Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_nlist() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 420

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 717

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230

Warning: ftp_pwd() expects parameter 1 to be resource, null given in /home/essadpjw/collewriters.com/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-filesystem-ftpext.php on line 230
Expert answer:Open Channel Hydraulics Lab Report - colle writers

Expert answer:Open Channel Hydraulics Lab Report

Solved by verified expert:I need lab report on Flow Measurement and Uniform Flow in Open Channel subject (hydraulics). See Lab handout and lab report guidlines. Also I attached my spreadsheet calculation…………
lab_6.xlsx

lab_6___flow_measurement_and_uniform_flow.pdf

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Expert answer:Open Channel Hydraulics Lab Report
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

lab_report_format.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Observation Station (ft)
xi
i
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
width (ft)
𝝙x
4.9
5.9
6.9
7.9
8.9
9.9
10.9
11.9
12.9
13.9
14.9
15.9
16.9
17.9
18.9
19.9
20.9
21.9
22.9
23.9
24.9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Totals
Qtot =
19.688
cfs
Atot =
14.945
ft^2
Ptot =
20.386
ft
Rtot
0.733
ft
Reach
Length
Bed
W.S
1→2
2→3
3→4
46
88.5
178.75
1→2
46
Depth (ft)
yi
0.25
0.67
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.85
1
1
1
0.9
0.95
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.65
0.6
0.8
0.7
0
Area (ft^2)
An
0.46
0.735
0.85
0.9
0.85
0.825
0.925
1
1
0.95
0.925
0.875
0.8
0.75
0.675
0.625
0.7
0.75
0.35
0
Velocity (ft/s)
Vi
0.06
0.44
0.21
0.73
1.48
1.55
1.74
1.77
0.62
2.23
2.33
1.72
1.31
1.22
1.37
1.31
1.29
1.26
1.13
0
10% Qtot =
1.969
cfs
RHi (ft)
yi (ft)
yH2O (ft)
11.09
11.14
12.13
12.58
11.09
11.14
1.18
0.77
1.03
0.98
1.18
0.77
9.91
10.37
11.1
11.6
9.91
10.37
W.S
nobs
nW.P.C
2→3
3→4
0.04
0.035
88.5
178.75
12.13
12.58
1.03
0.98
Pebble count
1
mm
2.5
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
3.9
9
6.5
6.75
3.75
8
5.9
4.5
3.75
8
10.5
1.75
2.13
11
1.5
3.25
2.13
3
1.75
1.3
5.25
0.8
0.63
0.75
0.63
0.75
0.25
0.5
0.88
Average
3.71
Size Class
Fine gravel
11.1
11.6
D50
Velocity (ft/s)
Vn
0.25
0.325
0.47
1.105
1.515
1.645
1.755
1.195
1.425
2.28
2.025
1.515
1.265
1.295
1.34
1.3
1.275
1.195
0.565
0
Slope (ft/ft)
% of Q
Flow (cfs)
Qn
0
0.584
1.213
2.029
5.051
6.541
6.893
8.246
6.070
7.238
11.002
9.514
6.733
5.140
4.933
4.594
4.127
4.533
4.552
1.004
0.000
0
0.115
0.239
0.400
0.995
1.288
1.357
1.623
1.195
1.425
2.166
1.873
1.326
1.012
0.971
0.905
0.813
0.893
0.896
0.198
0.000
nobs
nW.P.C
Q (cfs)
Q(cfs)
0.0011
0.0112
0.0025
14.882
47.743
22.649
17.008
54.564
25.885
0.0100
45.141
51.589
Perimeter (ft)
Pn
1.085
1.008
1.005
1.000
1.005
1.001
1.011
1.000
1.000
1.005
1.001
1.011
1.000
1.005
1.001
1.001
1.020
1.005
1.221
1.000
0.0082
0.0028
40.997
23.874
46.854
27.285
ECIV 332 Engineering Hydraulics
Lab 6: Flow Measurement and Uniform Flow Labs
Thursday, March 22nd at Bogart Park (meet at parking lot next to ice skating rink – covered area)
Due: Full lab report due Thursday, April 5th in lab
Note: The lab on March 22nd will be used to collect data. The lab on March 29th will be at the
hydraulics lab in Cobleigh and will be used for sharing data collected in the field, answering
questions, and working on data analysis.
Measuring flow in streams, rivers, irrigation canals or other open channels is a very important part of
hydrology or hydraulic studies and engineering design projects. The United States Geological Survey
(USGS) maintains a series of gaging stations throughout the country that collect continuous
measurements of river stage (water height) and flow. The figure below is a hydrograph (flow vs. time)
for a gage station on the Yellowstone River. These stations develop a stage-discharge relationship for a
stream at a particular cross section, which relates the flow rate to the water height (stage) at the section.
Once the relationship is developed, then only the water height is needed to estimate the flow rate.
For many river engineering projects, you may need to establish not only flow but also channel
characteristics in the stream or river that you are working on to aid in engineering design. This lab will be
split into two parts: (1) part 1 involves measuring flow using the USGS midsection technique, and (2) part
two involves characterizing channel characteristics (roughness, slope, area and hydraulic radius) for
calculations with Manning’s equation for uniform flow.
Part I of Lab – Flow Measurement
(1) The first part will be measuring stream discharge using the USGS midsection method. The flow
measurements will be collected in the stream at Bogart Park. A description of the midsection method is
described below and in the attachments, which include selected pages from a USGS manual (Discharge
Measurements at Gaging Stations, Chapter 8 of Book 3, Section A). NOTE: I have posted the full
document titled as: “USGS Flow Measurement Manual” on D2L for those interested in learning more
about this topic.
Flow Measurement Procedure and Considerations
The velocity of water in a stream is very chaotic, varying in time and in all three spatial dimensions. To
overcome temporal variation we usually use a mechanical (or acoustic, or hot-wire….) velocimeter,
holding it in a particular location for a period of time (30 seconds to a couple minutes) to achieve a timeaverage. The time-averaged velocity at that location tends to adequately represent the average of all the
highs and lows (from the chaos and turbulence) that really do occur. When using a mechanical meter,
such as a Gurley meter, we have to assume that water flows primarily perpendicular to the transect we
establish. The velocity we measure in this case is actually that of the resultant velocity vector on the
horizontal plane. Acousic-Doppler velocimeters provide the component vectors along the cardinal axes
and can sample and record almost instantaneous velocity with sample frequencies on the order of 100 Hz
(100 measurements per second). The velocimeters we use in the lab and the commonly used Gurley
meter are shown in Figure 8 below.
Figure 8. Example of velocimeter or flow meters used to collect velocity data in natural channels.
Now that we know that our velocimeter can time-average the velocity on a horizontal plane, reasonable
questions are – at what depth and how many locations in a stream cross section should we measure the
velocity? Figure 9 below shows how a cross section can be divided into polygons, where a single
polygon is shown as the shaded area. There are two graphs in Figure 9 because sometimes the water is
deep enough to afford velocity measurements at 0.2d and 0.8d (preferred for streams with depths greater
than 2.5 ft), and sometimes it is shallower and we only collect velocity measurements at one depth, 0.6d.
Figure 9. A sketch of the locations of velocity measurements for the USGS midsection method.
Notice that “d” in Figure 9 is the distance from the water surface down to the bed at any vertical line in
the cross section, and “y” is the “flow depth” which is a single value and is measured from the bed at the
thalweg up to the water surface. The thalweg is the deepest part of the channel cross section. So, 0.6d is
60% of the depth at the measurement point, and is measured from the water surface downward.
Calculation of Flow
How many polygons do you need to estimate the flow? Generally speaking, this can be a trial and error
process. Typically, you want to have no more than 5 to 10% of the total flow in any given polygon. For
this lab exercise, we will use 10%. The best way to ensure this is to calculate each polygons flow in the
field prior to taking down your equipment. If a polygon has greater than 0.1Q in it, then you need to split
it into two and re-measure velocity. Another way to do this is to split the cross section into 20 polygons
right away. An efficient way to do this is to measure the wetted width of the channel, then divide it by
20, then round down to identify how wide each polygon is. IT IS BETTER TO TAKE MORE
MEASUREMENTS THAN LESS.
A few additional things to consider when collecting stream discharge include finding a reach or section of
stream that has uniform flow characteristics. Measurement of stream discharge is highly dependent on
selecting a cross-section that exhibits uniform flow conditions. The ideal cross section for flow
measurement will be in a straight section of stream with a relatively simple and “uniform” cross section.
A “uniform” cross section is a portion of the stream that does not have any undercuts, large boulders, or
other irregularities (such as channel bends) that will create unusual flow conditions. Typically, riffles or
runs are good locations for measuring stream flow because they have a simple cross section and are in
straight reaches which are as close to “uniform” flow as exists in natural channels. I’ve attached selected
pages from the Discharge Measurements at Gaging Stations, Chapter 8 of Book 3, Section A document
prepared by the USGS further that describe site selection and related considerations for measuring flow.
The best way to collect stream discharge field data is to create a table for tabulating the measurements.
Typically you start on the left bank (defined as station 0.0 ft) and progress across the section to the right
bank. Left bank and right bank are ALWAYS oriented from the perspective of a person looking
downstream as if they are floating down the river. This may seem like a silly point, but this is absolutely
critical to collect the data in the correct orientation, otherwise everything is off by 180°.
Assignment for Flow Measurement Part
Select an appropriate cross section, set up the equipment, and measure flow following the midsection
technique.
Calculations and graphs that you need to include for this part of the lab.
For this part of the lab report, you will want to, at a minimum, include a table of your field data, a graphic
of the cross section, and the total Q. Photographs of the measurement section are always good to include.
Some key equipment needed for measuring discharge includes (at a minimum):








A flow meter (including any data storage devices or calculators).
A wading rod for attaching the flow meter, and for measuring water depth.
An engineering tape (at least 100 ft tape).
Two stakes and two clamps to secure tape to stakes.
A hammer or other object to install stakes in the stream bank.
A field notebook and pen for recording data.
A camera.
Waders and other PPE (raingear, gloves, etc.) to get into stream for taking measurements.
Part II of Lab – Uniform Flow
(2) The second part of the field lab involves measuring the parameters used to estimate uniform flow
conditions based on Manning’s equation (below).
𝑄=
2
1.486
3 𝑆 0.5
𝐴𝑅
𝑛
Where: Q is flow in (ft3/s)
n is channel roughness
A is cross sectional area (ft2)
R is the hydraulic radius of cross section (ft)
S is the slope, typically taken as the water surface slope or channel bed slope when
measuring it in the field (ft/ft)
You will be measuring or estimating n, A, R and S at Bogart Park for this part of the lab. The following
paragraphs provide guidance on how to collect these data.
Uniform Flow Data Collection
n (channel roughness)
Note: You will estimate roughness two ways in this lab (estimate from tables based on field observations,
and calculate using Manning’s).
Channel roughness approximates the irregularities of a natural channel bottom or an engineered surface
(for example concrete). One common way to estimate n is to select an appropriate value from a table.
The table in the attachments, originally from Chow, 1954, is a good summary of roughness values and is
often used in hydraulic engineering design. Based on observations of the stream channel in the field, you
select an appropriate roughness from the table (in attachment). You want to observe the gradation of
particles on the stream bed, the amount of vegetation (weeds) or woody debris in the channel, and other
physical features that will create roughness and thus influence how water flows.
Another way to estimate roughness is to use Manning’s equation and solve for n, based on measurements
of Q, A, R and S. To do this, you rearrange Manning’s equation and solve for n using the measured
values for the other variables.
A (cross section of flow)
You can use the measurements you collected to estimate Q using the midsection technique to estimate the
flow area (A).
R (hydraulic radius)
The following equation is used to calculate R:
𝑅=
𝐴
𝑃
Where: R is hydraulic radius (ft)
A is cross section of flow (ft2)
P is the wetted perimeter (ft)
To find R, you need to calculate the wetted perimeter of the channel section using the data you collected
to estimate discharge, and the cross sectional area of flow. Remember that the wetted perimeter is the
length of channel bottom that is wet (see diagram below).
P3
P1
P2
Figure showing the wetted perimeter (sum the lengths P1 + P2 + P3) and cross section of flow (dashed
lines) for a simplified natural channel.
S (slope)
In uniform flow, we assume the energy slope, channel bottom slope and the water surface slope are
parallel and thus by measuring one, you know the others. In the field, you should measure two slopes:
one is the channel bottom slope, typically measured from riffle crest to riffle crest, and the second is the
water surface slope, typically measured from one riffle crest to another riffle crest. Slope is simply
rise/run. Use a tripod, survey level and rod to measure the elevations, and an engineering tape to measure
the horizontal distance.
𝑆=
∆𝑦
∆𝐿
Where: S is slope (water surface or channel bottom)
∆y = vertical difference in water surface elevation or channel bottom elevation
∆L = horizontal distance between points where you measured the vertical differences
Other calculations and graphs that you need to make and discuss in your lab report include the
following:
Uniform flow and Manning’s equation are very sensitive to estimates of channel roughness and slope. To
evaluate the effect of n and S on the predicted discharge show a graph of Q vs. S and Q vs. n for a range
of S and n values that bracket the field measured values. The graphs are an effective way of showing
these effects. Discuss the effects of roughness and slope on your estimate of Q using uniform flow, and
your measured Q.
What is the channel velocity assuming uniform flow conditions? How does the uniform flow velocity
compare to the measured velocities? Mean measured velocity? Maximum and minimum velocity? Why
do they differ?
Channel conveyance (K) is often used in hydraulic engineering applications and is a measure of the
carrying capacity of a section of channel. Estimate channel conveyance using the following equation.
𝐾=
1.486 2
𝐴𝑅 3
𝑛
Where: K is channel conveyance
n is channel roughness
A is cross section of flow (ft2)
R is hydraulic radius (ft)
Some key equipment needed for measuring uniform flow includes (at a minimum):





An engineering tape.
Stakes and clamps (2 each minimum) to secure tape.
A hammer or other object to install stakes.
A survey level, legs and a rod for measuring slope.
A camera.


A field notebook and pen for recording data.
Waders and other PPE (raingear, gloves, etc.) to get into stream for taking measurements.
Field Data Collection Summary Checklist:
You should have collected the following data, at a minimum, for this lab before leaving Bogart:
(1) A site location sketch that shows the reach or section of stream where you collected data. The
map should show key features of the data collection area including the channel, banks, and
nearby setting.
(2) Photographs of the flow measurement location and stream reach.
(3) Total Stream Discharge (Q). You should have a table with station, water depth and velocity
measurements tabulated in the field in order to calculate Q.
(4) Cross – section area (A).
(5) Hydraulic radius (R).
(6) Channel roughness (n).
(7) Channel slope (S).
(8) Water Surface slope (S).
Attachments:
(1) Selected pages from USGS flow measurement guidance.
(2) Manning’s n table from Chow for estimating roughness in the field.
Manning’s n for Channels (Chow, 1959).
Type of Channel and Description
Minimum
Normal
Maximum
Natural streams – minor streams (top width at floodstage < 100 ft) 1. Main Channels a. clean, straight, full stage, no rifts or deep pools 0.025 0.030 0.033 b. same as above, but more stones and weeds 0.030 0.035 0.040 c. clean, winding, some pools and shoals 0.033 0.040 0.045 d. same as above, but some weeds and stones 0.035 0.045 0.050 e. same as above, lower stages, more ineffective slopes and sections 0.040 0.048 0.055 f. same as "d" with more stones 0.045 0.050 0.060 g. sluggish reaches, weedy, deep pools 0.050 0.070 0.080 h. very weedy reaches, deep pools, or floodways with heavy stand of timber and underbrush 0.075 0.100 0.150 2. Mountain streams, no vegetation in channel, banks usually steep, trees and brush along banks submerged at high stages a. bottom: gravels, cobbles, and few boulders 0.030 0.040 0.050 b. bottom: cobbles with large boulders 0.040 0.050 0.070 1.short grass 0.025 0.030 0.035 2. high grass 0.030 0.035 0.050 1. no crop 0.020 0.030 0.040 2. mature row crops 0.025 0.035 0.045 3. mature field crops 0.030 0.040 0.050 1. scattered brush, heavy weeds 0.035 0.050 0.070 2. light brush and trees, in winter 0.035 0.050 0.060 3. light brush and trees, in summer 0.040 0.060 0.080 4. medium to dense brush, in winter 0.045 0.070 0.110 5. medium to dense brush, in summer 0.070 0.100 0.160 0.110 0.150 0.200 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.050 0.060 0.080 3. Floodplains a. Pasture, no brush b. Cultivated areas c. Brush d. Trees 1. dense willows, summer, straight 2. cleared land with tree stumps, no sprouts 3. same as above, but with heavy growth of sprouts 4. heavy stand of timber, a few down trees, little undergrowth, flood stage below branches 0.080 0.100 0.120 5. same as 4. with flood stage reaching branches 0.100 0.120 0.160 1. clean, recently completed 0.016 0.018 0.020 2. clean, after weathering 0.018 0.022 0.025 3. gravel, uniform section, clean 0.022 0.025 0.030 4. with short grass, few weeds 0.022 0.027 0.033 1. no vegetation 0.023 0.025 0.030 2. grass, some weeds 0.025 0.030 0.033 3. dense weeds or aquatic plants in deep channels 0.030 0.035 0.040 4. earth bottom and rubble sides 0.028 0.030 0.035 5. stony bottom and weedy banks 0.025 0.035 0.040 6. cobble bottom and clean sides 0.030 0.040 0.050 1. no vegetation 0.025 0.028 0.033 2. light brush on banks 0.035 0.050 0.060 1. smooth and uniform 0.025 0.035 0.040 2. jagged and irregular 0.035 0.040 0.050 1. dense weeds, high as flow depth 0.050 0.080 0.120 2. clean bottom, brush on sides 0.040 0.050 0.080 3. same as above, highest stage of flow 0.045 0.070 0.110 4. dense brush, high stage 0.080 0.100 0.140 1. neat surface 0.010 0.011 0.013 2. mortar 0.011 0.013 0.015 1. planed, untreated 0.010 0.012 0.014 2. planed, creosoted 0.011 0.012 0.015 3. unplaned 0.011 0.013 0.015 4. plank with battens 0.012 0.015 0.018 5. lined with roofing paper 0.010 0.014 0.017 4. Excavated or Dredged Channels a. Earth, straight, and uniform b. Earth winding and sluggish c. Dragline-excavated or dredged d. Rock cuts e. Channels not maintained, weeds and brush uncut 5. Lined or Constructed Channels a. Cement b. Wood c. Concrete 1. trowel finish 0.011 0.013 0.015 2. float finish 0.013 0.015 0.016 3. finished, with gravel on bottom 0.015 0.017 0.020 4. unfinished 0.014 0.017 0.020 5. gunite, good section 0.016 0.019 0.023 6. gunite, wavy section 0.018 0.022 0.025 7. on good excavated rock 0.017 0.020 8. on irregular excavated rock 0.022 0.027 1. dressed stone in mortar 0.015 0.017 0.020 2. random stone in mortar 0.017 0.020 0.024 3. cement rubble masonry, plastered 0.016 0.020 0.024 4. cement rubble masonry 0.020 0.025 0.030 5. dry rubble or riprap 0.020 0.030 0.035 1. formed concrete 0.017 0.020 0.025 2. random stone mortar 0.020 0.023 0.026 3. dry rubble or riprap 0.023 0.033 0.036 1. glazed 0.011 0.013 0.015 2. in cement mortar 0.012 0.015 0.018 1. cemented rubble 0.017 0.025 0.030 2. dry rubble 0.023 0.032 0.035 0.013 0.015 0.017 1. smooth 0.013 0.013 2. rough 0.016 0.016 d. Concrete bottom float finish with sides of: e. Gravel bottom with sides of: f. Brick g. Masonry h. ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code ESSAYSHELP