Expert answer:What makes a leader?


Solved by verified expert:…After reading the article, post a three-paragraph response to the discussion questions. (no word limit as long as the questions are answered fully & properly). Please read the questions carefully:Q1. After reading “What Makes a Leader” conduct a self-audit of your strengths and weaknesses for each of Goleman’s five components of Emotional Intelligence (See article page four). Write a one-paragraph explanation of your self-audit results.Q2. Based on your self-audit, pick one strengththat you can leverage to further improve your leadership performance. Describe how you can further leverage your strength in your present situation, and how it supports your working relationships as a leader.Q3. Based on your self-audit, pick one weaknessthat you can focus on improving to further develop your leadership performance. Describehow you can develop your skills and EI (Emotional Intelligence) to turn the weakness into a strength. How can take your leadership skills to a higher level using the principles of EI.Find additional sources to expand the conversation around Emotional Intelligence as relates to leadership and cite all source(s) please.Include information from the article to show that the article has been read. Such as, “according to the article” or “according to Goleman”…etc. Another tutor completed the assignment but I didn’t like the writing style. Ive attached the document here and information can be used from that document.


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It wa5 Daniel Goleman who first brought the term “emotiona! intelligence”to
a wide audience with his 1995 book of that name, and it was Coleman who first
applied the concept to business with his 1998 HBR article, reprinted here. In
his research at nearly 200 large, global companies, Coleman found that while
the qualities traditionally associated with leadership-such as intelligence,
toughness, determination, and vision-are required for success, they are insufficient. Truly effective leaders are also distinguished by a high degree of emotional intelligence, which includes self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation,
empathy, and social skill.
These qualities may sound “soft” and unbusinesslike, but Coleman found direct
ties between emotional intelligence and measurable business results. While
emotional intelligence’s relevance to business has continued to spark debate
over the past six years, Coleman’s article remains the definitive reference on the
subject, with a description of each component of emotional intelligence and a
detailed discussion of how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it
connects to performance, and how it can be learned.
What Makes a Leader?
by Daniel Goleman
IQ and technical skills
are important, but
emotional intelligence
is the sine qua non
of leadership.
Story about a highly intelligent, highly
skilled executive who was promoted
into a ieadership position only to fail
at the job. And they also know a story
about someone with solid-but not extraordinary-intellectual abilities and
technical skills who was promoted into
a similar position and then soared.
Such anecdotes support the widespread belief that identifying individuals with the “right stuff” to be leaders
is more art than science. After all, the
personal styles of superb leaders vary:
Some leaders are subdued and analyti*
cal; others shout their manifestos from
the mountaintops. And just as important, different situations call for different types of leadership. IVIost mergers
need a sensitive negotiator at the helm,
whereas many turnarounds require a
more forceful authority.
1 have found, however, that the most
effective leaders are alike in one crucial
way: They all have a high degree of what
has come to be known as emotional Intelligence. It’s not that iQ and technical
skills are irrelevant. They do matter, but
mainly as “threshold capabilities”; that
is, they are the entry-level requirements
for executive positions. But my research,
along with other recent studies, clearly
shows that emotional intelligence is the
sine qua non of leadership. Without it,
a person can have the best training in
the world, an incisive, analytical mind,
and an endless supply of smart ideas,
but he still won’t make a great leader.
in the course of the past year, my colleagues and I have focused on how emotional intelligence operates at work.
We have examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective performance, especially in leaders.
And we have observed how emotional
intelligence shows itseif on the job. How
can you tell if someone has high emotional intelligence, for example, and
how can you recognize it in yourself? In
the following pages, we’ll explore these
questions, taking each of the components of emotional intelligence-selfawareness, self-regulation, motivation,
empathy, and social skill-in turn.
Evaluating Emotional
Most large companies today have employed trained psychologists to develop
what are known as “competency models”to aid them in identifying, training,
and promoting likely stars in the leadership firmament. The psychologists
have also developed such models for
lower-level positions. And in recent
years, i have analyzed competency modeis from i88 companies, most of which
were large and global and included the
likesof Lucent Technologies, British Airways, and Credit Suisse.
in carrying out this work, my objective was to determine which personal
capabilities drove outstanding performance within these organizations, and
to what degree they did so. I grouped capabilities into three categories: purely
technical skills like accounting and business planning; cognitive abilities like analyticai reasoning; and competencies
demonstrating emotional intelligence,
such as the ability to work with others
and effectiveness in leading change.
To create some of the competency
models, psychologists asked senior managers at the companies to identify the
capabilities that typified the organization’s most outstanding leaders. To create other models,the psychologists used
objective criteria, such as a division’s
profitability, to differentiate the star performers at senior levels within their
organizations from the average ones.
Those individuals were then extensively
interviewed and tested, and their capabilities were compared. This process resulted in the creation of lists of ingredients for highly effective leaders. The lists
ranged in length from seven to 15 items
and included such ingredients as initiative and strategic vision.
When I analyzed all this data, I found
dramatic results. To be sure, intellect was
a driver of outstanding performance.
Cognitive skills such as big-picture thinking and long-term vision were particularly important. But when I calculated
the ratio of technical skills, iQ,and emotional intelligence as ingredients of exceilent performance, emotional intelligence proved to be twice as important
as the others for jobs at ail levels.
Moreover, my analysis showed that
emotional intelligence played an increasingly important role at the highest levels of the company, where differences in technical skills are of negiigible
the renowned researcher in human and
organizational behavior, are a good example. In a 1996 study of a global food
and beverage company, McClelland
found that when senior managers had
a critical mass of emotional intelligence
capabilities,their divisions outperformed
yearly earnings goals by 20%. Meanwhile, division leaders without that critical mass underperfomied by almost the
same amount. McClelland’s findings,
interestingly, held as true in the company’s U.S. divisions as in its divisions in
Asia and Europe.
In short, the numbers are beginning
to tell us a persuasive story about the
iink between a company’s success and
the emotional inteiligence of its leaders. And just as important, research is
aiso demonstrating that people can, if
they take the right approach, develop
their emotional intelligence. (See the
sidebar “Can Emotional intelligence Be
Self-awareness is thefirstcomponent of
emotional inteliigence-which makes
sense when one considers that the Delphic oracle gave the advice to “know
thyself” thousands of years ago. Selfawareness means having a deep understanding of one’s emotions, strengths,
weaknesses, needs, and drives. People
with strong self-awareness are neither
overly criticai nor unrealistically hopeful. Rather, they are honest – with themimportance, in other words, the higher selves and with others.
People who have a high degree of selfthe rank of a person considered to be
a star performer, the more emotional awareness recognize how their feelings
inteliigence capabilities showed up as affect them, other people, and their job
the reason for his or her effectiveness. performance. Thus, a self-aware person
When I compared star performers with who knows that tight deadlines bring
average ones in senior leadership posi- out the worst in him plans his time
tions, nearly 90% of the difference in carefuliy and gets his work done well
their profiles was attributable to emo- in advance. Another person with high
tional intelligence factors rather than seif-a ware ness wiil be able to work with
a demanding client. She will undercognitive abilities.
Other researchers have confirmed that stand the client’s impact on her moods
emotional intelligence not only distin- and the deeper reasons for her frustraguishes outstanding leaders but can also tion. “Their trivial demands take us
be linked to strong performance. The away from the real work that needs to
findings of the late David McClelland, be done,” she might expiain. And she
What Makes a Leader?
will go one step further and turn her
anger into something constructive.
Self-awareness extends to a person’s
understanding of bis or her values and
goals. Someone who is highly self-aware
knows where he is beaded and wby; so,
for example, he will be able to befirmin
turning down a job offer that is tempting financially but does not fit with his
principles or long-term goals. A person
who lacks self-awareness is apt to make
decisions that bring on inner turmoil by
treading on buried values. “The money
looked good so I signed on,” someone
might say two years into a job,”but the
work means so little to me that I’m constantly bored.” The decisions of selfaware people mesh with their values;
consequently, they often find work to
be energizing.
How can one recognize self-awareness? First and foremost, it shows itself
as candor and an ability to assess oneself realistically. People witb bigh selfawareness are able to speak accurately
and openly-altbough not necessarily
effusively or confessionally-about their
emotions and the impact they have on
their work. For instance, one manager
I know of was skeptical about a new personal-shopper service that her company,
a major department-store chain, was
about to introduce. Without prompting
from her team or her boss, she offered
them an explanation: “It’s hard for me to
get behind the rollout of this service,”
she admitted, “because I really wanted
to run the project, but I wasn’t selected.
Bear with me while I deal with tbat.”
Tbe manager did indeed examine her
Daniel Goleman is the author of Emotional Intelligence (Bantam. 1995) and
a coauthor of Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence
(Harvard Business School, 2002). He is
the cochairman of the Consortium for
Research on Emotional Intelligence in
Organizations, which is based at Rutgers
University’s Graduate School of Applied
and Professional Psychology in Piscataway. New Jersey. He can be reached at
feelings; a week later, she was supporting the project fully.
Such self-knowledge often shows itself in the hiring process. Ask a candidate to describe a time he got carried
away by bis feelings and did something
he later regretted. Self-aware candidates will be frank in admitting to failure – and will often tell their tales with
a smile. One of the hallmarks of seifawareness is a self-deprecating sense
of humor.
Self-awareness can also be identitied
during performance reviews. Selfaware people know-and are comfortable talking about-their
limitations and strengths,
and they often demonstrate a thirst for constructive criticism. By
contrast, people with low
self-awareness interpret
the message that they
need to improve as a
threat or a sign of failure.
Self-aware people can
also be recognized by their
self-confidence. Tbey have
a firm grasp of their capabilities and are less likely to set
themselves up to fail by, for example,
overstretching on assignments. They
know, too, when to ask for help. And the
risks they take on the job are calculated.
They won’t ask for a challenge that they
know they can’t handle alone. They’ll
play to their strengths.
Consider the actions of a midlevel employee who was invited to sit in on a
strategy meeting with her company’s
top executives. Although she was the
most junior person in tbe room, she did
not sit there quietly, listening in awestruck or fearful silence. Sbe knew she
had a head for clear logic and the skill to
present ideas persuasively, and she offered cogent suggestions about the company’s strategy. At the same time, her
self-awareness stopped her from wandering into territory where she knew
she was weak.
Despite tbe value of having self-aware
people in the workplace, my research
indicates that senior executives don’t
often give self-awareness the credit it
deserves when they look for potential
leaders. Many executives mistake candor about feelings for “wimpiness” and
fail to give due respect to employees who
openly acknowledge tbeir shortcomings.
Such people are too readily dismissed as
“not tough enough” to lead others.
In fact, the opposite is true. In the first
place, people generally admire and
respect candor. Furthermore, leaders
are constantly required to make judgment calls that require a candid
assessment of capabilitiestheir own and those
of others. Do we have
the management
expertise to acquire
a competitor? Can
we launch a new
product within six
months? People who
assess themselves
honestly-that is,
self aware peopleare well suited to do
the same for the organizations they run.
Biological impulses drive our emotions.
We cannot do away with them -but we
can do much to manage them. Selfregulation, which is like an ongoing
inner conversation, is the component of
emotional intelligence that frees us
from being prisoners of our feelings.
People engaged in such a conversation
fee! bad moods and emotional impulses
just as everyone else does, but they find
ways to control them and even to channel them in useful ways.
Imagine an executive who has just
watched a team of bis employees
present a botched analysis to the company’s board of directors. In the gloom
that follows, tbe executive might find
himsetf tempted to pound on the table
in anger or kick over a chair. He could
leap up and scream at the group. Or he
might maintain a grim silence, glaring
at everyone before stalking off.
But if he had a gift for self-regulation,
he would choose a different approach.
He would pick his words carefully,
acknowledging the team’s poor performance without rushing to any hasty
judgment. He would then step back
to consider the reasons for the failure.
Are they personal-a lack of effort? Are
there any mitigating factors? What was
his role in the debacle? After considering these questions, he would call the
team together, lay out the incident’s consequences, and offer his feeiings about
it He wouid then present his analysis
of the probiem and a well considered
Why does self-regulation matter so
much for leaders? First of all, people
who are in control of their feeiings and
impulses-that is, people who are reasonable – are able to create an environment of trust and fairness. In such an
environment, politics and infighting
are sharply reduced and productivity
is high. Talented people flock to the
organization and aren’t tempted to
leave. And self-regulation has a trickledown effect. No one wants to be known
as a hothead when the boss is known for
her calm approach. Fewer bad moods
at the top mean fewer throughout the
Second, self-regulation is important
for competitive reasons. Everyone knows
that business today is rife with ambiguity and change. Companies merge and
break apart regularly. Technology transforms work at a dizzying pace. People
who have mastered their emotions are
able to roll with the changes. When a
new program is announced, they don’t
panic; instead, they are able to suspend
judgment, seek out information, and listen to the executives as they explain the
new program. As the initiative moves
forward, these people are able to move
with it.
Sometimes they even lead the way.
Consider the case of a manager at a large
manufacturing company. Like her colleagues, she had used a certain software
program for five years. The program
drove how she collected and reported
Can Emotional Intelligence Be Learned?
For ages, people have debated if leaders are born or made. So
too goes the debate about emotional inteliigence. Are people
born with certain levels of empathy, for example, or do they
acquire empathy as a resuttof life’s experiences? The answer is
both. Scientific inquiry strongly suggests that there is a genetic
component to emotiona! intelligence. Psychological and developmental research indicates that nurture plays a role as well. How
much of each perhaps will never be known, but research and
practice clearly demonstrate that emotJonat intelligence can
be learned.
One thing is certain: Emotional intelligence increases with
age. There is an old-fashioned word for the phenomenon: maturity. Yet even with maturity, some people stiil need training to
enhance their emotional intelligence. Unfortunately, far too
many training programs that intend to build ieadership skillsincluding emotional jntelligence-are a waste of time and
money. The problem is simple: They focus on the wrong part
of the brain.
Emotional intelligence is born largely in the neurotransmitters
of the brain’s limbic system, which governs feelings, impulses,
and drives. Research indicates that the limbic system teams best
through motivation, extended practice, and feedback. Compare
this with the kind of learning that goes on in the neocortex,
which governs analytical and technical ability The neocortex
grasps concepts and logic. It is the part of the brain that figures
out how to use a computer or make a sales call by reading a
book. Not surprisingly-but mistakenly-it is also the part of the
brain targeted by most training programs aimed at enhancing
emotional inteliigence. When such programs take, in effect.
data and how she thought about the
company’s strategy. One day, senior executives announced that a new program
was to be installed that would radically
change how information was gathered
and assessed within the organization.
While many people in the company
complained bitterly about how disruptive the change would be, the manager
mulled over the reasons for the new program and was convinced of its potential
to improve performance. She eagerly
attended training sessions – some of her
colleagues refused to do so-and was
eventually promoted to run several divisions, in part because she used the
new technology so effectively.
i want to push the importance of selfregulation to leadership even further
and make tbe case that it enhances integrity, which is not only a personal virtue but also an organizational strength.
Many of the bad things that happen in
companies are a function of impulsive
behavior. People rarely plan to exaggerate profits, pad expense accounts, dip
into the till, or abuse power for selfish
ends, instead, an opportunity presents
What Makes a Leader?
a neocortical approach, my research with the Consortium for
what he had heard at work. When their opinions on any given
Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations has
subject did not mesh with his,they, too, were frightened of him.
shown they can even have a negative impact on people’s job
Enlisting the help of a coach, the executive went to work to
heighten his empathy through practice and feedback. His first
To enhance emotional intelligence, organizations must refo-
stepwastotakea vacation to a foreign country where he did
cus their training to include the limbic system. They must help
not speak the language. While there, he monitored his reactions
people break old behavioral habits and establish new ones. That
to the unfamiliar and his openness to people who were differ-
not only takes much more time than conventional training pro-
ent from him. When he returned home, humbled by his week
grams, it also requires an individualized approach.
imagine an executive who is thought to be low on empathy
abroad, the executive asked his coach to shadow him for parts
ofthe day, several times a week, to critique how he treated peo-
by her colleagues. Part of that deficit shows itself as an inability
ple with new or different perspectives. At the same time, he con-
to listen; she interrupts people and doesn’t pay close attention to
sciously used on-the-job interactions as opportunities to prac-
what …
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