Solved by verified expert:Using ONLY these resources: Antigone by Sophocles, The book of Job for the Bible, The life of Galileo by Berthold Brecht, and the lecture notes attached. The questions are in the attachment.
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• Eteocles was the king before it came down to Creon
• Eteocles and Polyneices cross swords and both die
• Creon is an Uncle of Antigone, he takes the throne
• They agree to rotate on thrown
• Polyneices is deported by Eteocles
• Polyneices marries the daughter of the king of another city
• Polyneices asks his father in law to borrow his army and head to Thebes
• Creon’s decree is that Eteocles gets a loyal burial, but polyneices wont because hes a
traitor (Ideology: soul goes to the next stage when a person is buried)
• Anyone who buries him will be executed
• Antigone tells Ismene that she will burry polyneices. (because he’s her brother)
• Ismene does not agree to abide by the law and particularly that shes a woman
• Antigone is young (mid-teens)
• Ismene says “let the dead bury the dead”
• Antigone lightly buries poly’s body (thinking that if she doesn’t burry him his soul
wont pass up)
• King’s guard want to find out the one who buried poly and punish him/her
• A storm came and removed the sand, but then Antigone does it again.
• Antigone gets caught and guards take her to palace.
• Creon was bi-shocked, because she was a relative and a woman.
• Antigone tries to defend Ismene by telling him she has nothing to do with it.
• Creon asks Antigone questions: did you know about the decree, YES. (Creon here
was trying to give her a cushion or a second chance); he asks her: are you willing to
admit that you did something wrong? NO
• Creon says bring me the man, and it turns out to be a woman who did it.
• The human being is the strongest of all. They both work as good and evil.
• Creon asks the soldier to take her out, not kill her yet, and capture her.
• Play starts out with a battle about the throne
• Creon doesn’t want to seem weak or corrupted because Antigone is his neice
• Antigone and Haemon (Creon’s son) are cousins.
• Haemon wants to save Antigone.
• Haemon starts gently talking to creon but creon resists.
• Discussionbetween Haemon and creon heated, haemon is angered.
• “In case the Gods and Goddesses want to take her out, they have to do it.
• Creon orders to rtake away Angitone
• Creon takes advice from the blind prophet Teiresias
• Teiresias tells him bad things will happen to his family if he doesn’t listen to Haemon
• Creon sends him away
• Creon rethinks himself , and believes Teiresias then goes to release Antigone
• Creon finds haemon there first, then finds Antigone dead
• Antigone why killed herself?
She might’ve died because of starvation
she believes she’s taking power from the hand of creon
• Creon and Haemon scuffle with swords
• Haemon gets stabbed and dies.
Eurydices, Creon’s wife, Haemon’s mother, Antigone’s aunt, finds out both deaths
and kills herself
Creon says “there is no happiness and no wisdom” only submission to god
He later dies in another play
Creon lived with sorrow and depression
Center conflict: Creon and Antigone
What does everyone represent?
Antigone: she wants to bury her brother and save his soul
Family/blood, impulsive (instinctive, bold), Nature
Creon: maintaining the integrity of the political state
Calculating, human-made institutions (government)
creon is the God of thebes
Fate is important in Greek plays
Antigone embraces her fate and that is heroic. She lived it out.
A heroic figure is flaw
Antigone pushes the results on Creon
Creon gave Antigone a wiggle room (second chance) to answer no about hearing the
new law. But Antigone was determined with her answer.
Tragic Flaw: the way Antigone pushed the actions to an extreme “pushed the
Fate (the bottom line)
Antigone saw that she will bury her brother’s soul and saw her fate that she will die in
Roman saw this as a heroic act (heroic figure)
Faith has to do what we have to do with our life, or related to over lives.
She performed the ceremony twice even after the storm, agreeing that she knew about
the punishment when Creon asked her for keeping and creating a room for her to
Antigone is the one who drags actions to the play.
Creon is the one driving actions to the play.
Sophocles did not call the play Creon, but he called it “Antigone”.
It gives us a hint to who is the heroic figure? Antigone.
The Book of Job from the Bible:
• Francophile: somebody who likes anything French.
• Sofia means the love of wisdom.
• Written down during the same time period as the time period as Antigone.
• Handed down verbally for some time and then was written down.
• Then became a book in the Bible from the Hebrew.
• Bible means book in Greek (Biblios)
• The book of Job in Christianity is the old testament
• Alphabet comes from Greek
• Torah (Teaching), 5 Books of Moses, Pentateuch (Penta = 5). Translated in
Alexandria is a city in Egypt and Greece named after Alexander (Greek leader). Tells
the story of the formation of the Israelite people.
• Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Jonah, Deborah, Haggai (5) tells the story of the Israelite
• Isaiah: “study war no more”.
The writings: The book of Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes (Koheleth), Job. – Wisdom
literature (in the middle eastern lands, Egypt, Babylonia). Teaches how to live your
Babylonia conquered the Israelite states, then another country (Persian – Iran)
reconquers Babylonia and gives back the Israelite states.
A number of passages in the book of Job was written in Aramaic (linguafranca)
Lingua is tongue and franca is related to English word public and open (Frank). Jesus
Assyrians, in Lebanon. Some in Syria.
Job came from the south-eastern border of Israel.
The name Job is not Israelite.
Eyob is Job’s name in Hebrew, in Quran is Ayyub.
The action is the discussion between Job and his friends.
God says that Job is righteous just for the sake of being righteous.
Satan asks for permission to take away Job’s wealth.
And god grants this permission. Provided that Satan don’t do any physical harm to
NOTE: God gives the permission because it is an indication is that god is in control of
the whole life and misfortunes.
Satan goes and kills all Job’s flocks of animals
The house falls down when the storm hits and Job’s children were killed when the
Job doesn’t abandon his righteousness, he remains righteous.
Satan goes back and says to God that this is only because harm was not direct on Job.
God gives Satan permission to attack Job physically, Job got sores and boils.
What does Job want now, Job wants to understand why this is happening to him.
It also provides the basic theme of the book. Which is the suffering of innocent
people. (Intro of the book)
Suffering of innocent people is very disturbing, you find these examples around the
world. In Antigone’s context, she did the right thing.
Natural disasters like hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, tornadoes killed innocent
lives because of harm and conflict.
The theme of the book is the question of the suffering of innocent people and why this
is happening to them?
Now the book of Job has higher focus currently because of the increase of natural
“Where were you when I created the Earth and the Heavens?” – God
movie named the Tree of Life.
a couple of years ago with the senseless shootings, Obama turned to the book of Job.
People recently turned to the Book of Job more than the other books.
Basic theme of the text is the suffering of innocent people.
25 thousand years old
Job’s children were killed when his collapsed with the storm, only Job and his wife
Job is taken ill and gets covered from head to toe in sores and boils. He mourns.
He was visited by 3 friends: Eliphaz (the oldest), Bildad (next oldest), Zophar
These are not Israelite names.
All of them have the same answer for why Job is suffering. Their answer is “you’re
suffering because you did something wrong or evil”.
Eliphaz, “sometimes it takes more than one generation for justice to work”
Eliphaz, “Sometimes matters of justice work themselves out among a whole tribe”
Job doesn’t accept their explanation and that’s why there are some variations in their
Job recalls that he had not done something sinful or wrong to be punished this way.
They tell him maybe your son did something and you were held liable.
Job wants an explanation for his punishment.
Does asking for justification make him less righteous?
His friends tell him don’t ask why, you only make it worse. Just ask for forgiveness.
Because you’re suffering you have sinned. Job doesn’t agree
The debate is basically Eliphaz speaks and Job answers, Bildad speaks Job answers,
Zophar speaks and Job answers. A cycle
Zophar seems to be fiery and impatient
After every cycle, the debate gets more heated.
Towards the end of the debate: Chapter 26-27, it becomes a little difficult to
understand who is saying what
It looks to be like Job but turns out to be Zophar
Scholars concluded that there is something missing.
At the beginning of chapter 27, there is a line says Job again took up his discourse
saying …, or chapter 26 Job answered saying… it was misplaced to help readers
easily understand it.
Chapter 27, beginning verse 15, Zophar is speaking, but at the end Job doesn’t
answer. Conceivable that he said what he had to say.
Chapter 28 was an independent poem
As scholars conclude, they agree that it is the same author as well as the grammatical
structure. Same author.
Chapter 28 is also given its own name “The Hymn to Wisdom”, it makes an
interesting comparison with carl speech in Antigone,
Here, the human being cannot fully possess wisdom. In Antigone, human being can
be both good and evil.
This is followed by Job’s last speech with his friends. Basically, Job’s reiterates what
he’s been saying in his entire debate mainly that maybe he did a sin at some point, but
the degree of suffering having lost his wealth and children, he wants to understand
Elihu enters, the youngest, he doesn’t have interest in anybody. Why? With the
friends, he said you’re telling Job that all his suffering because he sinned, you can’t be
so sure. He tells Job what are you asking God an explanation for?
Elihu’s explanation, sometimes suffering can be a way of teaching so that you could
avoid something worse in the future.
Elihu tells Job to pray for God that has all power.
God gives the last words, speaking out of a whirlwind.
God tells him how could you expect to understand fully? “Where were you when I
created the Earth and the Heavens” How could you understand what I understand?
God mentions the great variety of creatures, what are they here for and what do you
God mentioned the animals, Leviathan and Behemoth (Hippo-potamus: river horse in
greek) Potomac river in DC. Close.
God says: Do you know why the Behemoth is here? Do you why Leviathan (large sea
monster) is here?
Human understand nature to a certain point, we can also see the beauty of nature. By
indication, there is also an order of justice in the world. “see to understand”. We can
understand the order of nature. But there is also the nature of justice, which is hard to
God takes Job’s side. “It was Job who spoke the truth about me”, Job never doubted
that there is an order of Justice, he did not turn against God.
His wife tells him to curse God and leave it all alone. But Job ignores.
Not the friends who spoke the truth about God.
Job throughout all of it remained righteous.
The fact Job raised this question did not make him any less righteous.
The friends were less righteous
God rejects the friends because they thought they could explain God’s actions in a
simple formula. But you can’t.
God is not pleased with the friends.
At the end, God said to restore what happened to Job and even more. He also gets a
new family and more children. He lives a long and full life.
Does Job get a full answer? NO. If Job understood, it would be hard if Job wants to be
righteous to be righteous or because God gave him so much (like Satan said).
Antigone is someone who suffered not doing anything wrong.
The major difference between them, Job’s God is not subject to fate.
We have the ability to understand – the ability to reason why we are living, and
understand the overall order of cosmos to guide our lives. “We are rational animals.”
Philosophers advised living a life of reason because we are the rational animals
Overall points of both stories are the same, which is because there is a larger context
Forces at work in human life that
are larger than we are, gods and
Because Antigone understands the
bigger picture, she exhibits the
nobility of character
BOOK OF JOB
Because there was a bigger picture,
he was able to live a life of
righteousness for the sake of
Individual’s relations with God
Comes alexander, 4 centuries before Jesus
Alexander becomes the leader of the combined city states of Greece.
Other power from the east, Persia
Alexander starts going East conquering as he goes. (south Africa, Egypt (Alexandria),
middle east, central Asia.) Not Virginia’s Alexandria though.
Alexander stopped in India
So alexander turned around and began to withdraw, Greek influence receded. He went
back to Greece. Greece culture and politics began to decline, only Rome was hugely
Dark Ages or, now it’s called, Middle Ages (Medieval period) it’s when in the history
of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th
century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the
Renaissance and the Age of Discovery.
Reason is considered the highest human ability. In Hebrew, reason is not the only
thing needed to find the truth, but also revelation is needed.
HIGHLIGHTS DURING THE MIDDLE AGES AFTER THE FALL OF
• The great philosophers (Maimonides, Haleui, Augustine, Aquinas) then 7th century
Islam came by with the Quran by Mohammed, then (Auerroes, Auicenna) came
along. challenged whether it’s possible. Saladin was sultan of Syria and Egypt.
Augustine was born in Algeria died in Algeria, Aquinas born and died in Italy,
Aerroes Morocco, Aeuicenna born in Afghanistan and died in Persia.
• All above fighting on the relation between reason and revelation, it wasn’t resolved.
• When the middle ages came to a close, 1400s, a new age came beginning in Italy,
called the renaissance (re-birth of interest in this world in contrast to the heavenly
world). They look back to Greek philosophies to understand the interest of this world
• During this period, a 3rd force appeared alongside philosophy and religion, which is
modern science – based on experimentation and observation.
• The revolution specifically about astronomy.
o Copernican Revolution
• Geocentric system:
o Ptolemaic system (model)
o Heliocentric system (Helios)
▪ Sun as the center and earth rotating
• Galileo, Tycho Brahe, Kepler
o Kepler concluded that the planets circling around the sun that they are not
travelling in circles but rather in ellipses. And each planet is foci.
o Orbits is the best conclusion, since it is perfected by divinity they must travel
o Isaac Newton backs up Copernican revolution (created the universal laws of
gravitation) / F= (G*m1*m2)/d2
• Brecht is German, came to the US to go away from Germany. He was in California,
he teamed up with an American actor and director who was famous, Charles Lockton,
• Three Penny Oprah, “Mack the Knife, K. Weit.
The Life of Galileo
• Scene 1
• Teacher of mathematics at
• Sets out to prove Copernican Cosmogony
• In the year 1609, science light began to rise
• He’s tutoring the young boy, Andrea, in return to keep house for Galileo and cooks
• Galileo is showing Andrea a model of astronomical bodies and their movements, he’s
showing the Ptolemaic model or system, he calls it a contraction.
• He explains the difference between the old and new model, and he illustrates this
again by taking an apple, and moving it around with other apples to prove his point.
• He uses the chair and sun to explain how the movement around the sun is made.
• Ludovico, brings some news from Holland, and he sees the telescope. Evidently,
Galileo plans to make one himself. Galileo sends the young boy out to buy a couple of
lenses, since he is going to make a telescope.
• Andrea goes and gets the lenses.
• Another character (procurator), who works for the government shows up and helps
• Scientists need money to support themselves and family, but also to do their work,
their equipment can be very expensive.
• Galileo asks for funding for his experiment.
• Science is a human activity, it doesn’t go on by itself, it interacts with other
dimensions of human life.
• In this case the economic dimension of human life.
• Brecht also hints the social and political view of life.
• Procurator tells Galileo he’s looking for discovery and inventions that will serve a
purpose. He is working for the political state. “that would be great for military usage”.
• Galileo tutors Andrea to finance himself and his daughter, Virginia.
• Andrea grows up to be Galileo’s assistant.
• He sends Andrea to grab a couple of lenses from the bazar outside.
• Arsenal in Venice, Arsenal contains weapons, for military uses. See ships and far
• He says that he made these lenses, so that nobody goes and buys it.
• Science is a human activity and interacts with other dimensions of human life.
• Economics intersects and interacts with science a scientist can decide what they can
work on thru economic processes.
• WW II the majority of scientific minds worked on the atomic bomb.
• Brecht wants to make the point that science doesn’t work alone, it needs human
• “10th JANUARY, 1610: BY MEANS OF THE TELESCOPE GALILEO DISCOVERS
PHENOMENA IN THE SKY WHICH PROVE THE COPERN1CAN SYSTEM.
WARNED By HIS FRIEND AGAINST THE POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF HIS
RESEARCHES, GALILEO PROFESSES HIS BELIEF IN MAN’S REASON.”
• January ten, sixteen ten: Galileo Galilei abolishes heaven.
• He showed shadows on surface of (Earth’s) moon, Earth is not perfectly round, the
moon has the same.
People believe that since it is the work of divinity, it should be a perfect sphere.
But Galileo believed that it is not, could pose him danger within the government
“He did. And now we can see it. Keep your eye at the telescope, Sagredo. What you
see means that there is no difference between Heaven and Earth. Today is the tenth of
January, sixteen hundred and ten. Mankind will write hi its journal: Heaven
abolished. KAGREDO: That is appalling.”
“SAGREDO: Have you entirely lost your senses? Do you really no longer know what
you are involved in, if what you see there is true? And you go shouting about for all
the work to hear: that the earth is a star and not the centre of the universe.
GALILEO: Yes! And that the whole, vast universe with all stars does not revolve
round our tiny earth-as must be obvious to everyone. SAGREDO: So that there are
only stars there! – And where t …
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