Solved by verified expert:Write a report discussing how a moral dilemma in your own field of study could be resolved by the application of the Kantian perspective or another Nonconsequentialist ethical theory to this dilemma.When you are asked to apply a Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) ethical theory to a moral dilemma, you must implement moral objectivism. Moral objectivism is an important concept in ethics. It is the view that moral principles are universal and they apply to everyone. Moral objectivism is compatible with Kantian ethics and Divine Command theory. Focus on one part of Kant’s categorical imperative. This categorical imperative is an imperative that we should follow regardless of our particular desires or needs. Kant argues that feelings and attitudes differ from person to person. However, reason is universal. Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time wish that it should become a universal law. Divine Command theory is another deontological theory. This is the belief that we should follow God’s word and what is pleasing to God. Many people believe that morals are objective, so it is important to understand these theories.This moral analysis is important because sometimes you may experience moral dilemmas in your own career. Or maybe, you want to make a case for your own position. The more you understand myriad perspectives, the better able you will be to participate in the discussions. When you learn how to compare and contrast different approaches to moral dilemmas, you will be able to respond to objections to your own position. It will also allow you to develop your own ethical voice.Submission SpecificationsApply one Nonconsequentialist ethical theory to the Milestone 1 Task 1 moral dilemma you wrote about in Milestone 1.Explain how a Kantian or other deontologist would resolve the dilemma.Explain which theory you chose and why it would be applied this way to this moral dilemma.Make sure your moral analysis is clearly written. It should not contain grammatical or spelling errors. Deontological (Nonconsequentialist) Ethical Theory Moral Analysis in a Microsoft Word document named LastnameFirstinitial_M2T1_MoralAnalysis_PHI1010.doc that includes:750-word (minimum) reportMLA formatted content, citations, and reference listplay the role of a research intern in training, working for a non-profit international think tank that resolves ethical dilemmas for members of corporations around the world. These members are clients of the think tank. Your training entails engaging in research activities and reporting your findings to a lead.You will be led by senior advising ethicist (instructor), who in turn advises your respective clients of the think tank how to resolve an important ethical dilemma—which is the major course project. You will work on resolving ethical dilemmas in your own field of study in each milestone and submit the compilation of these resolutions as your final project in the last milestone. The senior ethicist will advise you on how to revise your submissions, and will provide final recommendations regarding how to resolve the dilemma for the clients. The senior ethicist reports to the CEO of the think tank, discussing with him or her how well you are doing and what still needs to be done regarding the your training progress.
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Yu Chen Pua
Introduction to Ethic
Moral Analysis Overview
An Ethical Dilemma
An ethical dilemma is a situation or an incident where an individual is forced to question
how they are supposed to react based on what they belief. Decisions need to be made between
right and wrong. Every day life can become difficult to cope with especially when difficult
struggles and problems arise at any given moment. Without the ability or proper training to think
clearly and act accordingly, one can literally go insane thinking over the problems and how to
cope with them (Hausman, Daniel, Michael & Debra,2016).
Dilemmas can arise out of various sources of attitude or behaviors. For instance, it may arise
out of failure of one’s character, organizational goals versus social values, conflict of personal
values and the organizational goals, etc. In a business, a dilemma may exist when a decision
maker in the organization faces to choose between two or more options and which will have
various effects in;
The company’s competitiveness and profitability, and
The company’s stakeholders.
In such situation, the decision maker has to act out of prudence to take the best option. As
seen, most of the ethical choices involve conflicts of values, and such conflicts may arise on
different levels. At times, there exists an inner conflict which involves application of general
societal values. Production managers when are required by the business may face an ethical
dilemma, especially when he has the notion that it will have a negative impact on large number
of consumers who will purchase and use the product. Ethical dilemmas involve problem solving
situation where decision rules are often vague or conflicting. Outcomes of ethical decisions may
not be predictable at any degree of precision or accuracy. One can not be sure if he or she is
making the right decision.
Cost benefits analysis involves the assessment of both positive and negative effects of
alternative actions of business decision makers. It sees actions favored and chosen if their
advantages and benefits outweigh the costs involved. Here the costs and benefits are in form of
economic benefits and costs, which may include; monetary profits or losses. Those who are
motivated by such approaches will deem a course of action preferably if doing this will lead to
economic gains. Conversely, actions will be avoided in cases where they will lead to economic
The first step in the cost-ben3efit analysis process is to compile a comprehensive list of all
the benefits and costs which are associated with the decision. Costs include both indirect and
direct costs, opportunity costs, intangible costs, and costs of potential risks. The benefits should
include both indirect and direct revenues, together with intangible benefits, like the improved
production from improved employee morale and safety, and also increased sales as a result of
customer goodwill. The common unit when it comes to monetary measurements must then be
applicable for every item which is on the list. Care must be taken not to under weigh costs or
even over estimate the benefits; a conservative approach with conscious effort to avoid any
subjective tendency when calculating the estimates suits well when assigning values on both
benefits and costs for the cost-benefit analysis purpose.
The final step will include quantitatively comparing the outcome of the aggregate costs
together with its benefits to determine if its benefits outweigh the costs. If so, this means that the
rational decision is going forward and implementing the decision. If not, then a review of the
decision is conducted to determine if adjustments are necessary to either decrease the costs or
increase the benefits in making the whole project more viable.
Most importantly, when considering cost-benefit approaches, it must be borne in the mind
that its proponents are not motivated strictly to acting ethically, unless the costs of not doing so
will be sufficiently high, or else dif acting ethically will lead to economic gains. For example, is
when an industrial company may understand that dumping chemical wastes into a water stream
harms the environment, and by extension, both non-human animals and human, and still decide
to go on and dispose the wastes in such a manner, simply because it is more cheaper and
economical than disposing the waste in a safe but more expensive manner. To arrive to such
decision, they must have weight the potential fines and also the loss of business in a case where
they get exposed. Although, determined that these costs do not outweigh the economic savings of
the inappropriate, cheaper dumping manner so will maintain the current way of disposing waste.
A utilitarian approach to moral reasoning has also been where different options can be
weighed although utilitarian want to minimize the harm while maximizing the benefits. More
importantly, utilitarian’s maintain a universal view when they reason. They consider the impact
upon those who may be affected, those with interest of their own.
Importantly, morality must come from rational mind and consistently it must be applied.
Categorically, self interested motivation and moral motivation are not compatible. A person
trying to maximize his or her own interests, particularly in a business, preferably it would
operate (Boardman, Anthony & et al, 2017).
Boardman, Anthony E., et al. Cost-benefit analysis: concepts and practice. Cambridge
University Press, 2017.
Hausman, Daniel, Michael McPherson, and Debra Satz. Economic analysis, moral philosophy,
and public policy. Cambridge University Press, 2016.
Yu Chen Pua
Introduction to Ethics
Ideally, there are numerous decisions made on the daily all taken under different
motivations. From the point of starting the day, I set the alarm at 6:30 am, notably because I tend
to oversleep and I needed time to wake up early enough to start the day. However, how I prepare
for the day is dependent on the activities of the day and who or where I will visit through the
day. In addition, the image I would like to portray to the individuals that I meet through the day
is another critical factor. Most importantly though, the decisions and deals I make through the
day are largely motivated by self-gain. Self-interest is a principle motivator where I feel I need
more to life in view of what I achieve (Levit).
Have I done a purely altruistic act before? I certainly believe so. I am a regular blood
donor. It is the one thing that I believe is most important considering that a life can be saved.
However, the analysis in the study does not lead me to believe that human begins are motivated
by psychological egoism. It is right to believe that sometimes individual act selflessly to help
other human begins (Batson, C. ). It is incredible that during situations of disasters a people
come together to contribute and help each other. Take the case of hurricane or a terror attack,
individuals come together to assist those individuals affected directly or indirectly. It is never for
any selfish gains that such individuals help each other, however they selflessly help each other.
Batson, C. , Daniel. The altruism question: Toward a social-psychological answer. . Psychology
Press, 2014. Book.
Levit, L. Z. ” “Egoism and Altruism: the “Antagonists” or the “Brothers”?.” .” Journal of Studies
in Social Sciences ( 2014): 7.2. Journal.
Yu Chen Pua
Introduction to Ethic
Ethics and Moral Dilemmas
Moral dilemmas are a common occurrence in our day to day lives. A moral dilemma
is a conflict in which one has to make a choice between several actions and have some moral
reasons behind choosing each of the actions because all of them cannot be implemented
(Hoffman et al. 25). For every particular field of study, there is a list of common ethical
dilemmas that stakeholders encounter in their line of work. The moral dilemma can be
solved through the application of several theories such as the consequentialist ethical theory.
Understanding the various approaches to ethical dilemmas is essential to conduct an adequate
moral analysis when faced with moral dilemmas. The paper involves a moral analysis and
covers the application of consequentialism moral theory is resolving a moral dilemma.
During my internship training session at a non-profit international think tank, whose
primary objective is to assist members of various corporations to resolve their ethical
dilemmas, I obtained vast knowledge on how to handle different ethical dilemmas effectively.
The senior advising ethicist who was my instructor advises the clients on ways of resolving
their moral dilemma. One of the common cases of ethical dilemmas reported by most of the
clients was the issue of bribery and corruption. In this case, there are two parties where one is
asked to perform a specific action in favor of another, and in reward or return, they will get a
token (Yazdani et al. 403). When such cases occur in most clients, explain how they are torn
between doing the right thing and accepting the offer because in most cases they are
requested to perform negative, illegal or unfair in some way.
Resolution of Dilemma by a utilitarian and an Ethical Egoist
Resolution of moral dilemmas can take various approaches depending on the view of
the individual resolving the issue. A Utilitarian, for instance, will make decisions that focus
on the overall good resulting from the action as their desired outcome. In this case, in the
application of utilitarianism, the effect of the final decision on the organization and all other
stakeholders including the employees, customers, the government, suppliers, taxpayers, and
shareholders will be considered. Consequently, the best decision is the one that will favor the
interest and goodness of all the other parties involved. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist
moral theory that focuses on maximum good or pleasure for all other parties, the highest
number of persons and the good of oneself (Kahane et al. 199). Therefore, with the
utilitarian, the best decision is the one that will yield maximum benefit to a more significant
number of individuals.
An ethical egoist would use an entirely different approach to resolving such a
dilemma. The difference here comes in because an egoist will make decisions that are driven
towards maximums good for one’s self. Therefore, in the case of bribery and corruption, an
egoist will choose to accept the bribe and do whatever they are asked to do In return because
this will benefit them regardless of the harm it causes to other people or other stakeholders in
a corporation. Egoism is the most selfish way of making decisions on ethical dilemmas, and
its primary focus is maximum self-benefit and fulfillment of self-interests (Overall 121).
Although, to some degree, everyone happens to favor their interests with egoism this selfish
interest is extreme and exceeds what would be considered reasonable or human nature. My
recommendation to the clients was the utilitarian approach, and the instructor seconded on the
Consequentialism Moral Theory
The consequentialism theory is the best choice for such an ethical dilemma. The
theory deals with ethical action and is used in deciding on the best action to take when it
comes to making s choice on the right ethical act (Yazdani et al. 408). Consequentialism can
take different forms or approaches, such as utilitarianism and egoism, depending on its
application as well as the desired outcome. In the case of the client’s incidents, the desired
result is justice and the overall good of all stakeholders, and that’s why the utilitarianism
approach is the most suitable for resolving the moral dilemma. A consequentialist examines
the cost and benefits of the actions and matches the results to the desired outcome. Moreover,
the theory examines each act on an individual basis and determines what the right act is that
will yield the most significant number of consequences that are in line with the desired
Most of the times individuals encounter ethical dilemmas, but they fail to notice them.
As a result, they tend to make rush decisions without examining the situation at hand in depth
to make the most appropriate choice. Further, it is essential to understand that the suitability
of an approach to an ethical dilemma is contingent to the situation or context of an issue; this
is why there is no general rule on how to resolve ethical dilemmas. Therefore, when an
ethical issue arises such as the ones reported by clients in the non-profit international think
tank the most suitable theory should be applied in decision making and again it is advisable to
avoid selfish decisions or making decisions based on self-interests. The internship had a great
positive impact on my career.
Hoffman, W. Michael, Robert E. Frederick, and Mark S. Schwartz, eds. Business ethics:
Readings and cases in corporate morality. John Wiley & Sons, 2014: 22-45.
Kahane, Guy, et al. “‘Utilitarian’judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect
impartial concern for the greater good.” Cognition 134 (2015): 193-209.
Overall, Jeffrey. “Unethical behavior in organizations: empirical findings that challenge CSR
and egoism theory.” Business Ethics: A European Review 25.2 (2016): 113-127.
Yazdani, Naveed, and Hasan S. Murad. “Toward an ethical theory of organizing.” Journal of
Business Ethics 127.2 (2015): 399-417.
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