Solved by verified expert:I need help answering these questions. I attend class and do the readings but this stuff is over my head most of the time.
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Final Exam Study Guide
Phil 1002 / Phil 3600
The final exam will consist of multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank questions, matching, and
short answer. All of the questions will be derived from what is on this study guide.
Evidence and Religious Belief:
● Be able to explain how a belief is justified according to Classical Foundationalism?
● What are Plantinga’s reasons for arguing that Classical Foundationalism should be
● How does Plantinga think that theistic belief (that God exists) is justified?
● d’Aquili and Newberg give an argument from cognitive science showing that humans
have a built-in “causal operator” that inputs causes in whatever strip of reality under
observation. The upshot is that theistic belief will never go away, because humans will
always posit God as a cause if the strip of reality under observation is large enough.
Does this argument support naturalism, or does it support the reformed epistemologists
like Alston and Plantinga? Be able to offer an argument for your conclusion.
● What is the “veil of perception?”
● Explain why Alston thinks we can be justified in taking our religious experience as
● What is the paradox of omnipotence?
● Why does Aquinas think that God cannot sin?
● Mavrodes thinks the defender of the paradox of omnipotence must show omnipotence to
be incoherent by employing a reductio ad absurdum. What are his reasons?
● How does Frankfurt solve the alleged paradox?
● What are the three components of knowledge according to the standard view?
● What is the Principle of Alternative Possibilities?
● Explain Pikes argument to the conclusion that divine omniscience is incompatible with
● How does open theism reconcile divine omniscience and human freedom? At what cost?
● Diagram Plantinga’s abstractionist understanding of possible worlds (as done in class).
Explain what a possible world is and how the notion of necessity is used against Pike’s
● Does Hick think that religious belief is typically grounded in experience or from a chain
● Describe the central difference between exclusivism, inclusivism, and pluralism.
● Using two different religious traditions, explain how a “piggyback” defense of
inclusivism might work.
● How does Hick reconcile the conflicting truth claims of the world’s religions via the
analogy of the blind men and the elephant?
● What is Hick’s anthropological argument for pluralism?
● Be able to describe the main differences between the following views on personal
identity: immaterialism, compound dualism, emergent dualism, constitution, materialism
(animalism), and bundle theory.
● How does van Inwagen reconcile his materialist ontology with the orthodox eschatology
timeline in Christianity?
● Questions about the afterlife don’t just have to do with personal identity per se, but also
with persistence through time. How does the Ship of Theseus illustrate this?
● Swinburne thinks the soul can exist without a body, but that it cannot function without
one. What is his argument for this?
● What is the “content problem” objection to materialism?
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