Expert answer:Final Research Proposal ( Stress in Healthcare Pro

  

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Running head: STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER DISASTER
Stress in Healthcare Providers after Disaster
Stress in Healthcare Providers after Disaster
Introduction
1
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER DISASTER
2
There are many natural disasters that compromise ability of healthcare facilities to
discharge services in a streamlined manner. For example, natural disasters can overwhelm busy
medical centers and healthcare institutions. For example, when natural disasters such as
tornadoes hit a given geographic location, occupancy rates and stress levels within healthcare
organizations increase by a significant margin. Disasters pose significant barriers to optical care
thus it is of great value for healthcare providers to have in place indomitable plans and health
care strategies of limiting mental and psychological stress induced by natural and manmade
disasters. If healthcare providers are not well prepared for immediate surges and increased
demand for healthcare, healthcare institutions stand high chance compromising incoming
disaster patients and available emergency departments within healthcare organizations. This
paper is a literature review of stress in healthcare providers after disaster.
Healthcare Stress Sparked by Disaster Occurrence
According to Routsalainen et al. 2015, healthcare stakeholders are vulnerable to workrelated and occupational stress. One such causes of mental and psychological problem are natural
disasters. Generally, healthcare workers face high expectations and due to limited time and
resources, they end up failing to meet their set target, goals and objectives. Stress and burnout
are costly, devastating to healthcare industry. Work-related and occupational stress force
healthcare workers to seek for medical leave. Organizational interventions are essential for
effective disaster response plan to reduce healthcare stress due to occurrence of natural disasters.
Patricia et al. 1993 found out that there are specific stress reactions among healthcare
providers who are involved in disaster relief services and mass causality care. Sentiments raised
in this article suggest that indeed stress among healthcare providers is caused due to differences
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER DISASTER
3
towards reacting to disasters. Despite fact of stress caused by occurrences of natural and
manmade disasters, it is of great value appreciating concrete fact that unmatched interventions
within healthcare industry are essential in the process of limiting future occurrences of the same
problems.
Schuster et al. 2001 found out that people who are not present during traumatic events are
vulnerable to stress reactions within healthcare setups. For example, terrorist attacks pose
significant mental and psychological impacts to healthcare providers. Stress reactions are not
only evident in healthcare industry but also affect those who are not directly linked to healthcare
institutions. According to Chl & Tapsell 2000, flooding accounts for 40% of natural disasters
across the world. Flooding is more prevalent in developing countries due to poor disaster
response and management plans, corruption and devastating nature of the economy. Flooding
results to displacement of people and leads to many deaths. Diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery
and cholera force people to seek for healthcare services. Some countries in third world industry
are not fully equipped with healthcare services. Healthcare workers end up succumbing to mental
and psychological torture in the process of addressing ever increasing healthcare needs of those
they serve.
The aged and children are vulnerable people to stress caused by occurrence of natural and
man induced disasters (Fernandez et al. 2002). Vulnerable nature of aged people to natural
disasters is caused by factors such as impaired sensory abilities, physical and mental
complications, social-economic limitations and chronic healthcare conditions. Therefore, it is
prudent to embrace effective disaster management and recovery strategies to enable healthcare
institutions cater for increased demands. For example, it is essential for healthcare institutions to
set aside special departments to address needs of elderly patients.
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER DISASTER
4
Impact of Disaster Healthcare Services
Natural and manmade disasters pose devastating effects to healthcare facilities. This
ranges from mental and psychological stress such as compromised healthcare workers,
jeopardized infrastructural systems and other flaws within healthcare industry (Watson et al.
2007). Numerous epidemics that occur after natural disasters such as flooding pose detrimental
impacts to health care institutions. This is highly enhanced by additional factors such as limited
availability of safe water for drinking, population density, and availability of healthcare
institutions within a given geographic location. For example, increased number of dead people
increases chances of occurrence of other diseases making patients to flock healthcare facilities
with intention of getting medical care. Natural disasters affect healthcare facilities in terms of
displacement of human population, risk factors of communicable diseases, emergency of
diseases due to consumption of infected water, diseases due to overcrowding of people in
healthcare facilities and vector borne maladies among others.
Reducing Stress in Healthcare Due to Natural Disasters Occurrences
Psychological stress does occur when an individual has perceptions that prevailing
environmental conditions are jeopardizing discharge of essential health services within a given
geographic area. Cohen et al. 2007 states that indeed psychological stress among health care
providers and stakeholders translates to mental and psychological complications. In the event of
natural disasters, it is of significant impact to embrace best strategies of disaster management in
healthcare industry. Stress can be reduced by seeking external services of counselors, social
psychologists and other community workers to contain the situation. Organizational stakeholders
have a crucial role to play in the process of limiting mental and psychological stress.
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER DISASTER
5
Disaster Recovery Plans in Healthcare
Natural disasters impair streamlined flow of healthcare services within the industry. To
reduce dangers posed by disasters such as stress, disaster recovery and emergency response plans
are very essential in healthcare industry (Eve & Philip, 2004). One such important strategy is
resilience (multidimensional approach to disaster recovery). The ability to expand educational
opportunities is such essential move for equipping nurses and other organizational stakeholders.
Goodwin, 2006 found out that having nursing workforce that possesses clinical experience,
knowledge and skills is essential in responding to disasters in a confident manner.
According to Pokharel & Caunhye, 2012, use of optimization modeling is one powerful
tool to address emergency logistical problems since this model was tested and proved authentic
in 1970s. It is of significant impact to conduct disaster operations to be in the right position of
addressing complicating scenarios of natural disasters. According to Waeckerle, 1991, disasters
are tragedies that affect healthcare services and harm populations. Natural disaster reduction
strategies are essential in addressing stress affecting healthcare providers.
Conclusion
This literature review indicates that healthcare providers are prone to mental and
psychological stress the moment a natural disaster occurs. Stress due to natural disasters is
enhanced by work-related and occupational safety aspects within healthcare organization.
Natural disasters cause additional problems such as water borne diseases, vector related diseases
and diseases caused by overcrowding of people within certain geographical locations. Disaster
occurrence makes healthcare organizations to lack capacity of handling increased number of
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER DISASTER
admitted patients. Therefore, effective disaster recovery and emergency response strategies are
important in the process of reducing stress among health care providers.
References
6
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER DISASTER
7
Aakil M. Caunhye, A.M. & Pokharel, S. (2012). Optimization models in emergency logistics: A
literature review. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences. Volume 46, Issue 1, March 2012,
Pages 4-13 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seps.2011.04.004
Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., Miller, G. (2007). JAMA. Psychological Stress and Disease.
2007;298(14):1685-1687. doi:10.1001/jama.298.14.1685.
Eve, C. & Philip, B. (2004). Developing Community Resilience as a Foundation for Effective
Disaster Recovery [online]. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, the, Vol. 19,
No. 4, Nov 2004: 6-15. Availability:
https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=375435145094637;res=IELHSS
ISSN: 1324-1540. [Cited 21 Mar 18]
Fernandez, L., Bard, D., Lin, C., Benson, S., & Barbera, J. (2002). Frail Elderly as Disaster
Victims: Emergency Management Strategies. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 17 (2),
67-74.
Goodwon, T. (2012). Expanding Educational Opportunities in Disaster Response and Emergency
Preparedness for Nurses. Nursing Education Perspectives: March-April 2006 – Volume
27 – Issue 2 – p 93-99
Ohl, C. A., & Tapsell, S. (2000). Flooding and human health : The dangers posed are not always
obvious. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 321 (7270), 1167–116.
Patricia H. S. et al. (1993). Stress reactions among participants in mass casualty simulations.
Annals of Emergency Medicine. Volume 12, Issue 7, July 1983, Pages 426-428.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-0644 (83)80338-2
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER DISASTER
Ruotsalainen JH, Verbeek JH, Mariné A, Serra C. (2015). Preventing occupational stress in
healthcare workers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 4. Art. No.:
CD002892. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002892.pub5.
Schuster, M.A., Bradley, D. S., M.D., Jaycox, L. H., Collins, R.L. (2001). A National Survey of
Stress Reactions after the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks. November 15, 2001. N
Engl J Med 2001; 345:1507-1512. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200111153452024
Waeckerle, J. F. (1991). Disaster Planning and Response. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:815-821 .
DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199103213241206
Watson, J. T., Gayer, M., & Connolly, M. A. (2007). Epidemics after Natural Disasters.
Emerging Infectious Diseases , 13 (1), 1–5. http://doi.org/10.3201/eid1301.06077
8
Stress in Healthcare Providers after Treating Disaster Casualties
Instructor’s name
Date
Research tool
Part 1: Each yes response is 1 point while each no is 0 points
Criteria
Yes
No
Yes
No
1. Is the individual a medical practitioner?
2. Does he/she work in emergency response?
3. Does he/she work with children in emergency situations?
4. Does the individual work with patients who are victims of fire
or sexual abuse?
5. Has the individual encountered patient death from emergency
situations?
6. Does the individual get stressed after attending to patients of
trauma?
7. Has the individual ever gotten into depression due to dealing
with traumatic patients?
8. Does the individual have any mental health problem?
Part 2: Each no response is 1 point while each yes is 0 points
Criteria
1. Does the individual have a good support system?
2. Does he/she seek professional help after dealing with traumatic
cases?
3. If the answer to question 2 is yes, does it help?
4. Is the type of professional help given satisfactory?
5. Does getting psychological evaluation post response reduce
stress levels?
Stress in Healthcare Providers after Treating Disaster Casualties
Instructions
The research is aimed at studying mental conditions that arise in medical practitioners
who respond to emergency situations whereby they deal with traumatic patients. The study seeks
to determine the trends followed by these medical practitioners in dealing with the trauma that
arises from dealing with emergency cases.
The above research tool is aimed at ensuring the data collected is valid and accurate. It is
to ensure that data collected by the various investigators is in harmony. The criteria provided are
in accordance to the aims of the research. Before determining if an individual will be useful to be
incorporated in the study the investigators are required to assess him/her using the research tool
above.
For part 1 each yes response is awarded 1(one) point and each no response gets 0(zero)
points. However, for part 2 each yes response receives 0(zero) points while each no receives
1(one) point. The total of points from part 1 and 2 are calculated and this score will determine if
an individual should be part of the sample data. First of all, it is a must an individual be a
medical practitioner who is working in emergency response. Furthermore, the individual should
have a score of more than 8 from the research tool to be incorporated into the study.
Running Head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL
1
Research Proposal:
Stress in Healthcare Providers after Treating Disaster Casualties
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER TREATING DISASTER CASUALTIES
Abstract
Fatal accident’s patients are presented to emergency response and first aid giving medical
practitioners in conditions of complete health deformation. This has an effect on the mental
health of the practitioner, and it can cause serious concerns. This proposal aims at developing a
research that can guide on the best practice in mental health treatment of medical practitioners
experiencing trauma after treating and giving first aid to accident, fire, and other fatality victims
who are deformed to levels that can traumatize the medical responders. Medical practitioners
who responded to fatal emergency patients, more especially in first aid, were more vulnerable to
mental disorders (Papadatou, Anagnostopoulos, & Monos, 1994). Treating children victims of
any disasters who came in as emergency case scored highest in relation to the level of trauma
induced. Other medical physicians also mentioned that fire victims, and sexual assault victims
were also extremely traumatizing duties (Crabbe, Bowley, Boffard, Alexander, & Klein, 2004).
Medical emergency responders do not get exactly what they want during therapy, at least not
90% of them. Although they prefer CBT, the commonly used models are EMDR,
pharmacological, and brief electric treatments (Ko, Ford, Kassam-Adams, Berkowitz, & Wilson,
2008).
2
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER TREATING DISASTER CASUALTIES
Introduction
Medical emergency responders and nurses who respond to emergencies have an extreme
tough time dealing with the effects of confronting certain emergencies. Fatal accident’s patients
may be presented to these medical practitioners in conditions of complete health deformation.
This has an effect on the mental health of the practitioner, and it can cause serious concerns
(Luce, Firth-Cozens, Midgley, & Burges, 2002). One question is whether the medical
practitioners deal with these mental concerns. There is also a concern on whether they get
satisfactory help for that matter. In order to understand this issue in depth, this proposal presents
the concerns and some research concerning the professional mental health support offered to
health practitioners (if there is any at all) who encounter emergency patients in their line of duty,
and how helpful the professional support is to these health practitioners.
Purpose of the study
This study aims to establish the trend of medical practitioners seeking psychological support
after attending to emergency patients in traumatizing conditions. Some of these patients are
patients brought in after fatal accidents, fire incidents, and other patient-deforming incidences
that can cause trauma to the medical physicians.
Questions
There are several research questions that guide this proposal and the consequent research paper.
They include:

What extent of the psychological effects befalls medical practitioners who tend to patients in
traumatizing conditions?
3
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER TREATING DISASTER CASUALTIES

Do healthcare providers seek professional help after facing a disaster?

Does providing psychological evaluations post disaster response reduce stress levels in
healthcare providers?
Objectives
The first objective of the study is to identify whether medical practitioners get stressed by
and after treating patients who are in traumatizing shapes, for instance survivors of fire incidents
and car accident survivors. Secondly, the research will seek to understand whether medical
practitioners who are affected by stress or mental disturbances due to such treatment instances
seek professional help from psychotherapists. In addition, this paper will also seek to find out
whether those doctors who go into therapy get any help, and if so, if they believe that the help
they get is satisfactory. By satisfactory, the implication is that the levels of stress are eliminated
in the physician’s lives after therapy.
Hypothesis
Very few medical practitioners seek help after tending to patients in traumatizing
conditions. This is because they are in lesser demand than supply, and they cannot get sufficient
time out of duty for treatment and therapy. In addition, most medical practitioners who go for
therapy might find it helpful because they understand its value, but the situation is more likely to
occur again because they will meet patients in such situations afterwards.
4
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER TREATING DISASTER CASUALTIES
Theoretical perspective
Papadatou, Anagnostopoulos, and Monos (1994) researched on mental health concerns in
medical practitioners. They realized that medical practitioners who responded to fatal emergency
patients, more especially in first aid, were more vulnerable to mental disorders. They point out
that the chances of contracting a mental disorder heightened with the type of job a medical
practitioner was undertaking. They mention that Emergency service responders were most likely
to be affected by mental health disorder. The research also realized that, even though EMS
responders encounter traumatizing cases almost on a daily basis, they tend to have trauma and
mental disorders occurrence reduce as they continue working. It is clear, therefore, from the
study, that medical practitioners are exposed to traumatizing occurrences that can cause mental
health concerns, and the cases are higher to new practitioners, especially when the emergencies
are very common instances in their professions (Papadatou, Anagnostopoulos, & Monos, 1994).
The research was conducted when civil wars in South Africa were common, following the
conflict between the black and the white South Africans. Cases of fatality were common.
Natural and manmade disasters pose devastating effects to healthcare facilities. This
ranges from mental and psychological stress such as compromised healthcare workers,
jeopardized infrastructural systems and other flaws within healthcare industry (Watson Gayer, &
Connolly, 2007). Numerous epidemics that occur after natural disasters such as flooding pose
detrimental impacts to health care institutions. This is highly enhanced by additional factors such
as limited availability of safe water for drinking, population density, and availability of
healthcare institutions within a given geographic location. For example, increased number of
dead people increases chances of occurrence of other diseases making patients to flock
healthcare facilities with intention of getting medical care. Natural disasters affect healthcare
5
STRESS IN HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS AFTER TREATING DISASTER CASUALTIES
facilities in terms of displacement of human population, risk factors of communicable diseases,
emergency of diseases due to c …
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