Expert Answer :political question


Solved by verified expert:Directions: It is suggested that you take a few minutes to plan and outline each answer. Spend approximately 60 minutes answering each question. Illustrate your response with substantive examples where appropriate. Make sure your answers are typed, spell-checked, double-spaced, and regular 12 font.This EQ assignment is worth 50 points. 5 points (10% of the assignment) is based on grammar, spelling, and did you follow the page length requirement of 1-2 pages per EQ, 20 points (40% of the assignment) is based on incorporating concepts from Chapters 14 and 15 in the text (you may also cite outside sources though not required for this EQ assignment), 20 points (40% of the assignment) your Discussion assignments for this week, and 5 points (10% of the assignment) is based on your personal opinion on how well you explain your opinion for the EQ. Chapter 14: The PresidencyList and explain THREE (3) ways U.S. Presidents are more AND less powerful than the British Prime Ministers? Chapter 15: The BureaucracyEven though reforming the bureaucracy is difficult, what are TWO (2) reform that you think must occur within the federal bureaucracy? Explain.


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Chapter 15

1. What happened to make the
bureaucracy a “fourth branch” of
American national government?
2. What are the actual size and scope of
the federal bureaucracy?

1. What should be done to improve
bureaucratic performance?
2. Is “red tape” all bad?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Distinctiveness of the American

Political authority is shared among
several institutions.
Federal government agencies share
functions with state and local
“Adversary culture” leads to close
public scrutiny.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Proxy Government

Social Security
Income tax
Many military duties
People taken by boat away from their
Mario Tama/Getty Images

New Orleans homes that were struck
by Hurricane Katrina in 2008.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Growth of the Bureaucracy

The Beginning
The Appointment of
A Service Role
A Change in Role
• Great Depression
• World War II
• Effects of 9/11
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Federal Bureaucracy Today

Has the size of the Federal bureaucracy
increased since 1960?
• The number of Federal employees (excluding
the Post Office) is roughly the same.
• However, an estimated 13 million people now
work indirectly for the Federal government as
employees of private firms and state/local
agencies largely supported by federal funds.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Sources: Statistical Abstract of the United States 2009, Table 481. Federal Bureau of Prisons Weekly
Population Report and Quick Facts (available at; and
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Source: Outlays: Statistical Abstract of
the United States, 2004-2005, Table
461, and Historical Statistics of the
United States, Series F-32 and Y-340,
Civilian employment and pages in the
Federal Register: Harold W. Stanley and
Richard G. Niemi, Vital Statistics on
American Politics (Washington, D.C.:
Congressional Quarterly Press, 2010),
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Federal Bureaucracy Today

Recruitment and Retention
• Federal Civil Service System

Office of Personnel Management
The competitive service
The excepted service
• Not hired by the OPM
• Some are nonpartisan in nature
• Some are patronage jobs available to the President
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Federal Bureaucracy Today

Recruitment and Retention
• The Buddy System
• Firing a Bureaucrat
• The Agencies’ Point of View
HO/AFP/Getty Images/Newscom
Fire erupting from the
offshore oil rig operated
by BP in the Gulf of
Mexico near American
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Federal Bureaucracy Today

Personal Attributes
• Social Class
• Education
• Personal Beliefs
• Comparing political appointees and career
bureaucrats to the average American
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Figure 15.2 Characteristics of Federal Civilian
Employees, 1960 and 2005
*Blacks, Native Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and Pacific Islanders
Sources: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1961, 392–394; Statistical Abstract of the United States,
2009, Table 482.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Federal Bureaucracy Today

Do Bureaucrats Sabotage Their
Political Bosses?
• To block or to carry out?
• Whistle Blower Protection Act-1989
• How common is bureaucratic sabotage?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Peter Steiner/Alamy
AP Images
An Amtrak train
speeding along its
tracks. Amtrak service
costs the federal
government much more
than the train earns in
A letter carrier picks up
mail; his employer, the
U.S. Postal Service, is
running a huge deficit.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Federal Bureaucracy Today

Culture and Careers
• The informal understanding among fellow
employees as to “how” they are supposed
to act.
• Agency “career-enhancing” jobs
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Federal Bureaucracy Today

Constraints – Why so many?
• Those imposed by legislation
• Split responsibilities with other agencies
• The overall effects of the Constitution on
agency behavior
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Federal Bureaucracy Today

Agency Allies
• Iron Triangles

Government Agency
Committee in Congress
Interest Group
• Issue Networks

Interest Groups
Congressional Staffs
Universities and Think Tanks
Mass Media
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
AP Images
The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter made by Lockheed Martin for the
American military and some of its allies.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Congressional Oversight

Congressional Oversight of Executive
Branch Agencies
The Appropriations Committee and
Legislative Committees

The Legislative Veto

Congressional Investigations
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Bureaucratic Pathologies

Red Tape
David McNew/Getty Images
At the world’s busiest border crossing,
cars line up to enter the United States
in Tijuana, Mexico, p. 428.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
*Other response categories were “never heard of” and “can’t rate,” and
only the newest agency, the Transportation Safety Administration,
drew significant numbers in each category (9 percent for each).
Source: Adapted from results of a nationally representative Associated Press/IPSOS Public Agenda poll
conducted December 17–19, 2007.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Reforming the Bureaucracy

The Brownlow Commission
The First Hoover Commission
The Ash Council
National Performance Review
Government Performance and Results
Performance Assessment Rating Tool
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
David McNew/Getty Images
REUTERS/Mike Segar
Mayor Villaraigosa goes through a
full-body scanner at Los Angeles
International Airport.
An airline passenger is questioned
by Transportation
Security Administration inspector
at Newark airport.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
New Administration Struggling to Fill Top Posts—
Cabinet Secretaries Say “The President Needs
Four months into the new administration, hundreds of
assistant secretary and deputy assistant secretary positions
remain unfilled. In 1960 the total number of presidential
political appointees was just 450. Today the total is over
2,400, but sheer growth is not the whole story. Rather, say
experts on federal bureaucracy, plum public service posts go
unfilled because the jobs have become so unrewarding,
even punishing.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
To: Dr. Robert Smith, president of Cybersystems Engineering
From: James Logan, Secretary of Defense
Subject: Becoming an assistant secretary of defense
As both secretary and a dear old college buddy of yours, I write again
to express my hope that you will accept the president’s call to
service. We all desperately want you aboard. Yes, conflict-ofinterest laws will require you to sell your stock in your present
company and drop out of its generous pension plan. No, the
government won’t even pay moving costs. And once you leave
office, you will be barred for life from lobbying the executive
branch on matters in which you were directly involved while in
office, and you will be barred for two years from lobbying on
matters that were under your general official authority. Your other
concerns have teeth, too, but let me help you weigh your options.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Arguments for:
1. I hate to preach, but it is one’s duty to serve one’s country
when called. Your sacrifice would honor your family and
benefit your fellow Americans for years to come.
2. As an accomplished professional and the head of a company
that has done business with the government, you could help
the president succeed in reforming the department so that it
works better and costs less.
3. Despite the restrictions, you could resume your career once
your public service was complete.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Arguments against:
1. Since you will have to be confirmed by the Senate, your life
will be put under a microscope, and everything (even some
of our old college mischief together) will be fair game for
congressional staffers and reporters.
2. You will face hundreds of rules telling you what you can’t do
and scores of congressmen telling you what you should do.
Old friends will get mad at you for not doing them favors.
The president will demand loyalty. The press will pounce on
your every mistake, real or imagined.
3. Given the federal limits on whom in the government you can
deal with after you leave office, your job at Cybersystems
may well suffer.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Your decision:
Accept position?
Reject position?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Chapter 14
The Presidency

1. Did the Founders expect the presidency
to be the most important political
2. How important is the president’s
character in determining how he

1. Should we abolish the electoral college?
2. Is it harder to govern when the
presidency and the Congress are
controlled by different political parties?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Presidents and Prime Ministers

Presidents are Often Outsiders
Presidents Choose Cabinet Members
from Outside Congress
Presidents Have No Guaranteed
Majority in Congress
Presidents and Prime Ministers at
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The first cabinet: left to right,
Secretary of War Henry Knox,
Secretary of State Thomas
Jefferson, Attorney General
Edmund Randolph, Secretary of
the Treasury Alexander Hamilton,
and President George
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Divided Government

Divided government – One party controls
the White House and another party
controls one or both houses of Congress
Unified government – The same party
controls the White House and both
houses of Congress
Does gridlock matter?
Is policy gridlock bad?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Powers of the President

Mark Wilson/Getty Images
News/Getty Images
A military officer carrying “the football” –
the briefcase containing the secret codes
the president can use to launch a nuclear
Powers of the
President alone
Powers the President
shares with the
Powers the President
shares with Congress
as a whole
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
America witnessed peaceful transfers of
power not only between leaders of different
parties (such as Woodrow Wilson and
William Howard Taft in 1913), but also after
a popular leader was assassinated (Lyndon
Johnson is sworn in after John F. Kennedy’s
death), p. 374.
Library of Congress
Cecil Stoughton/White
House/AP Photo
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Evolution of the Presidency

Concerns of the Founders
The Electoral College
The President’s Term of Office
The First Presidents
The Jacksonians
The Re-emergence of Congress
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Granger Collection
President Andrew Jackson thought of
himself as the “Tribune of the People,”
and he symbolized this
by throwing a White House party that
anyone could attend. Hundreds of
people showed up and ate or
carried away most of a 1,400-pound
block of cheese.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Power to Persuade

The Three Audiences
• Fellow politicians and leaders
• Partisan grassroots
• The public

Popularity and Influence
The Decline in Popularity
Copyright © 2013 Cengage

Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Sources: Updated from
Congressional Quarterly, Guide to
U.S. Elections, 928; and Congress
and the Nation, vol. 4 (1973–1976),
Source: Thomas E. Cronin,
The State of the Presidency
(Boston: Little, Brown,
1975), 110–111. Copyright
© 1975 by Little, Brown and
Company, Inc. Reprinted by
permission. Updated with
Gallup poll data, 1976–2011.
Reprinted by permission of
the Gallup Poll News Service.
Note: Popularity was measured by asking every few months, “Do you
approve of the way _________ is handling his job as president?”
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Figure 14.2 Presidential Victories on Votes in Congress, 1953–2010
Note: Percentages indicate number of congressional votes supporting the president divided by the total
number of votes on which the
president has taken a position.
Source: Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, various years. Data for 2010 from le.php?path=/files/ wr20110103-01prezsupport-cht2.pdf;
Schatz, Joseph J., “2010 Vote Studies: Presidential Support,” CQ Weekly (January 3, 2011): 18–24.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Power to Say No

• Veto message
• Pocket veto
• Line-item veto

Executive Privilege
Impoundment of Funds
Signing Statements
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Sources: Norman J. Ornstein, Thomas E. Mann,
and Michael J. Malbin, Vital Statistics on Congress,
2001–2002 (Washington, D.C.: Congressional
Quarterly Press, 2001), 207; Web sites of U.S.
House of Representatives and U.S. Senate. Note:
See the Web links on the
front inside cover to visit the House and Senate
Web sites.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Sources: Norman J. Ornstein, Thomas E. Mann, and Michael
J. Malbin, Vital Statistics on Congress, 2002–2003 (Washington,
D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2003), 207; The American
Presidency Project of the University of California at Santa
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Presidential Character

Dwight Eisenhower
John Kennedy
Lyndon Johnson
Richard Nixon
Gerald Ford
Jimmy Carter

Ronald Reagan
George H. W. Bush
Bill Clinton
George W. Bush
Barack Obama
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The Office of the President

The White House Office
• Pyramid structure
• Circular structure
• Ad hoc structure

The Executive Office of the President
The Cabinet
Independent Agencies, Commissions,
and Judgeships
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
the War
Department, created in
1789. Figures are for
civilians only.
bAgriculture Department
created in 1862; made part
of cabinet in 1889.
cOriginally Health, Education
and Welfare; reorganized in
Source: Statistical Abstract of the United
States, 2011, table 497.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Who Gets Appointed

Prior federal experience
Political following
Expertise/ administrative
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins
(left), appointed by President Franklin
Roosevelt, was the first woman cabinet
When Condoleezza Rice was selected
by President George W. Bush to be
National Security Advisor, she became
the first woman to hold that position
(and later the first African American
woman to be Secretary of State).
Bob Daemmrich/PhotoEdit
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
The President’s Program

Putting Together a Program
• Interest groups
• Aides and campaign advisers
• Federal bureaus and agencies
• Outside, academic, other specialists and

Attempts to Reorganize
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Scherl/SV-Bilderdeinst/The image Works
A group of Civilian Conservation
Corps workers hired by the government
during the Great Depression.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Presidential Transition

The Vice President
Problems of
Lame duck
Michael Evans/The White House
President Reagan, moments before he was
shot on March 30, 1981, by a would-be
assassin. The Twenty-fifth Amendment
solves the problem of presidential disability
by providing for an orderly transfer of power
to the vice president.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
How Powerful is the President?
Presidential rules of
thumb for dealing with
political problems:
• Move it or lose it.
• Avoid details.
• Cabinets don’t get much
accomplished; people do.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
To: White House Chief of Staff Ann Martin
From: Office of Legislative Affairs Director Sean Rivera
Subject: Passing budget bills under divided government
With the opposition party in control of Congress, media pundits
and other commentators are calling for the president to
accept the other party’s agenda for the next round of
budget bills.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Arguments for:
1. With a re-election battle around the corner, the president
cannot afford to get caught up in a budget battle with
2. The president’s ability to gain public support for his agenda
is limited, and even increased public support will not
improve leverage with Congress.
3. The president should defer to Congress as the primary
representative of the people in American politics.
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Arguments against:
1. American politics is guided too often by campaigns, and the
president will build support for re-election by acting
presidential—that is, by setting the agenda for the budget
and not backing down.
2. The president can build public support through speeches and
other forms of communication, and this support can be used
as political capital to negotiate with Congress.
3. The president is the only nationally elected official in
American politics (other than the vice-president), and
therefore is responsible for identifying and promoting public
priorities, even if this means legislative battles with
Copyright © 2013 Cengage
Your decision:
Favor plan?
Oppose plan?
Copyright © 2013 Cengage

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