Solved by verified expert:2 and a half pg paper double spaced research paper.- media issue and criminal justice. cannot use wikipedia, MLA, intro, body and conclusion, conclusion really important , say what you found, what you didn’t, & what you should have found and why? Can use first person. I wrote 7 and a half pages, please just reread it and add for it to be 10 pages completed.
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Date: February 8, 2018
Media and Fear of Crime
Charges that the mass media create unwarranted levels of fear of crime are almost as old
as the media themselves. Researchers entered the fray in large numbers in the 1960s,
documenting the effects of television, newspapers, and movies on perceptions of crime and fear
of criminal victimization. Research throughout the world has shown that (increase in) crime is
overrepresented in media coverage, compared to actual crime rates in society. It is almost
impossible for politicians to ignore the strong impact of public opinion around matters of law
and order, and this includes many of the fears and concerns voiced by the community concerning
the crime and victimization. Fear of crime has become an increasingly important concept in
criminology, and policy and is often linked with the moral panic theory because of the
relationship between fear of crime and media amplification of the threat of victimization.
The media plays an important role in the criminal justice system and justice
administration. The media helps in highlighting some of the injustices in the community. Media
intervention helps in solving some of the injustices against the society and specific individuals.
Some injustices against the society and also specific individuals. Such as drug cartel schemes
and unequal compensation schemes for communities and individuals affected by some
organizations misconduct, e.g., the mining companies and organizations/factories located in an
area and which produce toxicants to the environment, this is against the law and in turn, affects
the people living around them. Most of the people in this state lack the funds and channel to air
their complaints (Chadee, Derek, Sven Smith, and Christopher Ferguson, 2017). When the media
gets involved in the prosecution of injustices, Media involvement helps in whistleblowing the
issue of persecution. It helps in proper compensation plans for those affected.
The presence of cameras and recordings in the courtrooms, in some cases, create
criticism to the judges. The media presence draws media attention. The public interest generated
affects the whole process criminal justice. In cases like in the O.J. Simpson case during the first
trial when he is charged with murder, everyone expected for the suspect to be pronounced guilty.
The presence of all the attention creates pressure on the judge, and he/she will not be clear when
making his judgment. The general ideology of the public on criminal justice and trial is different
from how the courts are supposed to operate. The verdict of the court to declare Simpson as
innocent controversial with the public view. In this case, people might assume that the judge is
corrupt, which is not the case. Judgments are made regarding the pieces of evidence presented.
Criticism affects the courts negatively demoralizing the judicial officers from performing their
role in the criminal justice system
Media involvement in the criminal justice system through publicity created in some cases
can be significant as well cause harm. In this paragraph, I shall discuss on the relevance in the
criminal justice system. When some cases are made public, other possible witnesses who could
have vital information to help in prosecution may arise. This makes it possible for some
injustices to be prosecuted and punished. This involvement generates the public awareness of the
injustice, and where they may channel them for help. When awareness is created, more people
who were formerly affected by prejudices come up to prosecute the acts. This discourages
The media helps the community in the development of fear crime by bringing into focus
some of the cases of people engaged in criminal activities and the effects of the crimes, impacts
and the cost when the media airs a story of gangs gunned down engaging in crimes. This makes
the public have a fear of engaging in criminal activities. When it shows the effects of crime and
also show that crime should be punished, many people refuse to be victims of crime. They make
decisions to report them to the relevant authorities (Murray, Joseph, and David P. Farrington,
2017). This encourages critical thinking and weighing on the cost of the crime and cost
associated with the crime regarding consequences. It is very hard for someone to commit a crime
or an act if he/ she know the consequences very well.
The media involvement into cases creates publicity, in the case of O.J. Simpson due to
his status being an African American, reporters with African origin suggested in their reporting
that, he was being tried because of his race. Involvement of the media creates misunderstandings
to the public. This creates suggestions that evidence was tampered with. In the criminal justice
system, verdicts are made from the evidence presented. When evidence is tempered with, the
situation suggests that whole system is corrupted hindering justice from taking its full course.
Media involvement creates suggestions that originally never existed. For the case above, I
created the suggestion that trial was not about his guilt but general because of his race. Some
people then tend to commit crimes and hide in the shield of the races.
In cases of some cases involving either people from the high class, it creates the sign of
relief to the public as the chances of corruption of justice is low. This can be discussed from the
publicity point of the case. The publicity brings a lot of public interest from private law firms,
humanitarian organizations and the public in general when publicity has created the chances of
the judge or court officials receiving bribes from the defense lawyers are low. This helps in full
punishment for crimes against humanity.
The involvement of media in the court proceedings affects the witness rights of privacy.
Witnesses need to be provided with protection to secure their lives. Some cases are crucial and
dangerous to the witnesses if they are seen in public, witnesses are not supposed to be known for
security when media is involved the prosecution has to give up the identity of the witnesses. This
risks the lives of the witnesses. The aspect of security may lead to witness’s withdrawal from
cases. When witnesses pull out of cases, the rule of law is hindered from happening. In some
situations of known witnesses, they may withdraw or give false statements for fear of security
leading to destroyed justice. This encourages some criminal activities to happen as those
involved have a way to swim out of the criminal justice system.
Media involvement creates an impression to the public about the accused. For example,
the case of Simpson it created an ideology to the people that he was a criminal even before he
was proven to be. In case the accused is found to be innocent, he/she experiences a lot of
problems trying to prove his character. This creates the public label of the person. Regarding the
labeling theory in principles of criminology, In case the victim finds it hard to cope with the
situation, he may find himself committing other crimes. This is different from the point on a
guilty suspect because in some cases the suspects are innocent. The suspects may have been
framed for committing the crimes. This is when a society makes forces one to be a criminal.
How society’s opinion of the case was affected by media coverage. The public in all
colors, shapes, and sizes tuned in to witness the case’s processes and results. People of all walks
of life discussed then and still to this day, how this beloved football star was now a murderer, not
just a murderer, a murderer of his ex wife. With over 95 million people in shock and awe over
the results of the trial that was described as “a great trash novel come to life”, it was nearly
impossible not to hear about in the US. Before one can get into answering how Simpson and the
case was portrayed by the media, as well as how the media influenced public opinion, one must
first understand what media is. According to the Business Dictionary, media is the
communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data, or promotional
messages are disseminated*. This means that media is the methods of the world communicating
about the world, with the world. Media is the mass of communication, and media impacts
everyone in some way, you are either receiving information, giving information, or you are the
information. However, media can also be considered to be the “re-telling” of information, this
meaning the argument that there is bias in all “re-tellings” of information, for it will never give
the receiver the information as if they were present when said event took place.
Media had gone wild with the case, the trial of OJ Simpson flooded the TV the internet, and
newspapers, the journals, the daily conversations during downtime at work, the trial had become
the new soap opera, people were tuned in everyday to gain more information about the extent of
the trail. Society was reminded everyday about the case. Media had directed public opinion,
however Simpson produced it. The mass majority had considered Simpson to be a criminal, and
he was even before the trial had taken place. Now there is two periods of time to analyze
Simpson portrayal to the public, during the case, and after the case. Some could make the
argument that in both periods, Simpson was hated. And some could make the argument that
Simpson in the beginning was a grieving husband.
However his events that followed, like the” slow speed chase” had changed that public
perception. The media was the frontrunner in public opinion, because it was public opinion, and
aside from that, it seemed to be “as true as it gets”. Simpson was not a good guy before the
murder, why would he be one after. The media portrayed Simpson as himself. The media for the
most part just stated the facts, although the retelling of these facts were bias to skew one’s
opinion towards considering him guilty, when you take the personal opinion away from the
actual information, he could have been proven guilty via a variety of evidence. Simpson had
brought this information to the public, the media just made it easier to see. Society viewed him,
and still views him as guilty.
Some rich cartels buy the media attention to buy their way out of the judicial system.
When some cases are made public, they get the sympathy of the public. (Common in instances
whereby politicians are involved). With compassion for the people, the verdicts are corrupted by
the interest of the public. At times the people find a way out of the judicial system through
destroyed justice and witness bribery. When the public is involved in some cases the rigidness,
and the weight of the case is reduced. This is very bad because the law tends to be bend for the
interest of a few at the expense of the majority. The factor of media involvement and publicity
encourages crimes. This is because the people have a defined way of escaping justice.
When media initially raises concern on someone, the label given to him/her does not vanish
easily. The aspect that one appears in the court to be answerable to some charges. Creates the
idea that the person is one way or another involved in criminal activities. To site the possibility
of this being true, I shall draw my example from the story on the series “POWER.” In season
four, the main character James Patrick popularly known by his suppliers as “GHOST” is a
commonly known drug cartel who has not been brought into light is arrested for the murder of a
federal law enforcement officer, the truth is the person did not commit the murder. But the idea
that he was a suspect suggests that he is not clean in his conduct. This can be the same case in
Simpson’s case (Murray, Joseph, and David P. Farrington, 2017). Any irregularity in future is
easily prosecuted concerning the initial crime. We see in this case late O.J. Simpson is convicted
of a different crime sometime after being released.
In conclusion, I can state that the media play a role in justice administration although it
also does affect the justice delivery. The media also acts as a watchdog for the humanitarian right
and justice delivery to the public. From the articles and research papers, I found out roles of
media whistleblowing in the justice system and despite the roles also the effects of the media in
the general service provision. The only factor I found out was how the law states about the media
involvement and the law states about its commitment. The media, although it has significant
irregularities, the relevance outweighs the irregularities caused. It has done quite significant in
the community in trying to generate fear of crime and prosecution of unlawful behavior in the
society. The media also helps to the public to overcome victimization of crime and its effects.
The reason for trying to find a possible view of the law on the Medias conduct is in the process
of trying to find a solution to the dilemmas caused by the media in justice administration.
Chadee, Derek, Sven Smith, and Christopher J. Ferguson. “Murder She Watched: Does
Watching News or Fictional Media Cultivate Fear of Crime?.” (2017).
Murray, Joseph, and David P. Farrington. “Empirical tests of labeling theory in criminology.”
Labeling Theory. Routledge, 2017. 9-18.
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