Expert answer:journal 12+13+14

Solved by verified expert:here is 3 weeks ppt and reading, you should to help me write down 3 journals for separate and total for 3 pages. each journal need one or more reference.Week 12 War and Social Change
April 10 The “Good War”
April 12 Containment, Dominoes, and Camptowns
Readings: Okihiro, American History Unbound, chap. 11.
John Dower, War Without Mercy, (Pantheon, 1986), 147-180.
Cindy I-Fen Cheng, Citizens of Asian America(NYU Press, 2013), 85-116.
Ji-Yeon Yuh, In the Shadow of Camptown (NYU Press, 2002), 9-41.
last week for rewrites, by Friday, April 20Week 13 Civil Rights, Social Revolution
April 17 Cold War Civil Rights
8
April 19 Social Movements and Campus Radicals
Readings: Okihiro, American History Unbound, chap. 12.
Mary Dudziak, Cold War Civil Rights (Princeton University Press, 2000), 47-78.
Martin Luther King, Jr., “Letter From A Birmingham Jail,” 16 April 1963.
Martin Luther King, Jr., “I Have A Dream,” 28 August 1963.
Donna Britt, “A white mother went to Alabama to fight for civil rights. The Klan killed
her for it,” Washington Post, December 15, 2017Week 14 Global Asian / Americans
April 24 film: American Revolutionary
April 26 New Immigrants, New Communities
Readings: Okihiro, American History Unbound, chap. 13.
Glenn Omatsu, “The ‘Four Prison’ and the Movements of Liberation: Asian American
Activism from the 1960s to the 1990s,” in Karin Aguilar-San Juan, ed., The State of
Asian America(South End Press, 1994), 19-69.
Chris Iijima, JoAnne Nobuko Miyamoto, William “Charlie” Chin, A Grain of Sand
(1973 Paredon recording,sample songs here).
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The Good War
Week 12: War and Social Change
announcements





paper re-writes, until April 27 (changed)
final project (handouts on Blackboard)
final exam (short answer list on Blackboard)
film: Rabbit in the Moon (can be streamed from library catalog)
questions?
question(s) for the day
when did World War II begin?



1941
1939
1937
World War II
when we think/remember WWII began:
reveals where we think it was fought, who it affected, and what we make of it:
1. 1941 – “surprise” attack on Pearl Harbor
2. 1939 – German invasion of Poland
3. 1937 – Japanese military incursions into China
question(s) for the day
how many people died in World War II?






1,000,000
5,000,000
10,000,000
25,000,000
50,000,000
75,000,000
World War II
deaths in World War II
Europe
Soviet Union – 20,000,000+
• Jews and others in death camps – 6,000,000
• Germans – 5,600,000
• Poles (not counting Polish Jews) – 3,000,000
• Yugoslavia – 1,6000,000
• West (combined) – 2,000,000
• Austria, Britain, France, Italy, Hungary, Romania, United States
each, about 250,000 to 350,000 deaths

World War II
deaths in World War II
Asia








China – 15,000,000
Indonesia – 4,000,000+
Japan – 2,500,000
Vietnam – 1,000,000
India – 180,000 + Bengal famine (1,500,000)
Philippines – 120,000
Korea – 70,000
Australia – 30,000 + (10,000 New Zealand)
World War II deaths
World War II
World War II and race



pre-WW II, racial citizens are “impossible subjects” because the
requirements of “race” and “citizen” contradicted one another
J-A internment (and other internments) epitomized these
contradictions
conduct of World War II redefined American and global perceptions:
• of individual countries
• of colonialism and empire
• of industrialism
• of race, ethnicity, and nation
where we were before . . .
nation empire family citizenship
Asian migrants’ position within American territorial/industrial expansion





American territorial expansion
nation and nationalism
overseas (insular) territories / empire
family, community, and race
citizenship
• racial naturalization/denaturalization
• marriage expatriation/repatriation
nativism and exclusion
Takao Ozawa,
Japanese, not white
nativism and exclusion
Bhagat Singh Thind,
Sikh/Indian
white, then not white
nativism and exclusion
Tatos Cartozian,
Armenian, white
nativism and exclusion
racial eligibility for citizenship and property/land laws

“alien land laws” prohibited “aliens ineligible for citizenship” from
owning land, property, businesses, or forming corporations
• Oregon (1859), California (1879 revision), and Washington
(1899) state constitutions
• 1913 California
• 1920s California, Oregon, Washington, Texas, Arizona,
Louisiana, New Mexico, Idaho, Montana, Kansas, Arkansas
• other states: Wyoming, Minnesota, Nebraska, Florida
nativism and exclusion
“impossible subjects”




alien land laws institutionalize racial discrimination based on
naturalization
marriage and citizenship: expatriation and denaturalization
citizenship and military service: WWI veterans
as “aliens ineligible for citizenship,” Asian Americans were
“impossible subjects” with the United States
• racial difference versus
• democratic citizenship
exclusion and citizenship
naturalization, race, and gender


marriage and citizenship
• Expatriation Act (1906)
• Cable Act (1922)
• various amendments allowing for repatriation (1930s)
marriage and citizenship
• what if you married an “alien ineligible for citizenship” (nonwhite)?
• what if that eligibility (whiteness) changed because of court
decisions?
exclusion and citizenship
naturalization, race, and gender


marriage and citizenship
racial ineligibility for naturalized citizenship affected more than
Asian immigrants
• native-born women
• white women
• Asian American women
• children and family
margins and mainstreams
Asian / “Asiatic” differences

within excluded racial category, “Asiatics,” important differences still
remained, particularly for groups at the margins
• “Asia”
• South Asia (colonial vs. anti-colonial; religious differences)
• Koreans (subsumed under Japanese)
• Southeast Asia (European colonization)
• American insular territories
• Philippines, Guam, and American Samoa
• not “aliens”, eventually were considered “nationals” (but still racial)
• “Pacific Islanders” (derogatory term: “kanaka”)
nativism and exclusion
“Asiatic” exclusion

“Asiatic” exclusion extends Chinese exclusion to other “Asiatics”
• 1907-8 Gentlemen’s Agreement (Japanese/Koreans)
• 1917 Immigration Act (“Asiatic Barred Zone”)
• 1924 Johnson-Reed Immigration and Nationality Act (“aliens
ineligible for citizenship”)
• 1933 Tydings-McDuffie Act
• 1940 Nationality Act
• 1952 Immigration and Nationality Act (McCarran-Walter Act)
nativism and exclusion
“impossible subjects”





Takao Ozawa dies in 1936 without citizenship
Bhagat Singh Thind and Hidemitsu Toyota regain citizenship in 1935
because of Nye-Lea Act
Hidemitsu “Harry” Toyota moves to Los Angeles in the 1930s; is
interned during WWII
Takuji Yamashita is interned, later repatriates to Japan where he dies
Wong Kim Ark also returned to China, where he died
World War II
Japanese American internment







put into effect by Executive Order 9066, February 1942
curfews instituted
120,000 “evacuated” from western regions
first to assembly centers
then to war relocation centers (“internment” camps)
beginning in 1944, programs for release
although most had left camps by the end of WWII, some were
interned as late as 1947
World War II
Japanese American internment
Japanese from other countries also brought to the United States for
internment
• mostly from Latin America, particularly Peru
• Dept. of Justice camps
• Canada also interned Japanese Canadians
• later redress and reparations movement in the 1960s and 70s

Assembly Centers
War Relocation Centers
other camps and centers
World War II
racial segregation in the military
combat units
• African American and Japanese American units were segregated
from “white” units
• “white” units were made up of different ethnic groups (The House I
Live In)
• medical units/protocol
• Geneva conventions applied to enemy, but not to segregated
troops
• blood supplies were also segregated
World War II
racial segregation in the military
combat theaters
• Japanese American troops
• fought in Europe (not in Pacific theatre)
• front-line troops
• most decorated in American military history
• most casualties in American military history
• liberated some of the German “death camps”
World War II
the “Good” War
United States was:
• the “arsenal of democracy”
• liberated the world from the tyranny of facism/authoritarianism
• rid the world of evil (Hitler/Japanese)
• “The House I Live In”
World War II
war and social change
revisions and reform of Asian exclusion policies
• 1940 – Nationality Act
• 1943 – Magnuson Act
• 1946 – Luce-Celler Act
• 1952 – Immigration and Naturalization Act (McCarran-Walter Act)
• 1965 – Immigration and Naturalization Act (Hart-Celler Act)
World War II
war and social change
war brides and family reunification
• 1945 – War Brides Act
• 1946 – Alien Fiancées and Fiancés Act
• 1946 – Chinese War Brides Act
• 1950 – Act on Alien Spouses and Children
global developments
the “Cold” War



Soviet expansion, Warsaw Pact
U.S. foreign policy
• “containment”
• domino theory
• wars/conflicts in Asia
U.S. hegemony
• economic advantages (Bretton Woods)
• military advantages
global developments
“Good” War, “Cold” War, and colonization


break up of European empires
• decolonization
• Africa
• Asia (partition of India)
negotiation of Cold War politics
• Europe
• NATO
• Warsaw Pact
• EU
• former colonies
global decolonization
global decolonization
global developments
First, Second, and Third Worlds



First World: U.S./NATO and allies
Second World: Soviet Union, China, Warsaw Pact
Third World:
• Nehru and Nasser
• non-aligned nations
First, Second, Third Worlds
world economy
world economy
1 CE
1500 CE
1900 CE
1960 CE
global developments
changes in Asian/American relations




wars/military presence (camptowns)
economic/political shifts
civil rights movements
“military brides”/”family reunification” become new concern and
focus for immigration policy and foreign relations
nativism and exclusion
Wong Kim Ark, again
nativism and exclusion
Wong Kim Ark, again
Born an American citizen, he eventually returned to China where he died and
is buried. He never shared his story with his family there. Some of his
descendants eventually immigrated to the United States where they only later
learned of his significance, not only to their family, but to all Americans, their
citizenship, and civil rights.
Cold War Civil Rights
Week 13: Civil Rights and Social Revolution
announcements



paper re-writes, until April 27 (changed)
extra credit: Saiba Varma talk, “Bonds of Love,” April 27, 3:30pm-5pm
final project (handouts on Blackboard)




https://goo.gl/forms/VdVCI0Tc4iJYmCCX2 (WWI link)
https://goo.gl/forms/1KDTG4QArjizJb9X2 (picture bride link)
final exam (short answer list on Blackboard)
questions?
question of the day:
do you recognize this film star?
question of the day:
Sessue Hayakawa



Japanese American immigrant
early 20th century silent film star
career expresses the trajectory
of Asian American film
representation
question of the day
Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater
Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater
Cold War Civil Rights
Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater




was one of many African American artistic performance companies to
tour the world under government sponsorship in the 1950s and
60s
its founder, Alvin Ailey, was born in segregated Texas in the 1930s – his
mother was raped by a group of whites when he was 5.
relocated to California; introduced to dance by Lester Horton; founded
AAADT in 1958, a few years after Horton’s death
the company’s signature piece, Revelations, is believed to be the most
performed modern dance performance, traces African American
culture from slavery to freedom
Cold War Civil Rights
performing American culture abroad





African American performers and companies like AADT, Dizzy Gillespie,
and Louis Armstrong “performed” on more than one level:
individual performances expressed the state of American culture and
arts
tours represented the state of American democratic values during the
Cold War
racial and multi-cultural plurality and acceptance within the context of
global competition for Third World support
paradigm shift in American race relations and racial formation, including
American relations with Asia and about Asian Americans
where we were before . . .
“Asiatic” exclusion
Asian migrants’ position within American nation







American territorial expansion
nation and nationalism
overseas (insular) territories / empire
Chinese exclusion
“Asiatic” exclusion
immigration and naturalization (citizenship)
racial subjects were “impossible subjects”
World War II
World War II and race



pre-WW II, racial citizens are “impossible subjects” because the
requirements of “race” and “citizen” contradicted one another
JA internment (and other internments) epitomized these
contradictions
conduct of World War II redefined American and global perceptions:
• of individual countries
• of colonialism and empire
• of industrialism
• of race, ethnicity, and nation
World War II
the “Good” War
United States was:
• the “arsenal of democracy”
• liberated the world from the tyranny of facism/authoritarianism
• rid the world of evil (Hitler/Japanese)
• “The House I Live In” (Frank Sinatra WWII short film)
World War II
racial segregation in the military
combat units
• African American and Japanese American units were segregated
from “white” units
• “white” units were made up of different ethnic groups (The House
I Live In)
• medical units/protocol
• Geneva conventions applied to enemy, but not to segregated
troops
• blood supplies were also segregated
World War II
racial segregation in the military
combat theaters
• Japanese American troops
• fought in Europe (not in Pacific theatre)
• front-line troops
• most decorated in American military history
• most casualties in American military history
• liberated some of the German “death camps”
World War II and after
war and social change
revisions and reform of Asian exclusion policies
• 1940 – Nationality Act
• 1943 – Magnuson Act
• 1946 – Luce-Celler Act
• 1952 – Immigration and Nationality Act (McCarran-Walter Act)
• 1965 – Immigration Act (Hart-Celler Act)
World War II
war and social change
war brides and family reunification
• 1945 – War Brides Act
• 1946 – Alien Fiancées and Fiancés Act
• 1946 – Chinese War Brides Act
• 1950 – Act on Alien Spouses and Children
World War II
war and social change
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
• part of United Nations charter
• included language about race and racism
• formulation debated by all participants
• applied in U.S. courts and cases against racial laws, including
alien land laws (Fujii v. California)
global developments
the “Cold” War



Soviet expansion, Warsaw Pact
U.S. foreign policy
• “containment”
• domino theory
• wars/conflicts in Asia
U.S. hegemony
• economic advantages (Bretton Woods)
• military advantages
global developments
the “Cold” War



Soviet expansion, Warsaw Pact
U.S. foreign policy
• “containment”
• domino theory
• wars/conflicts in Asia
U.S. hegemony
• economic advantages (Bretton Woods)
• military advantages
global developments
“Good” War, “Cold” War, and colonization


break of European empires
• decolonization
• Africa
• Asia (partition of India)
negotiation of Cold War politics
• Europe
• NATO
• Warsaw Pact
• EU
• former colonies
global decolonization
global decolonization
global developments
First, Second, and Third Worlds



First World: U.S./NATO and allies
Second World: Soviet Union, China, Warsaw Pact
Third World:
• the term referred to political non-alignment, not to economic
underdevelopment
• Nehru (India) and Nasser (Egypt)
First, Second, Third Worlds
world economy
world economy
1 CE
1500 CE
1900 CE
1960 CE
global developments
changes in Asian/American relations




wars/military presence (camptowns)
economic/political shifts
“military brides”/”family reunification” become new concern and
focus for immigration policy and foreign relations
connected to domestic civil rights movements in the 1950s and 60s
and global Cold War context
Montgomery, AL bus boycott
Montgomery, AL bus boycott
Ralph Abernathy
Hope Street Church
Bell Street Church, January 10, 1957
Cold War Civil Rights
the civil rights movement



Brown v. Board of Education (1954 Supreme Court decision)
• overturned “separate but equal” basis for segregation from
Plessy v. Ferguson
• “separate is inherently unequal”
inspired broader social movement for civil rights: equal legal rights
mass social movement
Cold War Civil Rights
the civil rights movement

mass social movement
• political protests
• civil disobedience
• boycott of public transportation and accommodations (private
rights had been gained in 19th century with emancipation)
• comparative social contrasts in an era of widespread and
expanded affluence
Cold War Civil Rights
the civil rights movement

mass social movement
• school integration
• local bus boycotts
• lunch counter boycotts (Kresges was renamed K-Mart)
• broader, coordinated efforts
• voter registration drives
• Freedom Rides/Freedom Summers
• March on Washington
• Selma March
Asian Americans and civil rights
Mary (Yuri) and Bill Kochiyama
Japanese American couple
Asian Americans and civil rights
Mary (Yuri) Kochiyama
in WWII internment camp
Asian Americans and civil rights
Yuri Kochiyama


became community organizer/
political activist for many causes
beginning in the 1960s
anti-war activist (photo)
Asian Americans and civil rights
Yuri Kochiyama



became community organizer/
political activist for many causes
beginning in the 1960s
close associate of Malcolm X
joined Nation of Islam
Asian Americans in film/media
Sessue Hayakawa



Japanese American immigrant
early 20th century silent film star
career expresses the trajectory
of Asian American film
representation
Asian Americans in film/media
Sessue Hayakawa



Japanese American immigrant
early 20th century silent film star
career expresses the trajectory
of Asian American film
representation
Asian Americans in film/media
Sessue Hayakawa


later career played Japanese
characters
Bridge over the River Kwai
(1957)
social movements, global context
global hotspots (Cold War)



Europe (NATO/Warsaw Pact)
Middle East (Israel/Arab nations/Iran)
Asia
• Korea
• Vietnam
• South Asia
• Pakistan
• India
• Bangladesh
• Sri Lanka
social movements, global context
legislative reforms

civil rights
• 1964 – Civil Rights Act
• 1965 – Voting Rights Act
• 1965 – Immigration and Nationality Act (Hart-Celler Act)
• 1968 – Civil Rights Act
• Title VIII, “Fair Housing Act”
• “Indian Civil Rights Act”
social movements, global context
legislative reforms

“Great Society”
• 1964 – Civil Rights Act
• 1965 – Medicare and Medicaid (Title XVIII, Social Security Act)
• 1964 – Economic Opportunity Act (War on Poverty)
• 1965 – Elementary and Secondary Education Act
• arts, humanities, environment, consumer protections
social movements, global context
social movements






civil rights movement
free speech movement (Berkeley)
anti-war movement
women’s movement (second-wave feminism)
sexual revolution
gay rights movement
social movements, global context
social movements






ethnic/national movements
FBI/ConintelPro
Third World solidarity
Maoism
anti-colonialism
ethnic studies student movements
global/domestic contexts for change
cold war and social change: comparisons

1952 Immigration and Nationality Act (McCarran-Walter Act)
• removed racial, gender, and marriage requirements for
naturalization (for citizenship)
• redefined “Asiatic Barred Zone” as “Asia-Pacific Triangle”
• did not change immigration quotas significantly
• instituted blacklist of suspected Communists
global/domestic contexts for change
cold war and social change: comparisons

1965 – Immigration Act (Hart-Celler Act)
• changed immigration quota system
• from 1924 national quota system
• to equal quotas for nations (within hemispheric quotas)
• Western hemisphere has quotas for the first time
• instituted preference systems for
• family reunification
• specific job/employment sectors (medicine/engineering)
• passed with assurances that the changes would not result in actual
changes in immigration, demographically (by nation/race)
social movements, global context
new Asian migrations


areas of Asian/American/third world con …
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