Expert answer:LP6 – Assisgnment PART 1 OF 2 (PART 1 – COVER LETT

  

Solved by verified expert:Directions: This learning activity asks for two parts: that you create a cover letter and a questionnaire, which you will distribute to collect primary data to answer your specific research question(s). This satisfies the proposal requirement that you conduct primary research. You will include your findings in your final paper and in your professional oral presentation.For example, perhaps you are proposing to your boss that your company create an on-site daycare center. You would then want to create a questionnaire to distribute to your co-workers to gather data to further your proposal.As the text discussed, you need to carefully construct your questions so they are valid and reliable to ensure proper data results. When constructing your questionnaire, remember to include instructions for the participant on how to correctly complete and return the survey (e.g., email, mail, in person, etc.). The questionnaire should include a minimum of 10 questions.Along with the questionnaire, complete a cover letter addressed to your instructor answering the following questions:1. Why are you conducting this questionnaire? (Inform them of who you are.)2. Who is the target audience? (Why are you asking them for information?)3. What data are you looking to gather?4. Why did you choose to organize your questionnaire in the format you used (open-ended, close-ended questions, etc.)?NOTE: You have 2 weeks to collect your data from the questionnaire you create this week. http://www.surveymonkey.com/
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Chapter 7
Thinking Critically about the
Research Process
Technical Communication
Fourteenth Edition
John M. Lannon
Laura J. Gurak
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives
➢ Define and refine a research question to
guide your work
➢ Approach your research topic from a variety
of angles
➢ Explore your research topic in sufficient depth
➢ Evaluate and interpret your sources
➢ Differentiate between primary and secondary
research
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives (continued)
➢ Conduct secondary research using online
and traditional sources
➢ Perform primary research using interviews,
surveys, and other techniques
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Research Process
➢ Major decisions in the workplace are based
on careful research, with the findings
recorded in a written report.
➢ These decisions require you to think
critically about each step of the process and
about the information you gather for your
research.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Research Process (continued)
Following are the procedural stages in the
research process:
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Research Process (continued)
Following are the critical thinking stages in the
research process:
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Asking the Right Questions
The answers you uncover will only be as good
as the questions you ask:
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Exploring a Balance of Views
Instead of settling for the most comforting or
convenient answer, pursue the best answer.
Consider a balance of perspectives from
up-to-date and reputable sources:
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Achieving Adequate
Depth in Your Search
Balanced research examines a broad range
of evidence; thorough research, however,
examines that evidence in sufficient depth.
There are three levels of information:



At the surface level are publications from the
popular media, designed for general readers.
At the moderate level are trade, business, and
technical publications, designed for moderately
informed to specialized readers.
At the deepest level is specialized literature,
designed for practicing professionals.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Achieving Adequate Depth in
Your Search (continued)
Do research at all three levels to achieve
adequate depth:
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Evaluating Your Findings
Not all findings have equal value. Some
information might be distorted, incomplete,
misleading, or biased. Ask yourself these
questions as you evaluate your sources:





Is this information accurate, reliable, and relatively
unbiased?
Do the facts verify the claim?
How much of the information is useful?
Is this the whole or the real story?
Do I need more information?
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Interpreting Your Findings
Once you have decided which of your findings
seem legitimate, you need to decide what they
all mean by asking these questions:





What are my conclusions and do they address my
original research question?
Do any findings conflict?
Are other interpretations possible?
Should I reconsider the evidence?
What, if anything, should be done?
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Primary versus
Secondary Sources
➢ Primary research means getting information
directly from the source by conducting
interviews and surveys and by observing
people, events, or processes in action.
➢ Secondary research is information obtained
second hand by reading what other
researchers have compiled in books and
articles in print or online.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Primary versus
Secondary Sources (continued)
➢ Combine primary and secondary research.
Start with secondary research, but expand on
what others have already learned and add
credibility to your research by conducting
primary research.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Exploring Secondary Sources
Secondary sources include:







Web sites
Online news outlets and magazines
Blogs and wikis
Books in the library
Journal, magazine, and newspaper articles
Government publications
Other public records
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Online Secondary Sources
➢ To find various sites on the Web, use two
basic tools: subject directories and search
engines.
* Subject directories are indexes compiled by
editors and others who sift through Web sites and
compile the most useful links.
* Search engines, such as Yahoo! and Google,
scan for Web sites containing key words. When
using search engines, be sure to adequately refine
your search to avoid too many results.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Online Secondary Sources
(continued)
➢ Google. It’s fine to start with a Google search
just to brainstorm ideas and develop
approaches to get started. But you quickly will
need to narrow down your findings and do
some deeper digging.
➢ Wikipedia. Although Wikipedia pages can
provide a good starting point, the content may
not be completely accurate. Use a Wikipedia
entry to get an overview of the topic, and to
help you locate other sources.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Online Secondary Sources
(continued)
Other online secondary sources include:








General, commercial, and academic Web sites
Government Web sites
Online news outlets and magazines
Blogs
Wikis
Facebook, Twitter, and online groups
Digital libraries
Periodical databases
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Researching
on the Internet
➢ Expect limited results from any one search
engine or subject directory.
➢ When using a search engine, select
keywords or search phrases that are varied
and technical rather than general.
➢ When using Wikipedia or other online
encyclopedias, check out the footnotes and
other citations.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Online Research
(continued)
➢ Consider the domain type (where the site
originates).
➢ Identify the site’s purpose and sponsor.
➢ Look beyond the style of a site.
➢ Assess the currency of a site’s materials.
➢ Save or print what you need before it
changes or disappears.
➢ Assess the author’s credentials and
assertions.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Online Research
(continued)
➢ Use bookmarks and hotlists for quick access
to favorite Web sites.
➢ Save or print what you need before it
changes or disappears.
➢ Download only what you need; use it
ethically; obtain permission; and credit your
sources.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Traditional Secondary Sources
➢ Traditional secondary research tools are still
of great value. Most hard-copy secondary
sources are carefully reviewed and edited
before they are published.
Locate hard-copy sources by using your
library’s online public access catalog (OPAC)
or other search tool. This catalog can be
accessed through the Internet or at
workstations in the library.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Traditional Secondary Sources
(continued)
Traditional secondary sources include:




Books and periodicals
Reference works (bibliographies, indexes,
encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks, almanacs,
directories, and abstracts)
Access tools for government publications
Gray literature (pamphlets, brochures, and other
documents not found at the library, but which may
be useful).
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Exploring Primary Sources
Primary sources include unsolicited inquiries,
informational interviews, surveys, and
observations or experiments:


Unsolicited inquiries include letters, phone calls,
or email inquiries to experts or others who can
clarify or supplement information you already
have.
Informational interviews allow you to uncover
highly original information by spending time with
an expert and asking pertinent questions. But be
careful that expert opinion can be biased or
inaccurate too.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Exploring Primary Sources
(continued)


Surveys help you form impressions of the
concerns, preferences, attitudes, beliefs, or
perceptions of a large, identifiable group (a target
population) by studying representatives of that
group (a sample).
Observations and experiments offer proof to
back up assumptions about a topic. They should
be your final step, because you now know exactly
what to look for.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Informational
Interviews
Planning the interview



Know exactly what you’re looking for from whom.
Do your homework.
Make arrangements by phone, letter, or email.
Preparing the questions




Make each question clear and specific.
Avoid loaded questions.
Save the most difficult, complex, or sensitive
questions for last.
Write out each question on a separate notecard.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Informational
Interviews (continued)
Conducting the interview









Make a courteous start.
Respect cultural differences.
Let the respondent do most of the talking.
Be a good listener.
Stick to the interview plan.
Ask for clarification if needed.
Repeat major points in your own words and ask if
your interpretation is correct.
Be ready with follow-up questions.
Keep note-taking to a minimum.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Informational
Interviews (continued)
Concluding the interview





Ask for closing comments.
Request permission to contact your respondent
again, if new questions arise.
Invite the respondent to review your version for
accuracy.
Thank your respondent and leave promptly.
As soon as possible, write a complete summary
(or record one verbally).
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Surveys
➢ Define the survey’s purpose and target
population.
➢ Identify the sample group.
➢ Define the survey method.
➢ Decide on the types of questions.
➢ Develop an engaging introduction and
provide appropriate information.
➢ Make each question unambiguous.
➢ Avoid biased questions.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Surveys
(continued)
➢ Make it brief, simple, and inviting.
➢ Have an expert review your questionnaire
before use, whenever possible.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Review Questions
1. What are the four procedural stages of the
research process?
2. What are the five critical thinking stages in
the research process?
3. What are the three levels of depth in the
research process?
4. What is the difference between evaluating
findings and interpreting findings?
5. What are primary and secondary research?
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Review Questions (continued)
6. What are the two ways of locating online
secondary sources?
7. What cautions should you observe when
using Google and Wikipedia?
8. What are five other online secondary
sources?
9. What tool should you use to locate traditional
secondary sources at the library?
10. What are the four types of primary sources?
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Strategies for managing a multi-generational
Research Questions




What strategies can be employed to ensure that all multi-generational groups agree and
cooperate to work as a team regardless of age to achieve the goals and objectives of the
organization?
How challenging will it be to implement the strategies in question?
What constitutes the multi-generational in our workforce today?
What areas do multi-generational conflicts stem from?

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