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Expert answer:Write a two page paper on immokalee - colle writers

Expert answer:Write a two page paper on immokalee

Solved by verified expert:Do a Refection on the attached article. The article talks about workers this is classified as modern day slavery.
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University of Miami
Scholarly Repository
Open Access Theses
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
2014-08-15
Immokalee Farm Workers and their Social Crisis in
Education and Health
Mary Cano
University of Miami, maryc1990@hotmail.com
Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/oa_theses
Recommended Citation
Cano, Mary, “Immokalee Farm Workers and their Social Crisis in Education and Health” (2014). Open Access Theses. 515.
http://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/oa_theses/515
This Open access is brought to you for free and open access by the Electronic Theses and Dissertations at Scholarly Repository. It has been accepted for
inclusion in Open Access Theses by an authorized administrator of Scholarly Repository. For more information, please contact
repository.library@miami.edu.
 
 
 
 
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
 
 
IMMOKALEE FARM WORKERS
AND THEIR SOCIAL CRISIS IN EDUCATION AND HEALTH
By
Mary Cano
A THESIS
Submitted to the Faculty
of the University of Miami
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
Masters of Arts
Coral Gables, Fl
August 2014
 
 
 
 
©2014
Mary Cano
All Rights Reserved
 
 
 
 
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
IMMOKALEE FARMWORKERS
AND THEIR SOCIAL CRISIS IN EDUCATION AND HEALTH
Mary Cano
Approved:
________________
Ariel Armony, Ph.D.
Professor, Center for Latin American
Studies
_________________
Alejandro Portes, Ph.D.
Research Professor, Sociology
and Law
________________
Margarita Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Lecturer, International Studies
_________________
M. Brian Blake, Ph.D.
Dean of the Graduate School
 
 
 
 
CANO , MARY
Immokalee Workers and their Social Crisis
on Health and Education
(M.A., Latin American Studies)
(August 2014)
Abstract of a thesis at the University of Miami.
Thesis supervised by Margarita Rodriguez
No. of pages in text (90)
In this thesis I propose to gain greater knowledge on the factors that have shaped
the current human right violations on adequate health care and proper education
occurring in Immokalee, Florida. Contrary to popular belief, this is not only a legal right
that should be given to U.S. citizens, but also a human right that should be granted to all
regardless of immigration status. According to the Universal Declaration of the United
Nations all persons are entitled to basic human rights including health care and education.
By using such terminology as “adequate” and “proper”, it will emphasize the gravity of
their crisis by showing how not enough is being done to implement the Declaration and
address this problem.
This thesis conveys and tries to show the value of an undocumented person as a
subject and not merely as an object. I intend to show the disparity of the treatment of
undocumented workers throughout history and focus on Immokalee, Florida and the
barriers they face due to their social crisis with respect to health and education there. In
particular, I explore how the role of the anti-immigrant sentiment has enabled an
environment for human right violations.
 
 
 
 
“Por lo menos una vez en la vida vas a necesitar un médico, un abogado, un arquitecto,
pero todos los días tres veces al día vas a necesitar un agricultor.”
  iii
 
 
 
 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am using this opportunity to thank everyone that has helped contribute to the
completion of this thesis. I would first like to thank God for giving me the opportunity to obtain
such a wonderful education. Also, this thesis would not be possible without my committee
members. I want to thank Professor Alejandro Portes, Professor Margarita Rodriguez, Professor
Ariel Armony for all their support, constructive criticism, encouragement, patience and assistance
and for sharing their views and knowledge on pertinent issues relating to my thesis. Without them
and their efforts this would not be possible. This has been a learning experience I will cherish and
I am grateful to them for helping me develop my ideas and take part of this project that means so
much to me. A special thanks to Belkys Torres for all her encouragement and help through my
master’s program and for participating in my defense at very last minute.
My sincere thanks go to all my interviewers, without them this research would not have
been possible. I want to thank Elena Reyes from the FSU Health Site, Megan McCarthy from the
Guadalupe Center and Dr. Olveen Carrasquillo from the University of Miami Hospital for taking
time to speak to me and answer any inquiries I had. The wonderful farmworkers of Immokalee,
their humbleness and their strive for social justice motivated me to develop a passion for their
cause.
I want to thank all my professors at the University of Miami for their dedication and
passion to teaching and for helping me develop my own ideas and creativity throughout this
educational experience. I would also like to thank all my friends and family members for their
support and encouragement. I would like to thank my mom for encouraging me to be the best that
I can be. Lastly, I would like to thank Frank Marrero for always believing in me and for being
such a great support and motivation and standing by me through my good and bad moments.
 
 iv  
 
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………………….. Vi  
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………… 1
– Objectives ………………………………………………………………… 1
– Methodology ……………………………………………………………… 2
– Demographics and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Immokalee ……… 4
CHAPTER 2 A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW ON IMMIGRATION……………………………. 9
– Bracero Program …………………………………………………………..12
– Immigrant Reform and Control Act ………………………………………15
o Employer Sanctions ………………………………………………..16
o Border Enforcement ………………………………………………..17
o Legalization of Unauthorized Immigrants …………………………17
– Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 ……21
o Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation
Act of 1996 (PRWORA) ………………………………………….. 23
CHAPTER 3 CURRENT OVERVIEW OF THE GENERAL SOCIAL CONTEXT AFFECTING
IMMIGRANTS IN IMMOKALEE ………………………………………………………… 27
– Economy and Labor Market ………………………………………………. 27
– “Tax Burden” ……………………………………………………………… 31
– Media Influence and Politics ……………………………………………… 32
– Summary …………………………………………………………………… 35
CHAPTER

4 HUMAN RIGHTS ………………………………………………………….. 37
Universal Declaration of Human Rights …………………………………. 39
International Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination ….. 41
The Migrant Worker (Supplementary Provisions) Convention No. 143 .….43
CHAPTER

5 THE CASE OF THE IMMOKALEE FARMWORKERS ……………………… 48
Working Conditions ………………………………………………………. 50
Living Conditions …………………………………………………………51
Modern Day Slavery ………………………………………………………52
CHAPTER

6 MIGRANT CHILDREN EDUCATION ……………………………………… 54
Poverty …………………………………………………………………….56
Parent Involvement ………………………………………………………..59
State Legislation ……………………………………………………………62
Summary ………………………………………………………………….. 65
CHAPTER 7 MIGRANT HEALTH……………………………………………………….. 67
– Poverty …………………………………………………………………….68
– State Legislation ……………………………………………………………71
– Summary .………………………………………………………………….74
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………….. 77
WORKS CITED ………………………………………………………………………… 80
 
 
v  
 
 
 
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
The following describes the meaning of various abbreviations and acronyms used
throughout this thesis.
Abbreviation
Meaning
ACA
Affordable Care Act
ACT
American College Testing
ADHD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
CIW
Coalition of Immokalee Workers
FCAT
Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test
FSLA
Florida Standard Labor Act
FSU
Florida State University
ICERD
International Convention of the Elimination
of Racial Discrimination
IIRIRA
Immigration Reform and Immigrant
Responsibility Act
ILO
International Labor Organization
INS
Immigration and Naturalization Service
IRCA
Immigration Reform and Control Act
NCLB
No Child Left Behind Act
PTA
Parent Teacher Association
PRWORA
Personal Responsibility and Work
Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996
RAW
Replenishment Agricultural Worker
SAT
Scholastic Assessment Test
SAW
Special Agricultural Worker
UN
United Nations
 vi  
 
 
1  
 
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES
A recent article, published by the New York Times portrayed Immokalee as
follows: “… a town of taco joints and backyard chicken coops where many farmworkers
still live in rotting shacks or dilapidated, rat-infested trailers. A series of prosecutions has
highlighted modern-day slavery in the area — one 2008 case involved traffickers
convicted of beating workers, stealing their wages and locking them in trucks.” This is
not a coincidence. Immokalee also has a continuing problem of health and education. The
goal of this paper is to explore the factors that have led to these events. The purpose of
this study is to gain greater knowledge on the factors that have shaped this situation. I
focus on labor market changes, political aspects and also review the role of the media and
the anti-immigrant sentiment amongst others. In particular, I explore how the role of the
anti-immigrant sentiment has enabled an environment for human right violations, with
particular consequences for issues such as education and health. In in this work I adhere
to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights according to which, access
to both health and education are considered to be fundamental human rights. According
to the Articles stated in this Declaration,
“Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical
care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of
unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of
livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. Motherhood and childhood are
entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of
 
 
1  
 
2  
 
wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. Everyone has the right to
education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental
stages”.
By adhering to this definition, I employ a viewpoint on the migrant workers and
social conditions that are not common in debated on this issue. In this work I offer a
historical overview on immigration legislation, with emphasis on the 1942 Bracero
Program, 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), 1996 Illegal Immigration
Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) and how the most recent legislations
and factors have shaped the social conditions on the Immokalee farm workers.
METHODOLOGY
Methodologically, this work combines a historical perspective on immigration
policy influencing immigrants with field observations research and the use of a wide
range of sources of current analysis and data. The fieldwork did not start with this thesis.
It started much earlier when I took a course at the university during my undergraduate
years that led to two different visits prior to this study. This led to the curiosity of the
pertinent issues occurring in Immokalee. I conducted on-site observation and in-depth
interviews in Immokalee during different periods in 2010, 2011, and 2014. These
research strategies included visits to Guadalupe Center, an early childhood educational
center; The Coalition of Immokalee Workers (CIW), a worker-based human rights
organization representing farm workers; the Immokalee Fellowship House, which
shelters homeless farmworkers of Immokalee; Redlands Christian Migrant Association
(RCMA), an education center for migrant children; Immokalee High, the only high
school in the city; and Immokalee Health Education Site, a clinic offering services to the
 
 
 
3  
 
underprivileged. I became intrigued by the injustices occurring and followed up on
research by reading articles and extended readings pertaining to subjects in Immokalee.
During my 2014 visit, I conducted the following interviews on February 24th and
25th, at the Immokalee Health Education Site with Regional Director Elena Reyes; with
Vice President of Programs Megan McCarthy of Guadalupe Educational Center; and
Vice Principle of Curriculum and Instruction, Clara Calderon of Immokalee High School
and with Director of Health Services Research and Policy, Dr. Olveen Carrasquillo from
the University of Miami Hospital. These persons were able to meet with me and give me
information that has been of great aid in this thesis research.
By using a historical perspective on migration law, it allowed me to understand
the presence of the role of legislation and different aspects the anti-immigrant sentiment
has on legislations and how throughout time undocumented migrant workers have always
been treated as the underclass, regardless of their positive efforts and contributions to the
nation. The use of a wide range of data including, but not limited to, the U.S. Census,
United Nations statistics and the United States Homeland Security data and articles and
books have also contributed to the strengthening of my knowledge of the research
subject.
 
 
 
4  
 
DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF
IMMOKALEE
Immokalee, which means “my home” in the Seminole tribe language,1 is a small
city in Southwest Florida located just thirty minutes away from Naples and about two
hours away from Miami and where thousands of farmworkers who pick our food live. It
is bordered by the Big Cypress Swamp, citrus groves and tomato fields. Immokalee is an
important city, because it contributes to the supply of over 90% of all winter tomatoes
that are produced in Florida and sold in the U.S.2 In 2010, the population was 24,154.3
However, changes in population may increase during the peak season between the
months of November and May. The city is mostly comprised of undocumented migrant
workers, 86% of whom are of Mexican origin.4 Most migrant workers in Immokalee
obtain jobs in the agricultural sector. This income often includes earnings of children who
illegally work on the field. Labor rights are not the only rights being violated; this is only
a fragment of the drudgery occurring in Immokalee. Toxic pesticides, sexual harassment,
verbal and physical abuse are all social issues that can be seen in Immokalee. Jobs are
mostly seasonal and inconsistent and are not granted any employee benefits. Due to
various factors, including their undocumented status, many migrant families do not
receive any social, economic or health services. Receiving social services in Immokalee
is limited due to the fact that Collier county pays zero dollars to social service agencies.
Schools and clinics are usually funded through private donors or grants given by the
state. Table 1 details key demographics and socio-economic factors in Immokalee over
the years.
 
 
 
5  
 
Table 1
Demographics and Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Population in
Immokalee and Florida
Immokalee
Florida
2000 Percent 2010 Percent Percent
Total
Population
21,615
of each
group
(%)
100.0
24,154
of each
group
(%)
100.0
of
growth
(%)
11.7%
Total
Population
*
1
American
Indian*
232
243
4.7%
Black/
African
American
*
3,592
4,563
27.0%
White*
Hispanic*
8,614
15,541
71.8%
10,423
18,267
75.6%
21.0%
17.5%
Mexican*
Central
American
*
11,354
930
73.0%
5.9%
15,743
1,573
86.1%
8.6%
38.6%
69.1%
South
American
*
23
0.1%
24
0.1%
4.3%
Male
***
12,161
56.2%
13,352
55.2%
9.7%
Female
***
9,454
43.7%
10,802
44.7%
14.2%
Average
Income
**
24,098
Percent
of each
group
(%)
2010
15,982,349
100.0
18,801,310
American 53,541
Indian*
Black/
2,335,494
African
American
*
White* 12,465,012
Hispanic 2,682,713
*
Mexican* 363,925
Central
-American
*
South
643,015
American
*
Gender
Male
***
Female
***
Gender
24,098
2000
0.0%
Average
Income
**
Percent
of each
group
(%)
100.0
Percent
of
growth
(%)
17.6%
71,458
33.4%
2,999,862
28.4%
14,109,162
16.8%
4,223,806
22.4%
13.1%
57.4%
2.3%

629,713
432,665
14.9%
10.2%
73.0%

4.2%
674,542
15.9%
4.9%
7,797,693
48.8%
9,189,355
48.8%
17.8%
8,184,656
51.2%
9,611,955
51.1%
17.4%
$31,041
$42,871
38.1%
Sources:
*The United States Census 2000, 2010. [Online]. Retrieved from:
http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kprof00-fl.pdf
http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?sr
c=bkmk http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/1233250.html
**Data according to the Bureau of Business and Economic Research 2000, 2010. [Online]. Retrieved from:
https://bber.unm.edu/econ/us-wage.htm
***USA .com [Online]. Immokalee, FL Population and Races Retrieved from:
http://www.usa.com/immokalee-fl-population-and-races.htm
Notes:
1. In combination with one or more of the other races listed. The seven numbers may add to more
than the total population and the seven percentages may add to more than 100 percent because
individuals may report more than one race.
 
 
 
6  
 
The following demographic and socio-economic characteristics are based on the
USA.com report and data collected from the United States Census. The period examined
were the recent years of 2000-2012. According to Table 1, there has been an increase in
population within Florida and the city of Immokalee. In terms of population density,
Immokalee has 1,038.2 residents per square mile compared to the state average of 285.2
square miles. Poverty levels in Immokalee are much higher than the state average. The
consequences of such population density will be discussed later on in this study. The
graph also details how the number of woman has slightly increased in Immokalee.
Between the years 2000 and 2010, women have gained 1% in population while men have
lost 1% in population; however, they still remain the most numerous. By contrast, the
male population in Florida has only seen a slight increase, while women have had an
overall slight decrease.
Household incomes as well as size show major differences in Immokalee, in
comparison to Florida. On average, family size in Immokalee consists of 4.1 people,
compared to Florida’s average of 3.1. Family size has a great impact on poverty levels
and household incomes. According to Table 1, Immokalee’s averag …
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