Expert answer:Reading a case and preparing a memorandum that add

Solved by verified expert:Read the Union Carbide Corporation and Bhopal case that begins on page 384 of your Business, Government, and Society textbook. In lieu of answering the questions that follow the case, you will respond to the prompt below;Consider the concerns as described in this case and prepare a memorandum that addresses the concerns described below. Your memo should be completed in narrative form (you may use headings if you choose to do so for organizational purposes, but do not list your responses in bullet form). Maximum page length: 10 pages (double-spaced).Identify all of the potential ethical issues you see (if any). Describe and analyze the implications of each issue, including who or what were affected by the company’s response. In identifying issues and addressing their implications, your discussion should be as comprehensive as possible—you should consider any economic, social, or ecological implications, as well as the potential impact at least two cultural differences you can identify. Additionally, your analysis should thoroughly identify and discuss at least two potential courses of action that the company could have taken with respect to each issue you have discussed. Clearly demonstrate your reasoning process—identify and explain any ethical principles or arguments you are relying on; do not simply state unsupported conclusions. If you choose to apply any approaches to ethical reasoning that you learned about in this course, clearly state what they are and how you are applying them to this case. Of the possible solutions you identified, which would you recommend that the company should have adopted as a resolution? Again, fully explain and justify your recommendations. Finally, explain how you would implement each solution you have recommended.
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The thirteenth edition continues a long effort to tell the story of how forces in business,
government, and society shape our world. In addition, an emphasis on management issues and
processes allows students to apply the principles they learn to real-world situations.
13E
As always, a stream of events dictated the need for extensive revision. Accordingly, the authors
have updated the chapters to include new ideas, events, personalities, and publications, while
continuing the work of building insight into basic underlying principles, institutions, and forces.
Business,
Government,
and Society
A Managerial Perspective
Text and Cases
Steiner
Steiner
To learn more, visit this book’s Online Learning Center at
www.mhhe.com/steiner13e
ISBN 978-0-07-811267-6
MHID 0-07-811267-2
90000
EAN
9
780078 112676
www.mhhe.com
John F. Steiner
George A. Steiner
MD DALIM #1142568 5/3/11 CYAN MAG YELO BLK
Business, Government, and Society
Text and Cases
An expanded discussion of white collar crime and criminal prosecution of both
managers and corporations in Chapter 7, “Business Ethics.”
A new section on the neural basis of ethical decisions in Chapter 8, “Making Ethical
Decisions in Business.”
An expanded discussion of lobbying ethics as well as a revised discussion of corporate money in elections and recent changes in election law in Chapter 9, “Business in
Politics.”
A new fifth wave, “terrorism and financial crisis,” has been added to the four historical waves of regulatory growth in Chapter 10, “Regulating Business.”
A new discussion of globalization, including the rise of the modern trading system
and coverage of various trade organizations, such as the IMF and World Bank, in
Chapter 12, “Globalization, Trade, and Corruption.”
New sections in Chapter 15, “Consumerism,” including Thoreau’s rejection of
materialism, arguments defending consumerism, and a description of the consumer
protection activities of the Federal Trade Commission.
Added emphasis on the nature and significance of diversity management programs in
corporations in Chapter 17, “Civil Rights, Women, and Diversity.”
New coverage of the story of the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy and of the new
governance reforms in the wake of the recent financial crisis in Chapter 18,
“Corporate Governance.”
A Managerial Perspective
Highlights of the Thirteenth Edition include:
Thirteenth Edition
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Business,
Government,
and Society
A Managerial Perspective,
Text and Cases
Thirteenth Edition
John F. Steiner
Professor of Management,
Emeritus California State
University, Los Angeles
George A. Steiner
Harry and Elsa Kunin
Professor of Business and
Society and Professor of
Management, Emeritus, UCLA
ste12672_fm_i-xvi.indd Page ii 5/2/11 9:51 PM user-f497
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BUSINESS, GOVERNMENT, AND SOCIETY:
A MANAGERIAL PERSPECTIVE, TEXT AND CASES
Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, NY, 10020. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1997, 1994, 1991, 1988, 1985, 1980 by The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any
means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN 978-0-07-811267-6
MHID 0-07-811267-2
Vice president and editor-in-chief: Brent Gordon
Editorial director: Paul Ducham
Executive director of development: Ann Torbert
Managing development editor: Laura Hurst Spell
Editorial coordinator: Jonathan Thornton
Vice president and director of marketing: Robin J. Zwettler
Marketing director: Amee Mosley
Market development specialist: Jaime Halteman
Vice president of editing, design, and production: Sesha Bolisetty
Lead project manager: Christine A. Vaughan
Buyer II: Debra R. Sylvester
Design coordinator: Joanne Mennemeier
Senior photo research coordinator: Keri Johnson
Media project manager: Suresh Babu, Hurix Systems Pvt. Ltd.
Cover images: © Ingram Publishing; © Skip Nall/Getty Images; © Royalty-Free/CORBIS; © Hisham F. Ibrahim/Getty Images;
© Getty Images/Digital Vision; © U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Demetrius Kennon
Typeface: 10/12 Palatino
Compositor: Aptara®, Inc.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Steiner, John F.
Business, government, and society : a managerial perspective: text and
cases / John F. Steiner, George A. Steiner.—13th ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-07-811267-6 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-07-811267-2 (alk. paper)
1. Industries—Social aspects—United States. 2. Industrial policy—United
States. 3. Social responsibility of business—United States. I. Steiner, George Albert,
1912- II. Title.
HD60.5.U5S8 2012
658.4—dc22
2011007905
www.mhhe.com
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We dedicate this book to the memory of
Jean Wood Steiner.
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Brief Table of Contents
Preface
PART FIVE Multinational Corporations
and Globalization
xi
PART ONE A Framework for Studying
Business, Government, and
Society
1 The Study of Business,
Government, and Society 1
2 The Dynamic Environment
3 Business Power
22
55
4 Critics of Business
83
PART TWO The Nature and
Management of Corporate
Responsibility
5 Corporate Social
Responsibility 121
PART THREE Managing Ethics
8 Making Ethical Decisions in
Business 238
PART FOUR Business and Government
10 Regulating Business
iv
12 Globalization, Trade, and
Corruption 395
PART SIX Corporations and the
Natural Environment
13 Industrial Pollution and
Environmental Regulation 436
14 Managing Environmental
Quality 476
PART SEVEN Consumerism
15 Consumerism
512
16 The Changing Workplace
549
17 Civil Rights, Women, and
Diversity 585
PART NINE Corporate Governance
194
9 Business in Politics
352
PART EIGHT Human Resources
6 Implementing Corporate Social
Responsibility 157
7 Business Ethics
11 Multinational Corporations
271
316
18 Corporate Governance
630
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Table of Contents
Preface
xi
PART ONE
A Framework for Studying Business,
Government, and Society
Chapter 1
The Study of Business, Government,
and Society 1
ExxonMobil Corporation 1
What Is the Business–Government–Society
Field? 4
Why Is the BGS Field Important to
Managers? 7
Four Models of the BGS Relationship 8
The Market Capitalism Model 9
The Dominance Model 12
The Countervailing Forces Model 15
The Stakeholder Model 16
Our Approach to the Subject Matter
20
Comprehensive Scope 20
Interdisciplinary Approach with a Management
Focus 20
Use of Theory, Description, and Case Studies 20
Global Perspective 21
Historical Perspective 21
Chapter 2
The Dynamic Environment
Royal Dutch Shell PLC 22
Deep Historical Forces at Work
The Industrial Revolution
Inequality 25
Population Growth 28
Technology 30
Globalization 32
Nation-States 33
25
22
24
Dominant Ideologies 34
Great Leadership 35
Chance 35
Six External Environments of Business
36
The Economic Environment 36
The Technological Environment 38
The Cultural Environment 39
The Government Environment 41
The Legal Environment 42
The Natural Environment 43
The Internal Environment 44
Concluding Observations 45
Case Study: The American Fur Company 47
Chapter 3
Business Power
55
James B. Duke and The American Tobacco
Company 55
The Nature of Business Power 58
What Is Power? 58
Levels and Spheres of Corporate Power 59
The Story of the Railroads 61
Two Perspectives on Business Power 64
The Dominance Theory
Pluralist Theory 71
65
Concluding Observations 75
Case Study: John D. Rockefeller and the
Standard Oil Trust 75
Chapter 4
Critics of Business
83
Mary “Mother” Jones 83
Origins of Critical Attitudes Toward
Business 86
The Greeks and Romans 86
The Medieval World 88
The Modern World 88
v
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vi Table of Contents
The American Critique of Business
89
Global Corporate Responsibility
The Colonial Era 89
The Young Nation 90
1800–1865 91
Populists and Progressives 93
Socialists 95
The Great Depression and World
War II 99
The Collapse of Confidence 100
The New Progressives 102
Global Critics
Assessing the Evolving Global CSR
System 146
Concluding Observations 146
Case Study: Jack Welch at General
Electric 147
103
The Story of Liberalism 104
The Rise of Neoliberalism 105
Agenda of the Global Justice
Movement 106
Global Activism 108
Chapter 6
Implementing Corporate Social
Responsibility 157
Concluding Observations 110
Case Study: A Campaign against KFC
Corporation 112
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 157
Managing the Responsive Corporation 160
Leadership and Business Models 160
A Model of CSR Implementation 162
PART TWO
The Nature and Management of
Corporate Responsibility
Chapter 5
Corporate Social Responsibility
138
Development of Norms and Principles 138
Codes of Conduct 140
Reporting and Verification Standards 142
Certification and Labeling Schemes 142
Management Standards 143
Social Investment and Lending 144
Government Actions 144
Civil Society Vigilance 145
121
Merck & Co., Inc. 121
The Evolving Idea of Corporate Social
Responsibility 123
Social Responsibility in Classical Economic
Theory 125
The Early Charitable Impulse 125
Social Responsibility in the Late Nineteenth and
Early Twentieth Centuries 127
1950 to the Present 129
Basic Elements of Social Responsibility 131
General Principles 133
Are Social and Financial Performance
Related? 134
Corporate Social Responsibility in a Global
Context 135
The Problem of Cross-Border Corporate
Power 136
The Rise of New Global Values 137
CSR Review 163
CSR Strategy 167
Implementation of CSR Strategy 168
Reporting and Verification 171
How Effectively Is CSR Implemented?
Corporate Philanthropy 175
Patterns of Corporate Giving 175
Strategic Philanthropy 177
Cause Marketing 179
New Forms of Philanthropy 181
Concluding Observations 183
Case Study: Marc Kasky versus
Nike 183
PART THREE
Managing Ethics
Chapter 7
Business Ethics
194
Bernard Ebbers 194
What Are Business Ethics? 197
Two Theories of Business Ethics 198
174
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Table of Contents vii
Major Sources of Ethical Values in
Business 200
Religion 201
Philosophy 202
Cultural Experience
Law 206
204
Factors That Influence Managerial
Ethics 212
Leadership 212
Strategies and Policies 214
Corporate Culture 215
Individual Characteristics 218
How Corporations Manage
Ethics 220
Ethics and Compliance Programs: An
Assessment 227
Concluding Observations 228
Case Study: The Trial of Martha
Stewart 229
Chapter 8
Making Ethical Decisions in
Business 238
David Geffen 238
Principles of Ethical Conduct
241
The Categorical Imperative 241
The Conventionalist Ethic 242
The Disclosure Rule 243
The Doctrine of the Mean 244
The Ends–Means Ethic 244
The Golden Rule 245
The Intuition Ethic 246
The Might-Equals-Right Ethic 246
The Organization Ethic 247
The Principle of Equal Freedom 248
The Proportionality Ethic 248
The Rights Ethic 249
The Theory of Justice 249
The Utilitarian Ethic 251
Reasoning with Principles 251
Character Development 253
The Neural Basis of Ethical
Decisions 253
Probing Ethical Decisions 254
Emotions and Intuition 256
Practical Suggestions for Making Ethical
Decisions 257
Concluding Observations 259
Case Studies: Short Incidents for Ethical
Reasoning 260
Tangled Webs 264
PART FOUR
Business and Government
Chapter 9
Business in Politics
271
Paul Magliocchetti and Associates 271
The Open Structure of American
Government 275
A History of Political Dominance by
Business 277
Laying the Groundwork 277
Ascendance, Corruption, and Reform 278
Business Falls Back under the New Deal 280
Postwar Politics and Winds of Change 281
The Rise of Antagonistic Groups 282
Diffusion of Power in Government 283
The Universe of Organized Business
Interests 284
Lobbying 287
Lobbying Methods 288
Power and Limits 290
Regulation of Lobbyists 291
The Corporate Role in Elections
293
Efforts to Limit Corporate Influence 294
The Federal Election Campaign Act 295
Political Action Committees 296
Soft Money and Issue Advertising 298
Reform Legislation in 2002 299
How Business Dollars Enter
Elections 301
Concluding Observations 303
Case Study: Citizens United v. Federal
Election Commission 304
Chapter 10
Regulating Business
316
The Federal Aviation Administration
316
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viii Table of Contents
Why Government Regulates Business
Flaws in the Market 319
Social and Political Reasons for Regulation
Waves of Growth
319
Criticism of the Global Compact
320
320
327
Ascent and Inertia
337
The Regulatory Burden 337
Benefits of Regulations 339
Regulation in Other Nations 340
Concluding Observations 342
Case Study: Good and Evil on the
Rails 342
Chapter 11
Multinational Corporations
The Coca-Cola Company 352
The Multinational Corporation
395
400
402
The Rise and Fall of Trade 402
A New Postwar Order 404
Success and Evolution 404
The World Trade Organization 406
Regional Trade Agreements 409
Free Trade versus Protectionism
PART FIVE
Multinational Corporations and
Globalization
352
354
A Statistical Perspective 356
How Transnational Is a Corporation? 358
Breaking the Bonds of Country: Weatherford
International 359
362
381
Chapter 12
Globalization, Trade, and
Corruption 395
Trade
Costs and Benefits of Regulation
FDI in Developing Economies
379
Concluding Observations 383
Case Study: Union Carbide Corporation and
Bhopal 384
McDonald’s Corporation
Globalization 397
Regulatory Statutes 327
Rulemaking 329
Presidential Oversight 332
Congressional Oversight 334
Challenges in the Courts 335
Foreign Direct Investment
The Alien Tort Claims Act
411
Why Free Trade? 411
Why Protectionism? 412
The Politics of Protectionism 413
Free Trade Responses to Protectionism 415
U.S. Deviation from Free Trade Policy 416
Tariff Barriers in Other Countries 416
Corruption
417
A Spectrum of Corruption 418
The Fight Against Corruption 420
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 422
Corporate Actions to Fight Corruption 425
Concluding Observations 426
Case Study: David and Goliath at the
WTO 427
PART SIX
Corporations and the Natural
Environment
364
International Codes of Conduct 367
The OECD Guidelines for Multinational
Enterprises 369
How the OECD Guidelines Work
Vedanta Resources 371
369
375
378
The Drummond Company on Trial
Wave 1: The Young Nation 321
Wave 2: Confronting Railroads and Trusts 322
Wave 3: The New Deal 323
Wave 4: Administering the Social
Revolution 324
Wave 5: Terrorism and Financial Crisis 325
War Blips 327
How Regulations Are Made
The United Nations Global Compact
Chapter 13
Industrial Pollution and
Environmental Regulation
The Majestic Hudson River
436
436
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Table of Contents ix
Pollution
438
Consumerism
Human Health 439
The Biosphere 440
Industrial Activity and Sustainability
Ideas Shape Attitudes Toward the
Environment 444
New Ideas Challenge the Old
442
In Defense of Consumerism
445
The Consumer’s Protective Shield
447
Principal Areas of Environmental Policy
Air 448
Water 458
Land 459
Concluding Observations 463
Case Study: A World Melting Away
464
The Commerce Railyards 476
Regulating Environmental Risk 479
Analyzing Human Health Risks 479
Risk Assessment 480
Risk Management 486
487
491
Command-and-Control Regulation 491
Market Incentive Regulation 492
Voluntary Regulation 498
Managing Environmental Quality
Environmental Management Systems
A Range of Actions 501
Product Liability
534
Concluding Observations 538
Case Study: Alcohol Advertising
499
500
537
538
PART EIGHT
Human Resources
Chapter 16
The Changing Workplace
Advantages 488
Criticisms 489
Control Options
448
524
525
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 526
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) 527
The Consumer Product Safety Commission
(CPSC) 529
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA) 530
Consumer Protection by Other Agencies 532
Negligence 534
Warranty 535
Strict Liability 536
Costs and Benefits of the Tort System
Chapter 14
Managing Environmental
Quality 476
Cost–Benefit Analysis
523
Consumerism as a Protective Movement
Environmental Regulation in the
United States 447
The Environmental Protection Agency
515
Consumerism as an Ideology 515
Consumerism Rises in America 516
Consumerism in Perspective 518
The Global Rise of Consumerism 522
549
Ford Motor Company 549
External Forces Shaping the Workplace
552
Demographic Change 553
Technological Change 555
Structural Change 556
Competitive Pressures 558
Reorganization of Work 560
Concluding Observations 503
Case Study: Harvesting Risk 503
Government Intervention
PART SEVEN
Consumerism
Work and Worker Protection in Japan and
Europe 569
Chapter 15
Consumerism
Harvey W. Wiley
562
Development of Labor Regulation in the United
States 562
Japan 569
Europe 570
512
512
Labor Regulation in Perspective 572
Concluding Observations 572
Case Study: A Tale of Two Raids 575
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x Table of Contents
Chapter 17
Civil Rights, Women, and
Diversity 585
PART NINE
Corporate Governance
The Employment Non-Discrimination Act
A Short History of Workplace Civil
Rights 587
585
Affirmative Action
598
The Supreme Court Changes Title VII
The Affirmative Action Debate
601
602
639
Enron Corp. 640
Other Failures of Governance 644
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act 645
Lehman Brothers 646
The Dodd-Frank Act 650
Boards of Directors
651
Executive Compensation
655
Components of Executive Compensation 655
Problems with CEO Compensation 659
614
Elements of Diversity Programs
599
639
Federal Regulation of Governance
Duties of Directors 652
Board Composition 652
Board Dynamics 653
Gender Attitudes at Work 604
Subtle Discrimination 605
Sexual Harassment 607
Occupational Segregation 610
Compensation 612
Diversity
595
597
Executive Order 11246
Women at Work
Stockholders 636
Shareholder Resolutions 638
Assessing Shareholder Influence
594
Disparate Treatment and Disparate Impact
The Griggs Case 596
630
Mark Hurd 630
What Is Corporate Governance? 633
The Corporate Charter 634
Power in Corporate Governance: Theory and
Reality 636
The Colonial Era 588
Civil War and Reconstruction 589
Other Groups Face Employment
Discrimination 590
The Civil Rights Cases 591
Plessy v. Ferguson 592
Long Years of Discrimination 593
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
Chapter 18
Corporate Governance
616
Concluding Observations 618
Case Study: Adarand v. Peña 619
Concluding Observations 663
Case Study: High Noon at HewlettPackard 664
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