Expert Answer :Poli questions


Solved by verified expert:FINAL EXAMIt is suggested that you take a few minutes to plan and outline each answer. My expectation is that EACH question is approximately TWO-THREE pages in length. Illustrate your responses with substantive examples where appropriate. Make certain to number each of your answers as the questions are numbered below.1) Define the term ideology. Next, explain TWO economic issues that explain the ideological differences between a liberal and conservative. Then, explain TWO social issues that explain the ideological differences between a populist and a libertarian. Lastly, how would you classify yourself ideologically. Explain ONE economic and ONE social issue to support your ideological classification. 2) Define the term interest groups. What are FOUR activities that interest groups use to advocate for their positions with elected officials? Lastly, which of these FOUR positions are you most likely to participate in, please EXPLAIN? 3) Define the term political socialization. Next, list SEVEN in shaping one’s political socialization. Then, explain what is the Gender Gap, the Age Gap, and the Region Gap using ONE social and ONE economic issue to explain such gaps.


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Chapter 13

1. Are members of Congress
representative of the American people?
2. Does Congress normally do what most
citizens want it to do?

1. Should Congress run under strong
2. Should Congress act more quickly?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Congress Versus Parliament

• Independent representatives of their
districts or states
• Principal work is representation and

• Loyal to national party leadership
• Principal work is debate
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
© SHAWN THEW/epa/Corbis
In January 2011, Democratic Speaker Nancy Pelosi
turned over her gavel to Republican John Boehner who
became speaker after the large Republican victory in the
2010 election.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Library of Congress
Library of Congress
AP/Wide World Photos
Three powerful Speakers of the House: Thomas B. Reed (1889–1891, 1895–1899)
(left), Joseph G. Cannon (1903–1911) (center), and Sam Rayburn (1941–1947, 1949–
1953, 1955–1961) (right). Reed put an end to a filibuster in the House by refusing to
allow dilatory motions and by counting as “present”—for purposes of a quorum—
members in the House even though they were not voting. Cannon further enlarged the
Speaker’s power by refusing to recognize members who wished to speak without
Cannon’s approval and by increasing the power of the Rules Committee, over which he
presided. Cannon was stripped of much of his power in 1910. Rayburn’s influence rested
more on his ability to persuade than on his formal powers.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Evolution of Congress

Bicameral (two
chamber) legislature
House of
Centralization vs.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Library of Congress
One of the most powerful
Speakers of the House, Henry
Clay, is shown here addressing
the U. S. Senate around 1850.
New York Public Library
A cartoon from Puck in 1890 expressed popular resentment
over the “Millionaires Club,” as the Senate had become known.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Who is in Congress?

Sex and Race

• Marginal districts
• Safe districts

Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Source: Congressional Quarterly, various years
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI) in 2011
became the new chair
of the House Budget
Committee where he oversaw
the preparation of a response
to Pres. Obama’s
budget plan.
ROD LAMKEY JR./The Washington Times/Landov
Rep. Gabrielle Giffords (D-AZ)
recovering from
being shot in the head by a
homicidal maniac.
Rex Features via AP Images
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Source: Adapted from chart based on Congressional Research Service and Military Officers Association
data in John Harwood, “For New Congress, Data Shows Why Polarization Abounds,” New York Times,
March 6, 2011.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Source: For 1964-2008 data, The Center For Responsive Politics; 2010 data compiled by the author.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Do Members Represent Their Voters?

Representational View–
members vote to please their
Organizational View–members
vote to please fellow
members of Congress
Keith Ellison (D.,
MN), the first
Attitudinal View–members
Muslim elected to
vote on the basis of their own Congress.
Craig Lassig/EPA/Corbis

Copyright © 2013 Cengage
A Polarized Congress

A more ideological perspective has
been brought to Congress.
Congress’ most liberal members are
Congress’ most conservative
members are Republicans.
Are voters closer to the center of the
political spectrum?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Organization of Congress:
Parties and Caucuses

Party Organization of
the Senate
Party Structure in the
The Strength of Party
Party Unity
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Note: A party vote occurs
when the specified
percentage (or more) of
one party votes against the
specified percentage (or
more) of the other party.
Sources: Updated through 2008 by Zach Courser; NES data as reported in 2001–2002; Harold W.
Stanley and Richard G. Niemi, Vital Statistics on American Politics (CQ Press, 2001), 211. Reprinted by
permission of Congressional Quarterly, Inc.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Organization of Congress:

Standing Committees
Select Committees
Joint Committees
Conference Committees
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
AP Photo/Haraz N. Ghanbari
Rep. Steve Scalise, R-La., holds a photo of an oil covered
pelican as he questions BP CEO Tony Hayward on Capitol
Hill in Washington, June 17, 2010, during the House
Oversight and Investigations subcommittee hearing on the
role of BP in the Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Organization of Congress: Staff
and Specialized Offices

Tasks of Staff Members
Staff Agencies
• Congressional Research Service (CRS)
• General Accounting Office (GAO)
• Office of Technology Assessment (OTA)
• Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
How a Bill Becomes a Law

Introducing a Bill
Legislative Productivity
Study by Committee
Floor Debate – The House
Floor Debate – The Senate
Methods of Voting
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
How a Bill
Becomes a Law
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Reducing Power and Perks

Term Limits?
New Ethics Laws
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Photo courtesy of the Office of the Clerk of the House
The electronic voting system in the House of Representatives
displays each member’s name on the wall of the chamber. By
inserting a plastic card in a box fastened to the chairs, a
member can vote “Yea,” “Nay,” or “Present,” and the result is
shown opposite his or her name.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
To: Representative Peter Skerry
From: Martha Bayles, legislative aide
Subject: The size of the House of Representatives
The House can decide how big it wishes to be. When it was
created, there was one representative for every 30,000
people. Now there is one for every 600,000. In most other
democracies, each member of parliament represents far
fewer than 600,000 people. Doubling the size of the House
may be a way of avoiding term limits.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Arguments for:
1. Doubling the size of the House would reduce the
huge demand for constituent services each
member now faces.
2. A bigger House would represent more shades of
opinion more fairly.
3. Each member could raise less campaign money
because his or her campaign would be smaller.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Arguments against:
1. A bigger House would be twice as hard to
manage, and it would take even longer to pass
2. Campaigns in districts of 300,000 people would
cost as much as ones in districts with 600,000
3. Interest groups do a better job of representing
public opinion than would a House with more
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Your decision:
Increase size of House?
Do not increase size of House?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Chapter 10
Elections and

1. How do American elections
determine the kind of people who
govern us?
2. What matters most in deciding who
wins presidential and congressional

1. Do elections make a real difference
in what laws get passed?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Campaigns Today

Campaign tasks
performed by
• Media consultants
• Direct mail firms
• Polling firms
• Political technology firms
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Source: Federal Election Commission, 2010 House and Senate Campaign Finance Summary.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Source: Adapted from Federal Election Commission summary reports, January 2009 and May 2009.
Dollar figures rounded. Inflation adjustment keyed to consumer price index 1976–2008, 3.74 (i.e.,
assumes that what cost $1.00 in 1976 cost $3.74 in 2008).
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Figure 10.1 Presidential Campaigns,
Spending on Media, 2008
Source: Federal Election Commission, summary reports, May 2009. Figures rounded.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Campaigns Today

Better or Worse?
• Extensive Polling
• “High-Tech Canvassing”
• Campaign Spending and Fund Raising
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Campaigns Today

Here And Abroad
• In the U.S., elections have two crucial
phases: getting nominated and getting
elected. They both require an individual
effort on the part of the candidate.
• In most of Europe, the political party
decides who will be allowed to run and
puts the candidate’s name on the ballot.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Presidential Versus Congressional
Presidential Race

More Competitive
• Winner usually gets less
than 55% of the vote

Larger Voter Turnout
Must Rely On The Mass
Media To Reach Voters
Incumbent Presidents
Are Often Held
Responsible For
Whatever Has Gone
Congressional Race

Less Competitive
• Winner usually gets over
60 % of the vote

Smaller Voter Turnout
Closer Contact With
The District’s Voters
Even Incumbent
Congressmen Can
“Run Against
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Presidential Campaigns
Running for President
• Getting “Mentioned”
• Money
• Organization
• Strategy and Themes
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
g36/g36/ZUMA Press/Newscom
Lisa Murkowski, a write-in
candidate, won a Senate
seat in Alaska, the first
person to do this in any
state since 1954. She
defeated the Republican
Political campaigns are hard
work, even when you get to
fly on the vice president’s
Tomas Muscionico/Contact Press Images
Barack Obama campaigned on the
slogan “Change We Can Believe In.”
Stephen Brashear/Getty Images
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Getting Elected To Congress

The Problems Of Malapportionment
and Gerrymandering

Winning The Primary

Staying In Office
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Two Kinds Of Campaign Issues
Position Issues
• The rival candidates have opposing views and
the issue divides the voters.
Valence Issues
• The voters are not divided on an important
issue and examine whether a candidate fully
supports their view.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Television and Debates

• Paid Advertisements/Commercials
• Making the Nightly Newscasts

• What effects do they have on elections?
• What risks are involved in televised
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Politically Speaking:
Clothespin Vote
The vote cast by a person who does not like
either candidate and so votes for the less
objectionable of the two, putting a clothespin
over his or her nose to keep out the
unpleasant stench.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
In the 1888 presidential campaign,
supporters of Benjamin Harrison rolled
a huge ball covered with campaign
slogans across the country. The
gimmick, first used in 1840, gave rise
to the phrase “keep the ball rolling.”
Library of Congress
Alaska Governor Sarah
Palin debates Senator
Joe Biden during the
2008 campaign.
Rick Wiking, Pool, File/AP Photo
Copyright © 2013 Cengage

The Sources of Campaign Money
Campaign Finance Rules
A Second Campaign Finance Law
New Sources of Money
Money and Winning
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Candidates first made
phonographic recordings of their
speeches in 1908. Warren G.
Harding is shown here recording a
speech during the 1920 campaign.
John F. Kennedy and Richard
Nixon debate during the
1960 presidential campaign.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Paul Schutzer/ Time Life
Pictures/ Getty Images
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Figure 10.2 Growth of PACs
Source: Federal Election Commission.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Source: ABC News/Politics 2010 National Exit Poll, November 2, 2010, reporting data on more than 17,000
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Source: ABC News/Politics 2010 National Exit Poll, November 2, 2010, reporting data on more than 17,000
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Source: Center for Responsive Politics, based on FEC data.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The figures for 1980, 1984, 1988, and 1996 fail to add up to 100 percent because of
missing data.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
What Decides the Election?

Issues, Especially the Economy
• Prospective voting
• Retrospective voting

The Campaign
Finding a Winning Coalition
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Figure 10.3 The Economy and Vote
for President, 1948–2008
Notes: (1) Each dot represents a
presidential election, showing
the popular vote received by the
incumbent president’s party. (2)
1992 data do not include votes
for independent candidate H.
Ross Perot. (3) 2004 value on
RDI is projection from data
available in December 2004.
Source: From American Public Opinion, 5th ed.,
by Robert S. Erikson and Kent L. Tedin.
Copyright © 1995 by Addison-Wesley
Publishers, Inc. Reprinted by permission of
Pearson Education, Inc. 2008 update from
Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department
of Commerce.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Union members were
once heavily
Democratic, but since
Ronald Reagan began
winning white union
votes in 1980, these
votes have been up
for grabs.
AP Images
At a public meeting, Samuel Joseph
Wurzelbacher challenged Barack Obama
on his tax plan and quickly became
known as “Joe the Plumber.”
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Al Goldis/ AP Photo
Sources: For 1964–1976: Gallup poll data, as tabulated in
Jeane J. Kirkpatrick, “Changing Patterns of Electoral
Competition,” in The New American Political System, ed.
Anthony King (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise
Institute, 1978), 254–256. For 1980–1992: Data from
New York Times/CBS News exit polls. For 1996:
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 1997, p. 188. For
2000: Exit polls supplied by ABC News. For 2004 and
2008: CNN exit polls.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
election had three major
candidates (Humphrey, Nixon,
and Wallace).
b Jewish vote estimated from
various sources; since the
number of Jewish persons
interviewed often is less than
100, the error in this figure, as
well as that for nonwhites, may
be large.
c 1980 election had three major
candidates (Carter, Reagan, and
d 1992 election had three major
candidates (Clinton, Bush, and
e For 1980–1992, refers to age
60 and over.
f For 1988, white Protestants
g For 1996, refers to age 45 and
Figure 10.4 Partisan Division of the
Presidential Vote, 1856–2008
Sources: Information for 1856–1988, updated from Historical Data Archive, Inter-University Consortium for
Political Research, as reported in William H. Flanigan and Nancy H. Zingale, Political Behavior of the American
Electorate, 3rd ed., 32. For 1992: World Almanac and Book of Facts 1994, 73.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
To: Arjun Bruno, National Party Chairman
From: Arlene Marcus, State Party Chairwoman
Subject: Supporting a National Primary
In the past few election cycles, our state’s role in the
party nomination for president virtually has
disappeared with a May primary date. Several states
have leapfrogged ahead of us, and party leaders have
indicated that they do not want any more states to
move up their primary date. The national party needs
to find a way to ensure that all states, large and small,
have a real voice in nominating a presidential
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Arguments for:
1. A single national primary permits equal participation by all
states and presents a fair compromise with the increased
number of delegates that larger states send to the national
conventions, much like the compromises during the original
constitutional debates.
2. The nominating process needs to be less costly, particularly
when presidential candidates realistically need to raise $100
million a year before the general election to be competitive
for the nomination. Holding all primaries and caucuses on a
single day will reduce overall election expenses significantly.
3. If the American electorate knows presidential nominations
will be decided by each party on one day, then they will be
more likely to vote, a significant factor for elections in which
historically, fewer than 20 percent of eligible voters typically
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Arguments against:
1. Each state decides in conjunction with the national party
when its primary or caucus will take place, and the federal
system of government designed by the Framers did not
guarantee that all states would be treated equally at all
2. A national primary would favor candidates with high name
recognition and funding to further that recognition and
would severely disadvantage lesser known candidates within
the party.
3. Even though the general election takes place on one day,
voter turnout in the United States still is lower than in other
advanced industrialized democracies, which suggests that
other factors influence who participates.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Your decision:
Support a National Primary?
Oppose a National Primary?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Chapter 11
Interest Groups

1. Do interest groups dominate
government, and is any particular
lobby politically unbeatable?
2. Why do people join interest groups?

1. Is the proliferation of political action
committees (PACs) and other groups
good or bad for America’s
representative democracy?
2. Should interest groups’ political
activities be restricted by law?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Rise of Interest Groups

An interest group is any organization
that seeks to influence public policy.
The conditions that lead to the rise of
interest groups are
• Broad economic developments
• Government policy
• Leadership exercised
• Increased governmental activities
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
BRIAN SNYDER/Reuters/Landov
A woman holds a Tea Party sign at a rally in Concord,
New Hampshire.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Figure 11.1 What the Top Lobby
Spent, 1998–2010
Source: Center for
Public Integrity,
Washington, D.C.,
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Kinds of Organizations

Institutional Interests
Membership Interests
W. E. B. Du Bois, scholar and
activist, was one of the founders
of the NAACP.
C.M. Battey/Hulton Archive/Getty
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Getting and Keeping Members

Incentives to Join
• Solidarity
• Material
• Purposive
Bill Clark/CQ-Roll Call Group/Roll Call/Getty Images
The Service Employees
International Union, a large and
growing force, listens to Andy
Stern, its president until 2010.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Influence of the Staff

Some members of an interest group
may not care about many of the
issues with which the group gets
What the interest group does may
reflect what the staff wants than
what the members believe.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Interest Groups and Social

The Environmental Movement
The Feminist Movement
The Union Movement
The Million Moms
March in 2004
demanded a
federal ban on
assault weapons.
Larry …
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