Expert Answer :Painting Topic

  

Solved by verified expert:Read below. Attached is the chapter needed to reference. Thanks! The brain plays an important role in the painting of a picture (and for all skilled tasks). Discuss the many ways in which the brain is involved, using the information that you have learned on visual perception and movement (Chapters in Brain Facts, Course Resources, Required Reading).Be as specific as possible referring to the specific activities that are involved in painting a picture and how different systems of the brain are involved in each of these activities. You might think about all the sensory and motor modalities that are important in painting as well as other mental capacities.
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A Companion Publication to BrainFacts.org
A PRIMER ON THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM
A PRIMER ON THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM
A companion to BrainFacts.org
A PUBLIC INFORMATION INITIATIVE OF:
P r e fa c e
Over the past two decades, scientific knowledge about the structure and function of the brain and
nervous system and understanding of brain-based disorders have increased exponentially. Neuroscientists
are using remarkable new tools and technologies to learn how the brain controls and responds to the body,
drives behavior, and forms the foundation for the mind. Research is also essential for the development of
therapies for more than 1,000 nervous system disorders that affect more than 1 billion people worldwide.
As these strides occur, it is crucial that scientists communicate with the general public, helping
students, teacher, parents, medical caregivers, policymakers, and others stay informed of developments in
neuroscience. In particular, students — the scientists, policymakers and scientifically literate citizens of the
future — need access to clear, easy-to-use information on this important topic.
As part of its enduring commitment to public education and outreach, the Society for Neuroscience
(SfN) is pleased to present the seventh edition of Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous
System. This edition has been substantially revised. Research progress has been updated throughout the
publication, and a new section on animal research added. The information also has been reorganized into
six sections to make it easier for readers to glean the “big ideas” covered, and the specific topics that fall
under each category.
The publication of the Brain Facts seventh edition coincides with the launch of BrainFacts.org,
a public information initiative of The Kavli Foundation, The Gatsby Charitable Foundation, and
SfN. BrainFacts.org brings to digital life the historic Brain Facts book, and augments it with hundreds
of additional, scientifically vetted public information resources available from leading neuroscience
organizations worldwide. BrainFacts.org is envisioned as a dynamic and unique online source for
authoritative public information about the progress and promise of brain research. It will be updated
frequently with the latest neuroscience information from around the globe, while the Brain Facts book will
continue to be a vital teaching and outreach tool.
We encourage you to visit BrainFacts.org frequently to supplement information found within this
companion book, and to join us in the quest for continuing revolutionary advances in understanding the
brain and mind.
2
Society for NeuroScieNce
coNteNtS
N NtS
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Part 1: Introduction to the Brain
Chapter 1: Brain Basics …………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
Chapter 2: The Developing Brain ……………………………………………………………………….. 13
Part 2: Sensing, Thinking, and Behaving
Chapter 3: Senses and Perception ………………………………………………………………………. 18
Chapter 4: Learning, Memory, and Language ………………………………………………………… 25
Chapter 5: Movement……………………………………………………………………………………… 29
Chapter 6: Sleep …………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
Part 3: Across the Lifespan
Chapter 7: Stress …………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
Chapter 8: Aging ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
Part 4: Brain Research
Chapter 9: Kinds of Research ……………………………………………………………………………. 42
Part 5: Diseases and Disorders
Chapter 10: Childhood Disorders ……………………………………………………………………….. 49
Chapter 11: Addiction …………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
Chapter 12: Degenerative Disorders ……………………………………………………………………. 57
Chapter 13: Psychiatric Disorders ……………………………………………………………………….. 62
Chapter 14: Injury and Illness ……………………………………………………………………………. 66
Part 6: Treating Brain Disorders
Chapter 15: Potential Therapies …………………………………………………………………………. 73
Chapter 16: Neuroethics ………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
Glossary …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
Neuroscience Resources ………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
Index …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
Society for NeuroScieNce
3
iNtroductioN
The huMAN BRAIN — a spongy, threepound mass of tissue — is the most complex living structure
in the universe. With the capacity to create a network
of connections that far surpasses any social network and
stores more information than a supercomputer, the brain
has enabled humans to achieve breathtaking milestones —
walking on the moon, mapping the human genome, and
composing masterpieces of literature, art, and music. What’s
more, scientists still have not uncovered the extent of what
the brain can do. This single organ controls every aspect
of our body, ranging from heart rate and sexual activity to
emotion, learning, and memory. The brain controls the
immune system’s response to disease, and determines, in part,
how well people respond to medical treatments. Ultimately,
it shapes our thoughts, hopes, dreams, and imaginations. It is
the ability of the brain to perform all of these functions that
makes us human.
Neuroscientists, whose specialty is the study of the
brain and the nervous system, have the daunting task of
deciphering the mystery of how the brain commands the
body. Over the years, the field has made enormous progress.
For example, neuroscientists now know that each person
has as many as 100 billion nerve cells called neurons, and
the communication between these cells forms the basis of all
brain function. However, scientists continue to strive for a
deeper understanding of how these cells are born, grow, and
organize themselves into effective, functional circuits that
usually remain in working order for life.
The motivation of researchers is to further our
understanding of human behavior, including how we read
and speak and why we form relationships; to discover ways
to prevent or cure many devastating disorders of the brain as
well as the body under the brain’s control; and to advance
the enduring scientific quest to understand how the world
around us — and within us — works.
The importance of this research cannot be overstated.
More than 1,000 disorders of the brain and nervous system
result in more hospitalizations than any other disease group,
including heart disease and cancer. Neurological illnesses
affect more than 50 million Americans annually and
cost more than $500 billion to treat. In addition, mental
4
BraiN factS | introduction
disorders strike 44 million adults a year at a cost of $148
billion. Advances in research could reduce these costs. For
example, discovering how to delay the onset of Alzheimer’s
disease by five years could save $50 billion in annual health
care costs.
In the past two decades, neuroscience has made
impressive progress in many of the field’s key areas. Now,
more than ever, neuroscience is on the cusp of major
breakthroughs.
Recently, significant findings have been documented in
the following areas.
Genetics Disease genes have been identified that
are key to several disorders, including the epilepsies,
Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease,
and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These discoveries
have provided new insight into underlying disease
mechanisms and are beginning to suggest new treatments.
With the mapping of the human genome, neuroscientists
have been able to make more rapid progress in identifying
genes that either contribute to or directly cause human
neurological disease. Mapping animal genomes has aided
the search for genes that regulate and control many
complex behaviors.
Gene-environment Interactions Most major
diseases have a genetic basis strongly influenced by the
environment. For example, identical twins, who share the
same DNA, have an increased risk of getting the same
disease compared with nonidentical siblings. However, if
one twin gets the disease, the probability the other will
also be affected is between 30 percent and 60 percent,
indicating that there are environmental factors at play
as well. Environmental influences involve factors such as
exposure to toxic substances, diet, level of physical activity,
and stressful life events.
Brain Plasticity The brain possesses the ability
to modify neural connections to better cope with new
circumstances. Scientists have begun to uncover the
molecular basis of this process, called plasticity, revealing
how learning and memory occur and how declines might
be reversed. In addition, scientists have discovered that
the adult brain continually generates new nerve cells — a
Society for NeuroScieNce
process known as neurogenesis. Interestingly, one of the most
active regions for neurogenesis in the brain, the hippocampus,
is also an area heavily involved in learning and memory.
New Therapies Researchers have gained insight
into the mechanisms of molecular neuropharmacology, or
how drugs affect the functioning of neurons in the nervous
system, providing a new understanding of the mechanisms of
addiction. These advances have also led to new treatments
for depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In
addition, neuroscientists have discovered that many of the
toxic venoms used by animals can be adapted into new
pharmacological treatments. For example, the poison of a
puffer fish, tetrodotoxin (TTX), halts electrical signaling in
nerve cells. However, in discrete, targeted doses, TTX can be
used specifically to shut down those nerve cells involved in
sending constant signals of chronic pain.
Imaging Revolutionary imaging techniques,
including positron emission tomography (PET), functional
magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and optical imaging with
weak lasers, have revealed the brain systems underlying
attention, memory, and emotions. These techniques also
have pointed to dynamic changes that occur in schizophrenia
and other disorders.
Cell Death Two major advances in neuroscience —
the discovery of how and why neurons die, along with the
discovery of stem cells, which divide and form new neurons
— have many clinical applications. These findings have
dramatically improved the chances of reversing the effects
of injury in both the brain and the spinal cord. The first
effective treatments for stroke and spinal cord injury based on
these advances are under study.
Brain Development New understanding of brain
function, as well as newly discovered molecules responsible
for guiding nervous system development, have given
scientists greater insight into certain disorders of childhood,
such as cerebral palsy. Together with the discovery of stem
cells, these advances are pointing to novel strategies for
helping the brain or spinal cord regain functions lost as a
result of injury or developmental dysfunction.
Society for NeuroScieNce
This book provides a glimpse of what is known about
the nervous system, the disorders of the brain, and some
of the exciting avenues of research that promise new
therapies for many neurological diseases. In the years
ahead, neuroscience research funded by public and private
support will continue to expand our knowledge of how this
extraordinary organ and the entire nervous system function.
introduction
| BraiN factS
5
chaP
haPter
ter 1:
BraiN BaSicS
in
this
chapter
n
Anatomy of the Brain and the
Nervous System
n
The Neuron
n
Neurotransmitters and
Neuromodulators
Anatomy of the Brain and the Nervous System
The brain is the body’s control center, managing just
about everything we do. Whether we’re thinking, dreaming,
playing sports, or even sleeping, the brain is involved in
some way. A wonder of evolutionary engineering, the brain
is organized into different parts that are wired together in
a specific way. Each part has a specific job (or jobs) to do,
making the brain the ultimate multitasker. Working in
tandem with the rest of the nervous system, the brain sends
and receives messages, allowing for ongoing communication.
Mapping the Brain The cerebrum, the largest
part of the human brain, is associated with higher order
functioning, including the control of voluntary behavior.
Thinking, perceiving, planning, and understanding language
all lie within the cerebrum’s control. The cerebrum is divided
into two hemispheres — the right hemisphere and the
left hemisphere. Bridging the two hemispheres is a bundle
of fibers called the corpus callosum. The two hemispheres
communicate with one another across the corpus callosum.
Covering the outermost layer of the cerebrum is a
sheet of tissue called the cerebral cortex. Because of its gray
color, the cerebral cortex is often referred to as gray matter.
The wrinkled appearance of the human brain also can be
attributed to characteristics of the cerebral cortex. More than
two-thirds of this layer is folded into grooves. The grooves
increase the brain’s surface area, allowing for inclusion of
many more neurons.
The function of the cerebral cortex can be understood
by dividing it somewhat arbitrarily into zones, much like the
geographical arrangement of continents.
6
BraiN factS | introduction
to the brain
The frontal lobe is responsible for initiating and
coordinating motor movements; higher cognitive skills, such
as problem solving, thinking, planning, and organizing; and
for many aspects of personality and emotional makeup.
The parietal lobe is involved with sensory processes,
attention, and language. Damage to the right side of
the parietal lobe can result in difficulty navigating spaces,
even familiar ones. If the left side is injured, the ability to
understand spoken and/or written language may be impaired.
The occipital lobe helps process visual information,
including recognition of shapes and colors.
The temporal lobe helps process auditory information and
integrate information from the other senses. Neuroscientists
also believe that the temporal lobe has a role to play in
short-term memory through its hippocampal formation, and in
learned emotional responses through its amygdala.
All of these structures make up the forebrain. Other
key parts of the forebrain include the basal ganglia, which are
cerebral nuclei deep in the cerebral cortex; the thalamus; and
the hypothalamus. The cerebral nuclei help coordinate muscle
movements and reward useful behaviors; the thalamus passes
most sensory information on to the cerebral cortex after
helping to prioritize it; and the hypothalamus is the control
center for appetites, defensive and reproductive behaviors, and
sleep-wakefulness.
The midbrain consists of two pairs of small hills called
colliculi. These collections of neurons play a critical role
in visual and auditory reflexes and in relaying this type of
information to the thalamus. The midbrain also has clusters
of neurons that regulate activity in widespread parts of the
central nervous system and are thought to be important for
reward mechanisms and mood.
The hindbrain includes the pons and the medulla
oblongata, which control respiration, heart rhythms, and
blood glucose levels.
Another part of the hindbrain is the cerebellum
which, like the cerebrum, also has two hemispheres. The
cerebellum’s two hemispheres help control movement and
cognitive processes that require precise timing, and also play
an important role in Pavlovian learning.
The spinal cord is the extension of the brain through the
vertebral column. It receives sensory information from all parts
Society for NeuroScieNce
small concentrations of gray matter called ganglia, a
term specifically used to describe structures in the PNS.
Overall the nervous system is a vast biological computing
device formed by a network of gray matter regions
interconnected by white matter tracts.
The brain sends messages via the spinal cord to
peripheral nerves throughout the body that serve to
control the muscles and internal organs. The somatic
nervous system is made up of neurons connecting the
CNS with the parts of the body that interact with
the outside world. Somatic nerves in the cervical
region are related to the neck and arms; those in
the thoracic region serve the chest; and those in the
lumbar and sacral regions interact with the legs.
The autonomic nervous system is made of neurons
connecting the CNS with internal organs. It is divided
into two parts. The sympathetic nervous system mobilizes
energy and resources during times of stress and arousal,
while the parasympathetic nervous system conserves energy
and resources during relaxed states, including sleep.
Messages are carried throughout the nervous
system by the individual units of its circuitry: neurons.
The next section describes the structure of neurons,
how they send and receive messages, and recent
discoveries about these unique cells.
The top image shows the four main sections of the cerebral cortex: the frontal lobe, the
parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe. Functions such as movement are
controlled by the motor cortex, and the sensory cortex receives information on vision,
hearing, speech, and other senses. The bottom image shows the location of the brain’s
major internal structures.
of the body below the head. It uses this information for reflex
responses to pain, for example, and it also relays the sensory
information to the brain and its cerebral cortex. In addition,
the spinal cord generates nerve impulses in nerves that control
the muscles and the viscera, both through reflex activities and
through voluntary commands from the cerebrum.
The Parts of the Nervous System The forebrain,
midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord form the central
nervous system (CNS), which is one of two great divisions
of the nervous system as a whole. The brain is protected by
the skull, while the spinal cord, which is about 17 inches (43
cm) long, is protected by the vertebral column.
The other great division of the human brain is the
peripheral nervous system (PNS), which consists of nerves and
Society for NeuroScieNce
The Neuron
Cells within the nervous system, called neurons,
communicate with each other in unique ways. The
neuron is the basic working unit of the brain, a
specialized cell designed to transmit information
to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells. In fact,
the brain is what it is because of the structural
and functional properties of interconnected neurons. The
mammalian brain contains between 100 million and 100
billion neurons, depending on the species. Each mammalian
neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. The cell
body contains the nucleus and cytoplasm. The axon extends
from the cell body and often gives rise to many smaller
branches before ending at nerve terminals. Dendrites extend
from the neuron cell body and receive messages from other
neurons. Synapses are the contact points where one neuron
communicates with an …
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