Expert Answer :Transportation system


Solved by verified expert:I want to to read the attached file , then summrize it and choose one application from this topic that utlized in Maryland to talk about it , after that compaire between this application in Maryland and other country if you find better . Do not make the topic abroad . just pick one application that used by Maryland state in public transportation

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This is the first, title slide in all modules.
The following slides are in this order:
Learning Objectives
Content-related slide(s)
Summary (what we have learned)
This module is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s ITS
Professional Capacity Building (PCB) Program. The ITS PCB Program is part of the
Research and Innovative Technology Administration’s ITS Joint Program Office.
Thank you for participating and we hope you find this module helpful.
The learning objectives for this module are as follows:
• Understand public transportation technologies, how they function, and how they
can be applied to facilitate or improve operations, customer service, and
• Recognize the dependencies among specific technologies;
• Understand the relationship between non-transit (e.g., highway-related) and transit
technologies; and
• Realize the potential of transit ITS technologies to facilitate multimodal travel.
This module discusses technologies in six major categories that cover fixed-route,
paratransit, and flexibly routed services, as follows:
Fleet Operations and Management – this category covers technologies that are
implemented to facilitate transit operations and provide input to senior management
in terms of overall system performance
Traveler Information – this category covers the customer-facing technologies that
provide the public with information regarding trip planning and real-time operational
Safety and Security – this category covers those technologies that improve the
safety and security of transit staff and passengers through onboard and facility
Automated Fare Payment – this category covers fare collection and payment
technologies, including fare media and smartphone payment applications;
Maintenance – this category covers technologies that facilitate maintenance
activities, such as engine and vehicle component monitoring, tracking of scheduled
and unscheduled maintenance activities, and inventory systems
Other – this category covers a variety of other technologies and systems that do not
fit into the other categories, such as data management and the use of open data
This figure shows the deployment trends for some of the most prevalent transit
technologies from 1997 to 2010. Four major trends are displayed in this figure:
percent of fixed-route vehicles equipped with automatic vehicle location (AVL),
percent of fixed-route buses with electronic real-time monitoring of system
components, percent of demand responsive vehicles that operate using computeraided dispatch (CAD), and percent of transit stops with an electronic display of
dynamic traveler information to the public.
Audience Interaction: Instructor asks participants if they have any personal
experience with any of the four technologies/systems shown in the graph.
Source: Graphic from
This figure shows an example of the relationships among various transit ITS
technologies at a central/dispatch location. Many of the technologies shown on this
slide will be described in this module.
Source: Graphic courtesy TranSystems Corporation
This graphic shows an example of the relationships among various transit ITS
technologies onboard a vehicle.
Source: Graphic courtesy TranSystems Corporation
Communication technologies:
• Critical to the integration and implementation of specific transit technology applications,
such as AVL and en-route/wayside traveler information
• Provide critical links among drivers, dispatchers, emergency response, customers, and
other personnel involved in transit
• Range from voice radio to comprehensive systems that combine various communication
technologies to allow interaction among a wide range of communication and data
Voice, text, data, and video can be transmitted over radio, cellular, or other wireless
networks. Emerging technologies include Wi-Fi mesh networks, Wi-Max, and connected
vehicle communications.
Wireless communication systems include the following:
• Wide area wireless (WAW) – based on radio frequency broadcasting
• Wireless local area networks (WLANs) – data communication systems (analogous to a
wireless Internet connection) that allow transit vehicles to communicate with a base
station or vice versa
• Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) – a beacon/tag combination used in
transit signal priority (TSP) systems and toll collection
• Land line and cellular telephone networks
• Internet and intranet
Source: Photo courtesy of Carol Schweiger, TranSystems Corporation
An AVL system:
• Is defined as central software used by dispatchers for operations management
that periodically receives real-time updates on fleet vehicle locations
• Typically involves an onboard computer (called mobile data terminal [MDT] or
mobile data computer [MDC]) with an integrated Global Positioning System
(GPS) receiver and mobile data communications capability
• Allows transit managers to monitor the actual or approximate location of transit
vehicles in their fleet at any given time
Computer-aided Dispatch (CAD) software provides decisions support tools used by
transit dispatchers and supervisors to monitor operations in real-time, allowing them
to manage the operations proactively (handling delays, disruptions in service, and
incidents as they occur). By having the CAD system notify operations staff of
problems by exception, it allows staff to focus on areas of concern without the need
to personally monitor operations to identify issues.
CAD can facilitate the “adjustment of vehicle headways, dispatching replacement or
additional vehicles, or reporting incidences.” The key transit technologies that work
hand-in-hand with CAD are AVL and communication technologies. Most agencies
refer to CAD and AVL as a combined CAD/AVL system.
Source: Photos courtesy of TranSystems Corporation
Automatic Passenger Counters (APCs):
• Technologies that are used to count the number of passengers boarding and
alighting a transit vehicle
• Includes microprocessor that monitors the passenger activity and uses an
algorithm to determine when a passenger has entered or exited a vehicle
• Generates data that can either be stored for downloading/uploading or can be
transmitted via radio. Downloading/uploading can be done by one of several
methods, including infrared transfer over an agency’s wireless local area network
(WLAN) in or near an agency garage
• Can accurately “stamp” the data with the exact bus stop location and time of day.
This is most commonly done by integrating the APC with the AVL system
• Can monitor odometer readings and door switch signals to identify when a bus
stop occurs
There are several types of APC technology. Two of these are the most common—
treadle mats and infrared technology. The latter method uses infrared beams to
make the passenger counts. Infrared devices can be mounted either overhead or on
the side.
Real-time information from APC systems can be used for conditional TSP based on
the number passengers onboard at a given time.
APC systems are often implemented to reduce the cost of manual data collection
and National Transit Database reporting requirements. The data can also be used
for route scheduling by, for example, identifying the maximum load point, loading
profiles and optimizing locations for short-turn patterns. Transit operators typically
deploy APC equipment on 12–25% of their vehicles and then rotate the vehicles on
different routes as needed.
Source: Graphic permission of INIT, Inc.
This slide shows the scheduling process for fixed-route transit service. Scheduling
transit services involves activities including trip building, blocking, runcutting, and
rostering. The scheduling process is different for fixed-route and paratransit
services. For fixed-route services, scheduling software provides a “tool that provides
the scheduler with greater flexibility, functionality, and control over scheduling their
services. It also works to reduces mistakes, improve vehicle and operator
efficiencies, reduce staff time on tedious activities, and provide better reporting
Quote source: Mark Mistretta, “Fixed Route Transit Scheduling in Florida: The State
of the Industry,” March 2005, prepared for Florida Department of Transportation,
page 35.
Graphic from Mark Mistretta, “Fixed Route Transit Scheduling in Florida: The State
of the Industry,” March 2005, prepared for Florida Department of Transportation,
page 3.
TCP uses two other technologies mentioned earlier. An MDT operates in conjunction with a
CAD/AVL system to provide TCP. TCP is triggered when the vehicle operator of an
incoming vehicle makes a transfer request. The incoming vehicle’s operator shall be able to
use the MDT to enter the outgoing route, by selecting from a predefined list. The central
system will determine whether the outgoing vehicle can and should be held without any
need for dispatcher intervention based on the estimated arrival time of the incoming
vehicle. The central system will notify the incoming vehicle’s operator via the MDT whether
the outgoing vehicle will be held. The central system will also notify the outgoing vehicle’s
operator via the MDT if it is to hold, until what time, and for what route. The dispatcher is
able to review current pending transfers, including the incoming and outgoing vehicles
involved, and the time the incoming vehicle is expected to arrive at the transfer.
TCP is one of the three applications in the Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations (IDTO)
bundle within the USDOT Connected Vehicle Program. T-CONNECT is a concept that is
intended to improve the probability of automatic intermodal transfer connections for
travelers who utilize more than one mode for their trips. Travelers will have the ability to
request a transfer using their personal devices or onboard transit vehicles (with assistance
from drivers or using agency-equipped onboard interactive devices). Based on the system
configuration (system schedule, schedule adherence status and delay thresholds, and
service variability), connection protection rules, and traveler requests, the system will
automatically determine the feasibility of a requested transfer. When a transfer request can
be met, the system will automatically notify the traveler and the driver of the vehicle to
which the traveler intended to transfer.
Transit Signal Priority (TSP) systems are shown on the slide. The goal of these
systems is to give priority to transit, and priority or preemption to emergency
vehicles by reducing wait time at traffic signals without having an adverse impact on
traffic. (Sometimes, preempting signals for emergency vehicles can have an
adverse effect on traffic.)
Communication between the bus and the signal controller can be via radio
frequency (as in DSRC), infrared, sonic, Wi-Fi mesh network, or cellular network.
With transit applications:
• Some traffic signal controllers use information communicated from the vehicles
concerning their on-time status, indicating that the only vehicles that are running
a prescribed amount of time behind schedule would be granted priority
• Limits disruption to normal signal timing patterns and progression sequences with
other coordinated signals on a roadway
TSP systems involve the interaction of four major elements:
• The transit vehicle
• Transit fleet management
• Traffic control
• Traffic control management
These four subsystems are then enhanced with four functional applications:
• Detection – A system to deliver vehicle data, (location, arrival time, approach,
etc.) to a device that is routed to a Priority Request Generator;
• Priority Request Generator/Server – A system to request priority from the traffic
control system and triage multiple requests as necessary;
• Priority Control Strategies – A traffic control system software enhancement that
provides a range [of] “TSP Control Strategies” that address the functional
requirements of the traffic jurisdiction; and
• TSP System Management – Incorporates both traffic and transit TSP functions in
both transit management and traffic control management that can configure
settings, log events and provide reporting capabilities.
Yard management:
• Helps to manage fixed-route vehicles when they are located in the yard
• Provides visual display of the location of vehicles on a digitized map of the yard
• Automatically locates fixed-route vehicles within a certain distance inside the yard
• Allows yard attendants to adjust vehicle locations manually on a yard map, if
• Can provide an interface with a CAD/AVL system to record pull-in and pull-out
time, and assigned vehicle operators
• Can be interfaced with fixed-route scheduling software to access vehicle operator
information in real-time
• Can alert a transit system to a vehicle that did not return to its designated
location (e.g., garage, parking lot) at the end of the service day or that is not at
the location but should be
• Can identify a bus that should not be at a particular location but is there, which
could be the situation when a driver never pulled out to begin service
The technology used for locating vehicles within the yard can be done in one of a
variety of methods (e.g., triangulation using wireless routers).
Source: Graphic from
Intelligent vehicle technologies:
• Reduce the probability of vehicle accidents through the use of vehicle controls
and driver warnings
• Help drivers process information, make better decisions, and operate their
vehicles more effectively
One of these areas is collision avoidance systems (CAS), which range from
providing a warning to more intrusive—taking control of the vehicle. In terms of
safety, fewer accidents translate to big savings in legal fees and lawsuits. In terms
of operations, fewer collisions mean that a larger portion of the fleet is in running
condition. Further, with a greater portion of the fleet in running condition, the transit
agency can lower its spare ratio making it possible to put more buses on existing or
new routes.
CAS include those listed on this slide.
Vehicle Assist and Automation (VAA) for transit operations assists or automates movement of buses
to allow precise operations in extremely narrow lanes, at stations, and potentially bus maintenance
facilities. This category of intelligent vehicle technologies includes the following:
• Precision Docking, which allows vehicle’s doors to line up precisely with the edge of the station
• Vehicle Guidance, which controls the lateral movement of the bus while the operator controls the
speed of forward motion
• Vehicle Platooning, which provides vehicle-to-vehicle communications to allow vehicles to follow
each other at close distances
• Automated Operations, which is fully automated driving where both longitudinal and lateral control
may be safely turned over to the onboard system
The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority in Cleveland, Ohio, operates a bus rapid transit
(BRT) services called the HealthLine. The HealthLine vehicles use three tools for precision docking:

Primary one being the mechanical guide wheel/docking arm shown in the left photo

A painted blue guide stripe on the pavement and a docking assist system. The blue guide stripe,
shown in the other photo, helps the driver to align the vehicle as he/she approaches the station

Docking assist system (DAS) consists of two ultrasonic sensors, one system controller and an
audible warning device. As the driver approaches the station, the DAS will emit four successive
beeps when contact with the platform is imminent. It is important to note that the painted guide
stripe and DAS are not required for proper operation of the mechanical guide wheel. They were
added as an extra assist to the guide wheel.
Source: Graphic from
These technologies include bus shoulder riding, intermittent bus lane (IBL), and
moving bus lane (MBL). IBL/MBL “is a restricted lane for the short time that the bus
uses that particular lane.” IBL can also be called a moving bus lane. This concept
consists of using a general-purpose lane that can be changed to a bus-only lane
just for the duration of time needed for the bus to pass. Afterward, the lane reverts
back to a general-purpose lane until another approaching bus needs the lane for its
The IBL system is intended to be activated only when the flow of general traffic is
operating below a speed that inhibits bus transit speeds. When that threshold is
reached—as sensed by technologies that can provide knowledge of real-time traffic
conditions—longitudinal flashing lights embedded in the roadway lane divider are
activated to warn general-purpose drivers that they cannot enter that lane and that a
bus is approaching. Vehicles already in the lane are allowed to continue on. This
leaves a moving gap or a moving time window for the bus to travel through. This
moving gap can be best described as a zone measured from the back of the bus
bumper to a fixed distance ahead of the bus.
Bus speeds and reliability are improved whenever the bus is able to flow
independently from the general traffic, but it can be cost-prohibitive to build
exclusive bus lanes for routes that are lower in frequency. IBL does not require
expensive capital costs because it uses the existing roadway infrastructure and
takes only the time it needs to move separately from general traffic. This allows the
bus lane to be used for general traffic the majority of time.

An AVA system:
• Provides audio and visual announcements to onboard riders and those waiting to board
• Functions as follows: each fixed-route vehicle approaches a stop or other designated
location, a digitally recorded announcement is automatically made over the onboard
public address (PA) system speakers and displayed on dynamic message signs (DMS)
inside the vehicle to inform passengers about upcoming stops, major intersections, and
• Typically has the capability of making time-based, location-based, and vehicle operatorinitiated announcements/displays
• Can make an exterior announcement of the current route number and destination when
doors open at a stop
• Is interfaced with AVL systems to ensure that next-stop announcements are made at the
appropriate location
• Includes integrating bus destination signs with AVL systems to ensure that destination
information display for waiting passengers is accurate. This integration takes the
responsibility away from the vehicle operator by automating destination sign changes
with the AVL/CAD system.
• Can include “bus is turning” external announcements at specific geographical locations
to alert pedestrians and reduce collisions. LYNX in Orlando has tested the system on its
LYMMO BRT lanes.
One of the major reasons for the deployment of AVA systems is to comply with the
applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 as well as
providing basic vehicle location awareness and en-route traveler information to riders.
Source: Photograph courtesy of TranSystems Corporation
This slide shows a variety of different signs from all over the country that are placed
en-route/wayside to provide real-time information regarding the status of the next
vehicle(s) arriving at a particular stop or station. Providing improved transit traveler
information has advanced significantly over the past 20 years with the advent of
new technologies, such as AVL and advanced communications, and of new
dissemination mechanisms a …
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