Expert answer:Simple response to article and a short comment to

Solved by verified expert:(1) Read the article and respond to each questions/task below:Posts should be a minimum of 200 words, but do not exceed 500 words for all questions.Posts should be relevant to the topic being discussed, but should also attempt to introduce a new point of view or piece of information or otherwise further the discussionPosts should use correct grammar, punctuation and vocabulary appropriate for a college-level course.Misuse of the discussion boards will not be tolerated.What is the argument of the article?Identify one point/evidence used to support the authors argument, and analyze the evidence. Is it strong or weak evidence, and why?What is the compromise in this article? (Remember that Rogerian arguments will have a compromise).Create one analytical question based on the article. An analytical question expands our understanding of the text, but can’t be easily answered (i.e. not a yes or no response). ——————-(2) Also comment to the following response (other’s answers to the first task you just did):1. The main argument of the article “Katie Couric and Celebrity Medicine Syndrome” by Julia Belluz and Steven J. Hoffman is that people are willing to believe celebrities, even though these celebrities are not a professional in said trade.2. “Classical conditioning suggests that we learn to psychologically associate unrelated stimuli in a way that exposure to them achieves similar responses. This means warm feelings toward celebrities are stirred up in us by the things they pitch. It’s no surprise, then, that PepsiCo paid Beyoncé $50 million to promote its products.” (¶7)This is a extremely strong piece of evidence. Pepsi wouldn’t pay Beyoncé that kind of money to endorse if they weren’t expecting a greater return. 3. The comprise of this article is “Recognizing that it is a human vulnerability and a serious public health challenge” (¶10). by doing this people would think before they follow other celebrities.4. If you were a celebrities, did you take a responsibility to the public for the products that you endorse?Do not simply “agree” or “disagree”. Remember to stay on or at least close to the topic. Try to focus on meaningful discussion vs. your number of posts, otherwise it becomes clear that you are posting just to try to meet the requirements.
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Health
Page B5
Sunday, Dec. 29, 2013
Untreated sleep apnea
contributes to a host
of health problems
DEAR DR. ROSENBERG: I read online
that sleep apnea can make cancer worse.
This particular article was about melanomas.
Is this true? My husband has sleep apnea
and refuses to wear his CPAP or seek an
alternative treatment.
A: Yes, it would
SLEEP WELL appear
so. This is at
least the third study
published in the
past year that shows
either an increased
incidence of cancer
DR. ROBERT or an increased death
ROSENBERG rate due to cancer in
untreated sleep apnea.
In this study, the spread of melanoma was
accelerated in patients with untreated sleep
apnea. The theory is that the low oxygen as
a result of the airway obstruction causes the
development of new blood vessels that feed
the cancer and increase its growth rate.
DEAR DR. ROSENBERG: I have high
blood pressure and diabetes. My wife says I
snore like a freight train. She told my doctor
and he insists that I get a sleep study. Why?
A: The incidence of sleep apnea is very
high in diabetes and hypertension. In fact,
the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
just came out with a recommendation that
patients with either of these disorders get
tested for sleep apnea. The good news is
that if you have sleep apnea, diabetes and
hypertension are much easier to control.
DEAR DR. ROSENBERG: I have had two
stents placed in my coronary arteries for
blockages. During a recent hospitalization,
it was noted by nursing personnel that my
oxygen levels dropped while asleep. As a result, my cardiologist wants me to get a sleep
study. I have no symptoms of sleep apnea
such as sleepiness or fatigue and I feel that
my sleep is fine. What is the point?
A: The point is that many people without
symptoms can have problems that lead
to heart attacks and strokes. In a study
published this month in the journal Chest,
patients with sleep apnea and no symptoms
were studied. Those patients showed significant problems with how their blood vessels
responded to stresses such as low oxygen.
The impaired ability to dilate and produce
increased blood flow to organs such as the
heart is called endothelial dysfunction. After
six months of treatment of sleep apnea
there was a marked improvement. Mind you,
these patients were selected for the study
because, like you, they had no symptoms of
sleep apnea. I would listen to my cardiologist and if you have sleep apnea, send the
nurses a thank you note. They may have
prevented you from having more blockages.
DEAR DR. ROSENBERG: I have heard
that sleep apnea can cause cardiac-related
death in those who do not treat it. In fact,
I believe that may have happened to the
football player Reggie White. My husband
has severe sleep apnea and refuses to treat
it. Am I wrong about the cardiac-related
death?
A: No, you are not. In fact, a recent study
in the Journal of the American College of
Cardiology pointed this out. They followed
more than 10,000 patients for five years.
They found a very high incidence of sudden
cardiac deaths in the group with untreated
sleep apnea. Most of these deaths occurred
between midnight and 6 a.m., a time when
it is unusual for this to happen in those
without sleep apnea. In that time, 142
patients experienced sudden cardiac death,
with the most common predictors being a
patient aged 60 years, having 20 apnea episodes per hour, and having a lowest oxygen
saturation level of below 78 percent.
Dr. Robert Rosenberg, board-certified sleep
medicine specialist, will answer readers’
questions by incorporating them into future
columns. Contact him at http://www.
answersforsleep.com/ or via mail at the
Sleep Disorders Center of Flagstaff, (newly
Accredited by the American Academy of
Sleep Medicine), 1110 E. Route 66, Suite
202, Flagstaff, AZ 86001.
JON TYSON, 27, an Army veteran from North Carolina who served in Iraq, spends time with service dog Krucker at the Veterans’ Administration facility in
Menlo Park, Calif., on Nov. 15. Dogs serve as therapy pets in the center’s trauma recovery program for veterans. (Photos by Patrick Tehan/MCT)
Dogs ease veterans’ trauma at VA center
BY MARK EMMONS
San Jose Mercury News (MCT)
MENLO PARK, Calif. — The
black Labrador retriever knew
something was wrong. He
refused to leave the side of
Sandro Navarro, repeatedly
nuzzling the troubled man,
trying to comfort him.
It was the anniversary of
that terrible 2003 day in Iraq
when Navarro was the first
to arrive at a blast scene that
killed two friends in his Army
unit and severely wounded
a third. Somehow, the dog
named Jason realized he was
distraught.
“It was like he was telling
me, ‘I’m going to keep licking
your face until you stop feeling
down, and I going to make
you smile by doing something
goofy,’” said Navarro, 36.
Some of man’s best friends
are playing an innovative role
in the VA Palo Alto Men’s
Trauma Recovery Program as
four-legged therapy for veterans finding their way through
the darkness of post-traumatic stress disorder, thanks
to Paws for Purple Hearts. The
dogs are so perceptive they
even will awaken vets from
nightmares.
But there’s also a dual purpose to the program. Some of
the veterans who come to the
VA’s Menlo Park, Calif., campus from around the country
for military-related PTSD
treatment are helping train
the canines to become service
dogs for physically disabled
vets.
“It’s a reward knowing
where Jason will go because
there are guys far worse off
than I am,” said Navarro, a
Southern California native
who lives in Tennessee.
At a home in Modesto,
Calif., a golden retriever
named Venuto is an example of
that reward. Veteran William
Smith, who uses a wheelchair,
said his service dog can pick
up loose change and gives him
a sense of security. And Smith
is gratified knowing that
Venuto helped 21 vets in the
PTSD trauma program before
coming to him.
“I thank God for my dog,”
Smith said, “but I also know
IRAQ WAR VETERAN Sandro Navarro plays with service dog Jason at the
Veterans’ Administration facility in Menlo Park, Calif., on Nov. 15.
what he’s meant to so many
other people.”
While Paws for Purple
Hearts is touted as “veterans
helping veterans,” the connecting thread is the canine
helper — eager-to-please
retrievers who lessen anxiety
and depression in PTSD patients as they learn to become
service-dog companions.
“It’s like they have a sixth
sense about stress,” said Jon
Tyson, 27, an Army veteran
from North Carolina who served
in Iraq, rubbing the tummy
of a golden-Lab mix named
Krucker. “I’m sure he knows he
has a purpose, and it’s to make
people like us feel better. It’s
unconditional love. When you
have a hard time loving yourself,
he will love you.”
At any given time, there are
about 40 men in the Trauma
Recovery Program, and the
typical stay is about three
months. Working with dogs
is strictly optional. Currently there are four dogs being
trained at the new Welcome
Center on the VA Palo Alto
Health Care System’s Menlo
Park campus. Each one has two
vets who, under the supervision of trainer Sandra Carson,
are teaching them 90 commands required for them to
work with the physically disabled, such as opening doors
and turning lights on and off.
Sometimes the canines, like
siblings Jason and Jan, obey.
Sometimes they just want to
play. Either way, it’s clear how
much the vets enjoy being
around the affectionate dogs.
“It’s not a cure-all, but the
dogs reduce PTSD symptoms in an amazing way,” said
Bonnie Bergin, founder of the
Bergin University of Canine
Studies in Rohnert Park, the
Paws for Purple Hearts’ parent
organization. “We find sweet,
sensitive dogs because the vets
like to comfort them. PTSD
has taken so much from them,
and this program gives them a
sense that they can do something in this world.”
A psychological condition
that can develop after experiencing the terror of combat,
PTSD is a signature disorder of
the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. It’s estimated between
20 and 30 percent of Americans who have served suffer
from it. Symptoms include
flashbacks, insomnia, irritability, hyper-vigilance, drug and
alcohol abuse, and thoughts of
suicide.
Aaron Autler, 28, of Manteca, Calif., who did two tours
in Iraq and then struggled with
alcohol and substance abuse,
said teaching the willful Jan
was eye-opening.
“I’ve never had to train
anybody, other than Marines,”
Autler said. “So it’s taught
me patience. It’s therapeutic
because sometimes I don’t like
being around people. Part of
my issues involved never developing relationships. I know
isolating is a bad thing, and it’s
hard to do with her.”
Training is a small part of a
vet’s treatment day. But the
dogs are with them constantly,
even spending nights in their
rooms.
Bonds quickly form. Krucker
especially finds his way into
hearts. White with hints of gold,
Krucker spent much of the fall
with Tony Roberge and Toby
Luke — vets who had sealed
themselves off emotionally.
Krucker, though, wouldn’t
stand for that.
“When I talk to Krucker, he
understands what I’m saying,”
said Roberge, 49, a Navy vet
who was homeless before entering the program. “We have
conversations all the time.
He’s always right there, listening to me, wagging his tail.”
Luke added that Krucker
would split time between his
room and Roberge’s, depending on who was having the
tougher night.
“I wouldn’t be here if it
weren’t for him,” said Luke,
42, a first Gulf War veteran. “I
find myself being a 7-year-old
kid again. He reacts to your
emotions and brings me out of
depression.”
When Roberge and Luke
completed the program, Tyson
picked up Krucker’s training
leash.
“All of us have a defining
moment where everything
changes and we become different people,” he said. “In
Iraq, something hit me and I
knew I couldn’t go back to the
way I was before. There’s a lot
of emotional stuff going on
here, and the dog helps.”
Next month, the dogs in
Menlo Park will return to Bergin for final training.
“Saying goodbye is part of
the treatment process,” Carson
said. “It’s something we talk
about, to deal with loss in a
positive way.”
Tyson said it will be “heartbreaking” the last time he
hugs Krucker.
“But he’s going to a better
purpose,” he added. “Krucker
is going to make somebody
very happy.”
Katie Couric and the celebrity medicine syndrome
AND
BY JULIA BELLUZ
STEVEN J. HOFFMAN
Los Angeles Times (MCT)
An email with the subject line
“OMG” recently came from one
of our mothers, and it contained
chilling information about the
HPV vaccine. “200 people have
died from it,” Mom claimed,
“and it does not even last long
enough to prevent cervical
cancer.”
Her source was not her doctor, a new study or the Food
and Drug Administration. Her
information came from a recent
episode of Katie Couric’s ABC
talk show about “all sides” of
the “HPV controversy.” Since
then, most of the alarmist vaccine claims made in the episode
have been debunked. But Mom
remains a victim of celebrity
medicine: She heard a warning
from someone famous, believed
it and spread the misinformation.
Unfortunately, Mom is not
alone. Celebrities have crept
into our medicine cabinets and
kitchens, influencing what pills
we pop, tests we order and foods
we fear. More often than not,
their advice and products are
dubious. “Then why do so many
people believe them?” Mom
asked. This time, we have an
answer. One of us — Hoffman
— just published a review of
research on celebrity in the Dec.
18 issue of the British Medical
Journal. It addresses this question.
The review draws on studies
from a range of disciplines and
synthesizes key narratives on
celebrity followership. The conclusion? Our brains, psyches and
societies appear to be hardwired
to trust celebrities, whether on
anti-vaccine antics or miracle
medicines.
Economics tells us that we
use celebrity endorsements as
signals or shortcuts for judging qualities such as validity or
relevance. So when Bill Clinton
recommends veganism, his
approval elevates animal-free
eating even though his expertise
lies more with foreign policy
than nutrition.
The halo theory from marketing studies explains how celebrities’ success in one area — say,
acting — makes people presume
they are competent in unrelated
areas — say, medicine. This
influences how we interpret
their health messages no matter how nonsensical, and may
explain why Gwyneth Paltrow
has become a credible adviser
on vitamin D deficiency, even
though she didn’t go to medical
school nor is she a health expert.
Classical conditioning suggests that we learn to psychologically associate unrelated
stimuli in a way that exposure to
them achieves similar responses. This means warm feelings
toward celebrities are stirred up
in us by the things they pitch.
It’s no surprise, then, that PepsiCo paid Beyoncé $50 million to
promote its products.
Neuroscience studies also help
explain why these endorsements
work on us. Brain scans have
demonstrated that images of celebrities increase activity in our
medial orbitofrontal cortices,
the region responsible for forming positive associations. So
if you’re an Angelina Jolie fan,
seeing her image lights up this
part of the brain, making you
more likely to think highly about
whatever she is promoting, even
when it’s something extreme
like a double mastectomy to
prevent breast cancer.
Reason should help us
overcome an illogical addiction to celebrity health advice.
Questioning prescriptions
from prominent people and
asking about the evidence behind them could save us time,
money and harm. But, as the
science shows, celebrity influ-
ence is not rational.
The first step to addressing
celebrity medicine is recognizing that it is a human vulnerability and a serious public
health challenge. Doing that
can empower us to think twice
before we take advice from the
stars.
We should also use these
new insights to rethink how
we promote healthy living and
evidence-based decision-making. Actress and anti-vaccine
activist Jenny McCarthy may be
their arch-nemesis, but doctors
and public health practitioners
can learn from her. Making vaccines, exercise and oral hygiene
as attractive as celebrities would
be more valuable than any million-dollar endorsement deal
and more effective than any
detox diet. It might also save
Mom from putting her most
sacred asset — her health — into
the well-manicured hands of
famous people.

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