Expert Answer :PHI445

  

Solved by verified expert:Requirements for Replies to Other Threads:At least two of the four posts required should be in the form of replies to fellow classmates in threads other than your own.Each of your replies should be at least 200 words and informed by the course material. As such, the replies must have citations and references in APA notation. Your list of references for each reply should include all of the course material that has informed your reply, in addition to any research that you have obtained on your own.One of your replies should identify the notion of the moral good in deontology and compare that to the account of utilitarianism in Starbucks presented in your fellow student’s post. Analyze how these different notions of the moral good lead to different approaches with regard to how to address the problem even if, ultimately, the result turns out to be the same or similar.In your second reply, you should identify the notion of the moral good in virtue ethics and compare and discuss that to the account of utilitarianism in Starbucks presented in your fellow student’s post. Analyze how these different notions of the moral good lead to different approaches with regard to how to address the problem even if, ultimately, the result turns out to be the same or similar.Your replies should focus on the specific examination presented by your fellow student and should include an examination of whether or not the characteristics of the ethical theory were identified well, and whether or not their application and analysis were also carried out successfully. Providing such an examination is not an attack on your fellow student but an attempt to work together with your fellow student toward the better understanding of the ethical theories employed, as well as their application.
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RESPONSE 1:
Starbucks has established its position as a leader in the coffee industry. It has a
responsibility to its stakeholders, consumers, employees, and coffee bean farmers and
workers around the world. Like most companies, Starbucks faces dilemmas when trying
to balance economic, environmental, and ethical needs. The discipline of ethics’ primary
focus is to decipher the difference between right and wrong. How we arrive at that
conclusion varies from person to person and culture to culture. There are various ideas
that people use as part of their moral compass.
The utilitarian adopts, as a basic principle the idea that a decision is best if that
decision leads to the most favorable outcome for the greatest number of people affected
by that decision (Mosser, 2013). It says that the option that causes least frustration and
most satisfaction for the most amounts of people is the best option. Another component
of utilitarianism is that it focuses on the consequences of happiness and unhappiness.
While businesses assess costs and benefits in terms of financial gains and losses,
utilitarianism focuses instead on how our actions affect human happiness (Fieser,
2015).
The deontological theory is similar to the well-known Golden Rule; treat others the way
that you want to be treated. The idea behind duty theory (deontological) is that we are
all born with basic moral principles or guidelines embedded in us, and we use these to
judge the morality of people’s actions (Fieser, 2015). A negative aspect to this way of
thinking is it does not consider our differences. What is desired by one may not be
desired by others.
Virtue theory is the view that morality is grounded in the virtuous character traits that
people acquire (Fieser, 2015). Enjoying various pleasures in moderate amounts help to
build our virtue of temperance.
According to Starbucks Social Responsibility Video, the coffee industry is in crisis. The
company took a utilitarian approach and invested in the farmers, workers, and
community to ensure that all parties got the outcome they desired. The company
spends resources and time developing relationships with stakeholders (including
government) in the countries where it purchases its coffee. By contributing these
resources although pricey and time consuming it has better relationships, stability, and
community presence which helps the company’s profits and ethical gains.
RESPONSE 2:
Utilitarianism, Deontology, and Virtue Ethics Case Study: Starbucks
Utilitarianism is an action that is morally right when consequences are favorable or
actions that are considered good when the good outweighs the bad (Fieser, 2015). Two
characteristics of utilitarianism are:
Consequences of happiness and unhappiness – Utilitarianism focuses on actions that
effect human happiness. Some utilitarians emphasizes on pleasure and pain, some
goodness and badness, and others beneficial and nonbeneficial, however they all agree
that there is a link between moral conduct and happiness and immoral conduct and
unhappiness (Fieser, 2015). Example: Bullying is an immoral action that causes
unhappiness to a human being. On the other hand, buying a homeless person a
sandwich is a moral action that causes happiness to a human being.
Beneficial consequences – Utilitarianism focuses on seeking the greatest good that
benefits the most people, such as the text mentioned, slavery was in theory the greatest
good for the white majority, because the slaves were the minority, although this was an
immoral act (Fieser, 2015).
Deontology is defined as the duty theory that moral independent rules are set for us to
be obedient to (Cline, 2018). Two characteristics of Deontology are:
Obligation – In theory, we have a moral obligation to do the right thing, such as, not
stealing, killing, and being dishonest in the court of law. Example: As parents, we should
feel obligated to financially and emotionally support our children.
Instinctive principles- Treating others as you would like to be treated, the treatment is
good. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) emphasizes on the “Golden rule” which inspired him
to develop the categorial imperative theory which is a moral principle to treat people as
a mean, not a means to an end. Example: It is wrong to think only of what benefit one
would receive from implementing a moral act, such as, public recognition, nomination to
an office, or praise when you give to charity (Fieser, 2015).
Virtue Ethics are virtuous character traits that are acquired, which are morally
grounded (Fieser, 2015). Two characteristics of Virtue Ethics are:
Self-Control – Knowing our limits in everything we do. The Greek philosopher, Aristotle
developed an analysis of urges, such as over eating or drinking (Fieser, 2015).
Skills – Practicing to be skillful, like learning to play an instrument. Build by building,
acquiring courage by doing courageous things (Text Video).
Starbucks has taken the utilitarian position practicing the characteristic of beneficial
consequences. The Starbucks store place in a financially upscale area where the
customers will be able to not only enjoy the its high- quality coffee but afford it also. Mr.
Shultz also mentioned that the establishment would be a place for its customers to
converse implying intellectual customers, probably business people.
Case Study: Starbucks
Ethical Problem confronted by Starbucks is discrimination. This coffee shop is in a
foreign country on the wealthy side of town, which is discriminating against the poor
citizens of that country.
Solving the Ethical Problem would require Starbucks to build shops in towns of various
economic levels with prices affordable for the customers they are serving.
References:

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