Expert answer:evaluating sources

  

Solved by verified expert:For this assignment you will watch 2 videos and read 3 articles, and then use the knowledge you’ve just gained in the lesson on evaluating sources.Then, craft a journal response in 250 words, discussing why or why not all three sources are reliable, and indicate which source is the best for an academic paper and why. Make sure to discuss why the other two sources are not reliable enough for an academic paper. Please make sure to support your ideas with evidence from the videos.Please include sources 2 links to video and 2 links to the articles and article attached https://www.theonion.com/report-more-recent-colleg…http://articles.latimes.com/2012/may/04/local/la-m…
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Staying Alive:
A Mini-unit on Child Molestation Prevention
for Elementary School Children
Warren L. McNab
ABSTRACT
This article describes a mini-unit to help teachers prevent molestation of
elementary school children. The major emphasis of the unit is on safety and
survival skills that young people can use to help them in “Staying Alive.” Child
molestation is defined, methods of coercion are described, and survival tips and
relevant learning activities related to prevention are suggested. The mini-unit is
an example of what elementary school teachers, in cooperation with the school
nurse, can do to incorporate survival skills to prevent child molestation into the
elementary school classroom.
INTRODUCTION
Each year, 300,000elementary school-age children are sexually molested,’ 50,000 are abducted, and thousands more are
involved in prostitution and pornography.’ Sexual abuse
reports have increased an average of 35% across the country
during the past 12 months, according to the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse. These statistics
instill fear and apprehension in young children and their
parents. The parental belief that “it couldn’t happen to my
child” has been replaced with ‘‘what can I do as a parent to
reduce the probability of my child becoming a victim of child
molestation?”
Child molestation is a vague term that refers to any sort of
sexual approach to, or contact with, a child by an adult.’
Eighty-five percent of child molestation cases consist of genital
manipulation, indecent exposure, obscene language, and
physical advance. Eleven percent involve vaginal intercourse,
anal penetration, and rape.‘ Studies of nonclinical populations
indicate that 15% to 33% of American woman and 5% to 10%
of American men were sexually victimized as children.ss6 AS
few as one of 12 boys who are sexually abused each year report
the incident to a professional.’
Do elementary school children know the meaning of the
term “child molestation?” Do they know how to avoid potential child molestation situations? Do they know what to do if
they have been molested? Do school nurses or elementary
school teachers teach about child molestation prevention? This
article describes a mini-unit for elementary school children
that includes content and activities related to child molestation
prevention. “Survival” suggests a variety of preventionoriented instructions to help children in “Staying Alive.” The
mini-unit provides a practical introduction to the child molestation topic for children, ages six-12. The goal is to help the
young child acquire safety-directed knowledge and attitudes,
and to practice preventive behavior without intense fear and
apprehension.
Elementary teachers should adopt the content and teaching
methods to the available time as well as to the students’
maturation level. Because attention spans are short at this age,
material may need to be repeated over time until the students
master it. The presentations should be positive and nonthreatening. Present examples and hypothetical situations to
allow the children to practice the skills they have learned from
the unit. The elementary teacher, in cooperation with parents
and the school nurse, can create a positive learning experience
in survival and preventive education for the elementary school
child.
FORMS OF CHILD MOLESTATION
As shown in Figure 1, the mini-unit may include a variety
of topics depending on the grade level and previous educational experience of the students.
Sexual Abuse
Sexual molestation is the exploitation of a child for the
sexual gratification of an adult. It may range from exhibitionism and fondling to intercourse, or the use of a child to produce pornographic materials.’ Break this definition into
simple terms that children can understand without creating a
great deal of fear. Explaining the difference between the
private and public parts of their bodies is a good reference
point to begin with in explaining the child molestation topic.
This distinction is of special importance when teaching children with mental handicaps. For example, the eyes, ears, and
Warren L . McNab, PhD, FASHA, Professor and Coordinator of
Health Education, School of HPERD, College of Education,
University of Nevada-Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las
Vegas, NV 89154.
226
Journal of School Health
August 1985, Vol. 55, No. 6
Figure 1
Staying Alive: A Mini-Unit
on Child Molestation Prevention for Elementary School Children
I. CHILD MOLESTATION
A. Sexual Abuse
1. Definition
2. Public vs. Private Body Parts
3. Kinds of Touches
B. Incest
1. Parent
2. Sibling
C. Child Pornography & Prostitution
1. Runaways
2. Male Vulnerability
D. Abduction
1. Definition
2. Prevention
E. The Nature of Coercion
1 , Definition
2. Prevention
F. Nine Lures Used by Abductors
11. SURVIVAL TIPS
A . Keeping Kids Safe
B. The Helpers
C. Suggestions for Parents
Ill. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
A . What If Game
B. No, Go, Tell Game
C. Strong Kids Safe Kids
D. Question Box
arms are public parts of the body; the penis, vagina, breast,
and buttocks are private parts of the body. There is a difference between affection and love expressed as a hug by a relative, as opposed to the touching or fondling of private parts by
that relative. As the teacher progresses through this portion of
the unit, it is important that terms related to child molestation
are understood, and the examples of appropriate vs.
inappropriate behavior are stressed.
While it is important for children to know not to accept
candy or rides from strangers, 85% of child molesters are
known to the children they molest as a neighbor, relative, or
family friend.9 Eighty percent of contacts occur in either the
child’s or the molester’s home.9 The perpetrator most likely is
someone who has established a close relationship with the
child; someone the child likes or trusts.’ Again, care should be
taken not to make children unnecessarily fearful of friends or
relatives.
The three kinds of touches also should be explained to
young children: 1) The OK, Good, or Heart Touch which is a
hug by parents or friends to demonstrate their love; 2) The
not-OK or No Touch which feels bad and may be anything
from being hit by someone to being forced to touch someone’s
private parts; and 3) Confusing Touches which are questionable as the child may like the person, but not the touching.
Incest
According to the National Center on Child Abuse and
Neglect, incest is intrafamily sexual abuse perpetrated on a
child by a member of that child’s family group. It includes
sexual intercourse and any act to stimulate a child sexually, or
to use a child for sexual stimulation.i0To an elementary school
student, it means sexual stimulation by parents or other
relatives.
Riggs” described the various physical, behavioral, and
parental indicators of incest of which elementary teachers
should be aware. Incest should be defined simply, potential
examples given, and reporting procedures described. Incest
may involve siblings as well as parents. Children often are
more afraid to talk about incest than any other form of abuse,
therefore, it is imperative that teachers explain to students
that, if they are victims of incest, they should tell their other
parent, teacher, or close relative so the abuse stops. While this
action is extremely difficult when dealing with one’s parents, a
student should not be afraid to seek help.
Pornography and Prostitution
Mahoneyz stated that as many as 1.5 million persons under
the age of 16 are involved in prostitution in the United States
and thousands more are involved in pornography or “kiddie
porn.” Children should understand the important differences
between a request to have their photograph taken with their
clothing on and photographs taken with their clothing off.
Young boys should be aware they are particularly susceptible
to the tactics involved in inducement to participate in child
pornography. Often, rewards are used to encourage certain
types of behavior. Provide learning activities that allow
students to practice saying “no” and to understand appropriate vs. inappropriate behavior. Also, emphasize the
problem of runaway children and prostitution. Emphasize
talking to parents and teachers as opposed to running away
from the problem.
Abduction
The abduction of children in department stores, theaters,
and while enroute to and from school certainly manifests the
necessity of this topic in a child molestation prevention unit.
Abduction by strangers is highly publicized. Children always
should be aware of their surroundings and attempt to be as
safe as possible when alone by letting people know where they
are going, staying on well-traveled and well-lighted sidewalks,
and knowing how to report suspicious situations to parents
and authorities. Procedures to follow if attacked, such as
screaming for help, running, and blowing a whistle also can be
discussed. Emphasize knowledge and behavior that can be
used to prevent abductions.
Coercion
The nature of coercion in child molestation involves techniques adults use to get young people to submit to sexual
favors. This coercion may involve rewards that persuade children to engage in sexual behavior, or it may include threat or
physical force. Once it has occurred, the child often is entrapped by feeling obligated to the person because of fear, guilt, or
closeness of the relationship. Mahoney’ described a sexual ring
in which there is simultaneous involvement of several children
in sexual activities with an adult. The adult capitalizes on the
legitimate authoritative role in the lives of the children to
recruit them into illegal sexual behavior. This situation is
accomplished because 1) the adult has power over them,
2) children know one another and share the experience,
3) there is emphasis on secrecy, 4) there is threat of retaliative
behavior and blackmail, and 5 ) children are given gifts or
drugs then threatened with telling the children’s parents about
accepting the gifts if they do not keep the sex acts secret. The
sad reality is the sexually abused child often remains trapped in
the secrecy of the act by the shame, fear, and threats created
by the child molester.
The recent incidents of sexual abuse at day care centers are
examples of sexual rings. Instruct students not to accept
rewards for sexual favors even from authoritative adults. Cite
examples of sexual favors, such as undressing and letting
adults touch the private parts of their body. Stress that there
are certain sexual favors one does not have to do regardless of
the adult’s role.
ABDUCTION LURES
Ken Wooden, executive director of the National Coalition
for Children’s Justice, wrote a child abduction prevention
guide, published by Kid Wise, a national educational effort by
Ralston Purina’s breakfast foods division and the National
Coalition for Children’s Justice. Entitled “Nine Lures Used by
Abductors,”iz it describes the methods used by child molesters
to lure children:
1) Affection/love – Most molestations are committed by
someone who is known by the child.
2) Assistance – The abductor approaches a child by
asking for help.
3) Emergency – The abductor tells the child there has
been an emergency in the family and the child should come
with the abductor. Children should have a “secret” code word
for being picked up by people other than parents.
4) Games and fun – With this lure, seemingly innocent
play results in intimate fondling and body contact.
5 ) Authority – Children respect authority and perpetrators
may dress like police officers, firefighters, or others.
6) Bribery – One of the oldest methods, children are
offered candy, money, and other rewards.
7) Ego/fame – Children are promised modeling or commercial offers through a private audition.
8) Jobs – Young people can be attracted to the offer of a
job for money and a secret interview.
9) Threatslfear – Some molesters may use violent verbal
threats or weapons to get young people to go with them.
These lures should be explained through examples. Role
playing can be used to allow students to practice saying “no”
to potential problem situations. Emphasize that these tech-
Journal of School Health
*
August 1985, Vol. 55, No. 6 * 227
niques to obtain certain sexual behaviors can be used by
strangers as well as people they know.
SURVIVAL TIPS
Safety Rules
Elementary school children should understand and practice
safety rules and suggestions to enhance their chances of survival in potentially dangerous situations. Students should
know:
1) their full name, address, and telephone number;
2) how to call the local emergency number (usually 911).
Emergency telephone numbers should be kept near the telephone;
3) that they must not obey the orders of strangers;
4) never to get into a car with a stranger without parental
permission and never to hitchhike;
5 ) never to go to anyone’s home without parental permission;
6) that no one has the right to touch them in their private
areas or make them feel uncomfortable;
7) that they have no right to touch other people on their
private areas;
8) to tell their parents or teachers if someone offers them
gifts or money to take their photograph;
9) not to walk alone. Stay near people in well-traveled,
well-lighted areas. Avoid shortcuts and alleys;
10) to let their parents know where they are;
11) to report suspicious incidents to parents or teachers;
12) not to allow anyone in the house unless the person has
the child’s parents’ permission; and
13) practice the “No, Go, and Tell” procedure related to
child molestation.
Society’s economic situation and the increase in the
number of single-parent families has increased the number of
latch-key children. More children, at a very early age, are
expected to take responsibility for themselves and their siblings
while their parents are working. Ask students to identify and
discuss places where they have been alone. Give examples such
as walking to and from school, to the nearby store, in a shopping mall, going to a friend’s house, or being home alone after
school. Ask the students to list safety rules to follow when they
are alone.
Helpers
The Helpers section of the mini-unit should include suggestions children can take to their parents. Kees’) suggests that
parents should:
1) never leave a child unattended or alone in a car;
2) be involved in the child’s activities and know where they
are;
3) develop a code word to be used if anyone other than the
parent is to pick up a child;
4) listen when children tell you they do not want to be with
someone. Find out why they want to avoid that person;
5 ) be encouraged to have the child’s fingerprints taken,
know where their dental records are, and to take a photograph
of the child each year;
6) have a plan with the children outlining what they should
do if they become separated from the parent away from home
in an emergency situation; and
7) believe and reassure the child, and report problems.
Parents also need a child care checklist to assist them in
selecting quality child care facilities. Teachers, nurses, students, and parents must work collectively to ensure survival
education takes place. Parents also should be informed of
local, state, and national organizations that provide materials
on child molestation prevention.
LEARNING ACTIVITIES
A variety of useful learning activities can be created by the
elementary school teacher. One of the most useful tools is
hypothetical situations where the students are asked what to
do in a specific emergency or hazardous situation. Allow students to role play the correct behavior emphasized in the
“Staying Alive’’ unit. For example, what should the child do
if:
1) you are alone, the door bell rings, and a stranger is at
the door;
2) a baby sitter wants to play a secret game where you take
off all your clothing;
3) a stranger tells you there has been an emergency and
your parents want you to go with the stranger;
4) you are walking home alone after school and a person
offers you money if you will come over to the stranger’s home
and allow the person to take photographs of you;
5 ) a friend of your parents always touches buttocks and
private parts when hugging you; and
6) a camp counselor gets into bed with you and touches
your private parts.
Additional activities could be used by elementary school
teachers to educate children and members of the community
about preventing child molestation.
1) Make a checklist of “do’s and don’ts’’ to avoid a child
molestation situation and make them available to students and
parents.
2) Make the school and community aware of the incidence, definition, myths, treatment, and techniques of preven-
RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS A N D PARENTS
Adam Walsh Child Resource Center
1876 N. University Dr.
Suite 306
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33322
American Humane Association
5351 Roslyn St.
Englewood, CO 80110
Child Find, Inc.
P.O. Box 277
New Platz, NY 12561
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
1835 K St., NW
Suite 700
Washington, DC 20006
228
Journal of School Health
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect
P.O. Box 1182
Washington, DC 20013
National Coalition for Children’s Justice
2998 Shelburne Rd.
Shelburne, VT 05482
National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse
332 S. Michigan Ave.
Suite 1250
Chicago, IL 60604-4357
National Safety Council
44 N. Michigan Ave.
Chicago, IL 6061 1
August 1985, Vol. 55, No. 6
tion through community seminars at schools, articles in the
school or local newspaper, and sponsoring a crime prevention
week with speakers from law enforcement and medical crisis
centers.
3) Become comfortable about discussing child molestation
and reducing the students’ fears by providing an anonymous
“question box” on molestation for students to submit questions regarding the topic.
4) Have each student analyze their current route home
from school. Is it a safe route? Plan a route or ways that would
make each student the least vulnerable to sexual assault.
5 ) Provide hypothetical sexual abuse situations and use the
problem solving technique to provide solutions. For example,
what if a relative asks you to touch his penis?
6) Have the class identify law enforcement agencies,
hospitals, and home telephone numbers and make wallet-size
phone cards with the emergency numbers listed, taping a
quarter to the back of the card.
7) Emphasize the role of family members and friends in
helping prevent molestation and helping the victim after being
sexually molested. Very young children especially need to be
instructed on certain behaviors so they know when someone is
mistreating them and can avoid the potential danger situation.
8) Have students clip child molestation articles out of the
newspaper, then in groups analyze the description and attempt
to identify how it could have been prevented, based upon
location, environment, and circumstance.
9) Puppets or anatomical dolls can be used to describe how
to prevent child molestation.
10) A tic-tac-toe game can be designed where children are
given x and o symbols for correct answers in preventing child
molestation.
11) Prevention awareness also can be enhanced through
reading skills; many books, such as No More Secrets and Alice
Doesn’t Baby Sit Anymore, can be used to help students read
and understand how to prevent sexual abuse of children.
12) The videotape “Strong Kids Safe Kids,” narrated by
Henry “The Fonz” Winkler, is an excellent tool to teach children about child molestation. Songs, cartoon characters, and
well-known actors explain the NO (don’t touch me, I don’t
like that), GO (Run away from the molester), and TELL (tell
someone you trust) components of prevention.
CONCLUSION
Reports of child abuse soared in 1984, and authorities
believe the numbers represent only a small percentage of actual
child molestation cases. The mini-unit is an example of what
elementary school teach …
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