Solved by verified expert:Write a report discussing how a moral dilemma in your own field of study could be resolved by the application of the Kantian perspective or another Nonconsequentialist ethical theory to this dilemma. When you are asked to apply a Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) ethical theory to a moral dilemma, you must implement moral objectivism. Moral objectivism is an important concept in ethics. It is the view that moral principles are universal and they apply to everyone. Moral objectivism is compatible with Kantian ethics and Divine Command theory. Focus on one part of Kant’s categorical imperative. This categorical imperative is an imperative that we should follow regardless of our particular desires or needs. Kant argues that feelings and attitudes differ from person to person. However, reason is universal. Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time wish that it should become a universal law. Divine Command theory is another deontological theory. This is the belief that we should follow God’s word and what is pleasing to God. Many people believe that morals are objective, so it is important to understand these theories. This moral analysis is important because sometimes you may experience moral dilemmas in your own career. Or maybe, you want to make a case for your own position. The more you understand myriad perspectives, the better able you will be to participate in the discussions. When you learn how to compare and contrast different approaches to moral dilemmas, you will be able to respond to objections to your own position. It will also allow you to develop your own ethical voice. Submission Specifications Apply one Nonconsequentialist ethical theory to the Milestone 1 Task 1 moral dilemma you wrote about in Milestone 1. Explain how a Kantian or other deontologist would resolve the dilemma. Explain which theory you chose and why it would be applied this way to this moral dilemma. Make sure your moral analysis is clearly written. It should not contain grammatical or spelling errors. Deontological (Nonconsequentialist) Ethical Theory Moral Analysis in a Microsoft Word document named LastnameFirstinitial_M2T1_MoralAnalysis_PHI1010.doc that includes: 750-word (minimum) report MLA formatted content, citations, and reference list play the role of a research intern in training, working for a non-profit international think tank that resolves ethical dilemmas for members of corporations around the world. These members are clients of the think tank. Your training entails engaging in research activities and reporting your findings to a lead.You will be led by senior advising ethicist (instructor), who in turn advises your respective clients of the think tank how to resolve an important ethical dilemma—which is the major course project. You will work on resolving ethical dilemmas in your own field of study in each milestone and submit the compilation of these resolutions as your final project in the last milestone. The senior ethicist will advise you on how to revise your submissions, and will provide final recommendations regarding how to resolve the dilemma for the clients. The senior ethicist reports to the CEO of the think tank, discussing with him or her how well you are doing and what still needs to be done regarding the your training progress.
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Fang Yi Lin
Introduction to Ethics
Moral analysis overview
An ethical dilemma is a situation where a person is faced with two options neither of
which resolves a crisis ethically. The person is forced to pick the option that has a lesser evil
(Pollock and Joycelyn, Pg 3). Moral dilemmas exist in every level of the society’s organization.
The person faced with the dilemma in most cases chooses a response in accordance with the
societal norms. There are various institutions that have been established in order to help people
and organizations resolve ethical dilemmas. These institutions are regarded as think tanks and
their responsibility is to look into the moral issues and render advice to its clients.
The think tank resolves ethical dilemmas in all spheres of the society. I witnessed the
application of the different perspectives in resolving a moral dilemma. The first strategy of
resolving a moral dilemma involved adopting the utilitarianism view. The utilitarian holds that
when a person has issues of a moral dilemma he should choose the option that produces the
greater good to most of the people (Lamb, Charles W, Joseph F. Hair, and Carl, Pg 76).
Utilitarianism does not consider whether there is a small portion of people who will experience a
negative effect the choice.
An example of the application of utilitarian was when the central intelligence came to
seek advice from the organization concerning terrorism. The agency had obtained intelligence on
the location of one of the notorious terrorist and in order to eliminate the threat the agency had to
use a bomb. The explosion would kill the terrorists but the agency could not guarantee that there
would be no casualties. The organization advised the agency to go ahead with the plan because
eliminating a single terrorist and killing a few people in the process will go a long way in making
the whole world safe. Therefore the happiness of the greater world prevailed in this scenario.
In cases where the dilemma involved a personal dilemma, the clients would be requested
to fill in a form in order to identify the strategy to be adopted in solving the dilemma. People
value different things and they have different interests to protect in a given situation. For
instance, the person may value treating others the way they would want to be treated. For
instance, if X, a man is a friend to a couple and the man is having an affair with the wife of his
friend, there is a moral dilemma whether he should tell the friend or should he keep the matter as
a secret. If the X observes the golden rule, the solution to the dilemma will be to tell the friend
because he does not want to be treated as he is treating his friend (Beer and Lawrence, Pg 159)
The think tank also advices the employees in the corporate scene how to handle ethical
dilemmas in their capacities. They are taught that when they are solving the dilemma they must
appreciate that they have a duty towards their employer, duty to obey the law and duty to adhere
to their moral perceptions (Lo and Bernard, Pg 5). The employees also have to observe their code
of ethics when faced with a moral dilemma. The employees ought to balance the various
requirements in order to make a wise choice. For instance, an employee may be faced with a
moral dilemma where the employee is required to prepare false accounts or lose his job. the
employee should not prepare the false accounts because it can have negative ripple effects on the
future career of the employee.
I am yet to handle a client on my own because most of the cases are complex and can
only be handled by professionals. The experience has made me realize that what we learn in
class is just a guideline. Some of the cases introduce new factors that are not common and a team
has to be composed in order to analyze the case. I have been able to identify the steps of solving
a dilemma are not absolute. The senior ethicist evaluates the dilemma and establishes the steps to
be followed because every case requires a new approach. As an intern, I have so much to learn. I
am working under people who are highly qualified and are experts in their relevant fields.
In conclusion, a moral dilemma is a situation where a person is faced with two options and it is
difficult to pick one option over the other. The person chooses the option that has fewer effects
on both the victims and the society.
Beer, Lawrence A. A Strategic and Tactical Approach to Global Business Ethics. New York,
N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017: Business Expert Press, 2010. Internet
Lamb, Charles W, Joseph F. Hair, and Carl D. McDaniel. Essentials of Marketing. Mason, Ohio:
South-Western Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Lo, Bernard. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: A Guide for Clinicians. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2013. Internet resource.
Pollock, Joycelyn M. Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Boston, MA:
Cengage Learning, 2019. Print.
Fang Yi Lin
Introduction to Ethics
Consequentialist Ethical Theory
Consequentialism theory judges between right and wrong. It can also be defined as a belief
of whether an act is wrong or right. However, it relies on two aspects: whether the act committed
is right or wrong and the results of the act define the act and second, the more good consequences
produced by an act, the better an act is and vice versa.
Doing altruism is an inner feeling motivated by humanity. However, one feels good after
promoting other people’s welfare even when it has a negative cost. Though some belief are that
human beings are fundamentally self-interested, research state that human first impulse is to
cooperate and not to compete (Tilley, 75). However, scientists speculate that altruism has deeper
roots in human nature since helping and cooperation enhances the survival and continuity of
human generations. Charles Darwin, named as the father of evolution theory, argued that “altruism
is an essential part of social instincts.” He, however, referred altruism as sympathy or benevolence
that promotes social uniqueness (Siddharth, 38).
Many human acts towards helping others are done out of selfish acts. Nevertheless, it is
true that most people do well to others in return for favors or be praised. Research further suggests
that even though some people acts may seem selfish and others seem unselfish, in both cases each
person do what their hearts pull them to do.
In conclusion, it is clear that psychological egoism and altruism are complementary to one
another. The fact that people do good to others should not be judged by the outcome of the acts.
However, every act good or bad is as a result of self-esteem and selfishness for self-interest.
Tilley, John J. “John Clarke of Hull’s Argument for Psychological Egoism.” British Journal for
the History of Philosophy 23.1 (2015): 69-89.
Siddharth, Phogat. “Altruism in practise, a subtle form of psychological egoism.” European
journal of education and applied psychology 3 (2015).
Fang Yi Lin
Introduction to Ethics
Ethics also called moral philosophy refers to moral principles that govern and define people’s
behaviour. It covers everything, unlike law which addresses people’s interests. Whereas the
law protects only those interests that can n be seen to be common to all, ethics see what can’t
be see hence it’s very wide. Its foundation is in one approach “the golden rule” that says that
do unto your neighbour as you want them to do unto you. The spirit of ethics is the moral
component. Unlike ethics, the law is limited in its approach in that the guilty or innocent people
may be released or convicted based on the quality of their defense.
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS VS CONSEQUENT, LIST ANALYSIS
Cost-benefit analysis is mostly inseparable and closely related with utilitarianism. It is an
organized, logical manner in which decisions and moral choices are made in public domain.
The moral excellence and trait play a key role in this. It is mainly divided into five key
Possible options for action are laid out in an organized manner
All possible outcomes are well listed out. This has to include each and everything that
might happen or has a chance of taking place
Work out the probability of each outcome for every option
4) Determine and give a value to each outcome for every option. This could either be positive
Finally, work out the total values times total probabilities for each option.
One has to analyze and compare cost-benefit analysis with consequentialist analysis.
The simple consequentialist analysis also consists mainly of the same amount of procedures;
Listing all possible options for actions
Important consequences of every action are sampled and listed
Give judgment concerning best set of consequences
Assert that the option of choice is best
The important points to note however is, in cost-benefit analysis, there are several different
outcomes. In the consequentialist analysis, each option for action also consists of different
consequences both negative and positive but is assumed to lead to a certain outcome.
(Chakrabarty, Subrata, and A. Erin Bass.)
RESOLVING MORAL DILEMMA USING CONSEQUENTIALIST ETHICAL THEORY
A moral dilemma is defined as a conflict in which one has to undergo psychological torture in
deciding what to choose between two or more actions. Consequentialism mainly involves two
An action is either right or wrong depending on the results of the act, positive or negative
The best consequences produced by an act make that action even better.
However forms of consequentialism don’t give us a same overview over maximizing of the
best action, for example, Utilitarianism is of the view that persons should maximize human
wellbeing while Hedonism states that human pleasure should be maximized. Utilitarianism is
the classic form of consequentialist such that the ethically right choice yields the most
happiness. The rule of consequentialism is based on moral choices and moral activity.
The moral activity must be guided by two important spiritual factors that are intelligence and
will. Psychological factors that include love tendencies also play a role together with biological
factors like instincts. Another key constituent perhaps is mechanical factors such as prevalent
customs, pressure, and habits. Human action is moral if; it is an act by a human person but not
in a human way necessarily or if it is an act by man, specific to a human being.
Human actions can either be exterior without knowledge of the consequences or knowledge of
the consequences is taken into account before action is taken.
Manipulated action- If there is no action and knowledge of the consequences, then the
action is manipulated. A result is a violent act. A good example is when politicians lie to
common citizens about promises they can’t keep in exchange for their votes. When they assume
office, they forget all about serving the citizens and engage in malpractices such as corruption
and looting of public funds.
The spontaneous action-This action is out of internal factors. There is knowledge of the
action but no knowledge of consequences. It is a voluntary act, and no external factors are
3) The third action is outside moral order in that there is no action, but there is knowledge of
For one to solve the moral dilemma, therefore, one must be knowledgeable and aware of
consequences of their actions. They have to analyze and come up with key ethical principles
involved. Because people in society tend to analyze their moral activities and decisions, they
will make decisions in the right way ( Boardman, Anthony E., et al. 2017).
Boardman, Anthony E., et al. Cost-benefit analysis: concepts and practice. Cambridge
University Press, 2017.
Chakrabarty, Subrata, and A. Erin Bass. “Comparing virtue, consequentialist, and
deontological ethics-based corporate social responsibility: Mitigating microfinance risk in
institutional voids.” Journal of Business Ethics 126.3 (2015): 487-512.
Shapiro, Joan Poliner, and Steven Jay Gross. Ethical educational leadership in turbulent times
🙁 Re) solving moral dilemmas. Routledge, 2013.
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