision that promises a
better future than the present
– Effective articulation of vision is measured in what is said
(content and context) and how it is said (oratorical abilities)
– Charismatic leaders articulate the context of their message by
highlighting positive images of the future vision and negative
images of the present
– Effective communication skills are an imperative in the
successful articulation of a compelling vision
– Through verbal and nonverbal means, charismatic leaders
communicate their self-confidence, convictions, and dedication in
order to give credibility to what they advocate
9
Differentiating Between Charismatic and Noncharismatic
Leaders (cont.)
• Use of unconventional strategies
– Noncharismatic leaders use available or conventional means
to achieve existing goals
– Charismatic leaders use unconventional means to transcend
the existing order
– Admirers of charismatic leaders believe that such individuals
possess heroic qualities that enable them to persist in spite of
the odds against them
– Follower perceptions of these heroic qualities evoke
sentiments of adoration, especially when the leader’s activities
exemplify acts of heroism involving personal risk and selfsacrificing behavior
10
Differentiating Between Charismatic and Noncharismatic
Leaders (cont.)

11
Awareness of resource needs and constraints
– Charismatic leaders understand the need to perform a realistic
assessment of environmental resources and constraints affecting
their ability to effect major change within their organization
– They are sensitive to both the capabilities and emotional needs of
followers
– They are aware of the need to align organizational strategies with
existing capabilities to ensure a successful transformation
Effects of Charismatic Leadership

Followers trust in “rightness” of the leader’s vision

Similarity of follower’s beliefs and values to those of the leader

Heightened sense of self-confidence to contribute to accomplishment of
the mission

Acceptance of higher or challenging goals
12
Effects of Charismatic
Leadership (cont.)

Identification with and emulation of leader

Unconditional acceptance of leader

Strong affection for the leader

Emotional involvement of the follower in the mission

Unquestioning loyalty and obedience to the leader
Source: Based on R. J. House and M. L. Baetx (1979), “Leadership: Some Empirical Generalizations and New
Research Directions.” In B. M. Staw (ed.), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 1 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press,
1979), 399–401.
13
Qualities of Charismatic Leaders
Vision
Ability to
inspire trust
High energy
and action
orientation
Minimum
internal
conflict
14
Superb
communication
skills
Qualities of
Charismatic
Leaders
Self-promoting
personality
Self-confidence
and moral
conviction
High risk
orientation
Relational
power base
Ability to
empower others
Qualities of Charismatic
Leaders (cont.)

15
Vision
– Is the ability to imagine different and better conditions and ways to
achieve them
– Uplifts and attracts others
– Must result from a collaborative effort
Qualities of Charismatic
Leaders (cont.)

Superb communication skills
– Charismatic leaders can communicate complex ideas and goals in
clear, compelling ways, so that everyone from top management to
the bottom level of the organization can understand and identify with
their message
– Charismatic leaders have superior rhetorical skills and employ
rhetorical techniques such as metaphors, analogy, and stories

16
They are also adept and tailor their language to particular groups,
thereby better engaging them mentally and emotionally
Qualities of Charismatic
Leaders (cont.)

Self-confidence and moral conviction
– Charismatic leaders build trust in their followers through:




17
Unshakeable self-confidence
An abiding faith
Strong moral conviction
Optimism
Qualities of Charismatic
Leaders (cont.)

18
Ability to trust others
– Charismatic leaders build support and trust by showing commitment
to followers’ needs over self-interest and by being fair
– These qualities inspire followers and often result in greater
cooperation between a leader and followers
Qualities of Charismatic
Leaders (cont.)

High risk orientation



19
Charismatic leaders earn followers’ trust by willing to incur great
personal risk
People admire the courage of those who take high risk
Charismatic leaders also use unconventional strategies to achieve
success
Qualities of Charismatic
Leaders (cont.)

20
High energy and action orientation
– Charismatic leaders are energetic and serve as role models for
getting things done on time
– They engage their emotions in everyday work life
– Charismatic leaders tend to be emotionally expressive, especially
through nonverbal means
Qualities of Charismatic
Leaders (cont.)

21
Relational power base
– Charismatic leadership is intensely relational and based almost
entirely upon referent and expert power
– Charismatic leadership involves an emotionalized relationship with
followers
– Followers are often in awe of the leader
– There is a powerful identification with and emulation of the leader
and an unquestioning acceptance of an affection for the leader
Qualities of Charismatic
Leaders (cont.)

22
Minimum internal conflict
– Charismatic leaders are convinced they are right in their vision and
strategies
– Because of this conviction, they experience less guilt and discomfort
in pushing followers to stay the course even when faced with threats
Qualities of Charismatic
Leaders (cont.)

Ability to empower others
– Charismatic leaders empower followers by building their self-efficacy


Self-promoting personality

23
Charismatic leaders also empower followers by role modeling and
coaching, providing feedback and encouragement, and persuading
followers to take on more responsibilities
Charismatic leaders are not “afraid to toot their own horn”
How One Acquires
Charismatic Qualities

Suggested strategies for acquiring or enhancing one’s charismatic
qualities include:




24
Developing your visionary skills through practice and self-discipline
Practicing being candid
Developing a warm, positive, and humanistic attitude toward people
rather than a negative, cool, and impersonal attitude
Developing an enthusiastic, optimistic, and energetic personality
Charisma: A Double-Edged Sword

It is possible to assume that all charismatic leaders are good moral
leaders that others should emulate

Remember that not all charismatic leaders are necessarily good leaders
25
Charisma:
A Double-Edged Sword (cont.)

One method of differentiating between positive and negative charisma is
to consider the motives that are driving the charismatic leader’s behavior:
– Self-glorification

– Influences one’s meaning in life by protecting, maintaining, and
aggrandizing one’s self esteem
– Is consistent with negative (destructive) charisma
Self-transcendence
– Provides meaning through supportive relationships with others
– Is consistent with altruistic and empowering orientations of
positive (constructive) charisma
26
Personalized Charismatic Leaders

Possess a dominant, Machiavellian, and narcissistic personality

Pursue leader-driven goals and promote feelings of obedience,
dependency, and submission in followers

Use rewards and punishment to manipulate and control followers
27
Personalized Charismatic
Leaders (cont.)

Use information to preserve the image of leader infallibility or to
exaggerate external threats to the organization

Examples of personalized charismatic leaders:
– Adolph Hitler
– Charles Manson
– David Koresh
– Rev. James Jones
28
Socialized Charismatic Leaders

Possess an egalitarian, self-transcendent, and empowering personality

Pursue organization-driven goals and promote feelings of empowerment,
personal growth, and equal participation in followers
29
Socialized Charismatic Leaders
(cont.)

Use rewards to reinforce behavior that is consistent with the vision and
mission of the organization

Examples of socialized charismatic leaders:
– Martin Luther King, Jr.
– Gandhi
– Winston Churchill

30
John F. Kennedy
Transformational Leadership vs.
Transactional Leadership

Transformational leadership
– Serves to change the status quo by articulating to followers the
problems in the current system and a compelling vision of what a
new organization could be

Transactional leadership
– Seeks to maintain stability within an organization through regular
economic and social exchanges that achieve specific goals for both
the leaders and their followers
31
The Effects of
Transformational Leadership

Research studies have consistently revealed that transformational
leadership is positively related to individual level, group, and
organizational performance

Individual …
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