top answer: 200  words Initial Post Unit 10 Discussion Topic. Please read the article at this web address below

  

200  words Initial Post

Unit 10 Discussion Topic.

Please read the article at this web address below and state how it relates to Chapter 17 and your opinion.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
top answer: 200  words Initial Post Unit 10 Discussion Topic. Please read the article at this web address below
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

** It was very interesting to me! I hope you enjoy reading it. 

https://www.robsonforensic.com/articles/dehumidifier-fires-expert-witness

Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science

Twelfth Edition

Chapter 17

Forensic Aspects of Fire and Explosion Investigation

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Introduction (1 of 2)

Arson investigations often present complex and difficult circumstances to investigate due to the fact that the perpetrator has thoroughly planned the act, is not present during the act, and the destruction is so extensive.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Introduction (2 of 2)

The criminalist’s function is rather limited to detecting and identifying relevant chemical materials collected at the scene and reconstructing and identifying igniter mechanisms.

The ultimate determination of the cause of a fire must be made by an investigator whose training and knowledge have been augmented by the experience of fire investigation.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Oxidation (1 of 3)

Chemically, fire is a type of oxidation, which is the combination of oxygen with other substances to produce new substances.

Not all oxidation reactions proceed in a manner that one associates with a fire; e.g., rusting.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Oxidation (2 of 3)

Chemically, fire is a type of oxidation, which is the combination of oxygen with other substances to produce new substances.

An oxidation reaction is associated with the concept of energy. Energy is associated the ability of a system to do work. Steam can turn a turbine to generate electrical energy. Energy takes many forms; e.g., heat and light.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Oxidation (3 of 3)

Chemically, fire is a type of oxidation, which is the combination of oxygen with other substances to produce new substances.

All oxidation reactions are examples in which more energy is liberated than what is required to initiate the reaction. These are known as exothermic reactions.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Combustion (1 of 3)

To start fire, the minimum temperature needed to spontaneously ignite fuel, known as ignition temperature, must be reached.

The heat involved when a substance burns is known as heat of combustion.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Combustion (2 of 3)

Once combustion starts enough energy in the form of heat and light (flame) is liberated, a portion of which is used to sustain the fire. Fire is a chain reaction.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Combustion (3 of 3)

To initiate and sustain a fire, the following are required:

A fuel (vapor) must be present.

Oxygen must be available in sufficient quantity to combine with the fuel.

Heat must be applied to initiate the combustion, and sufficient heat must be generated to sustain the reaction.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Physical State of the Fuel (1 of 3)

A fuel achieves a reaction rate with oxygen sufficient to produce a flame only when it is in the gaseous state. Thus, rusting will not be accompanied by a flame.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Physical State of the Fuel (2 of 3)

A liquid burns when the temperature is high enough to vaporize the fuel. The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid produces enough vapor to burn.

A solid such as wood burns only when exposed to heat hot enough to decompose into gaseous products (pyrolysis).

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Physical State of the Fuel (3 of 3)

Glowing combustion or smoldering is burning at the fuel-air interface, such as a cigarette, the embers of a wood fire, or a charcoal fire.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Heat Transfer (1 of 3)

The three mechanisms of heat transfer are conduction, radiation, and convection.

Conduction is the movement of heat through a solid object. Poor conductors are called insulators. During a fire heat may transported through metals, such as nails, bolts, and fasteners to a location far from the initial heat source creating a new fire location

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Heat Transfer (2 of 3)

The three mechanisms of heat transfer are conduction, radiation, and convection.

Radiation is the transfer of heat energy by electromagnetic radiation. A surface exposed to the heat of a fire may burst into flames when the surface reaches the ignition temperature.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Heat Transfer (3 of 3)

The three mechanisms of heat transfer are conduction, radiation, and convection.

Convection is the transfer of heat energy by the movement of molecules within a liquid or gas. In a structural fire, hot gases move to the upper portion of the structure causing surfaces to pyrolyze and burst into a fire.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Flash Over

Flashover occurs when all the combustible fuels simultaneously ignite to engulf the entire structure.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Fire Scene (1 of 2)

The arson investigator needs to begin examining a fire scene for signs of arson as soon as the fire has been extinguished.

Experience shows that most arsons are started with petroleum-based accelerants.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Fire Scene (2 of 2)

The search of the fire scene must focus on finding the fire’s origin, which may be most productive in any search for an accelerant or ignition device.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Indicators of Arson (1 of 5)

Some telltale signs of arson include evidence of separate and unconnected fires, the use of “streamers” to spread the fire from one area to another.

An irregularly shaped pattern on the floor resulting from the pouring of accelerant onto the surface.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Indicators of Arson (2 of 5)

Normally, a fire has a tendency to move in an upward direction, and thus the probable origin will most likely be the lowest point showing the most intense characteristics of burning.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Indicators of Arson (3 of 5)

Evidence of severe burning found on the floor (as opposed to the ceiling) of a structure is indicative of a flammable liquid.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Indicators of Arson (4 of 5)

Discovery of an ignition device: The most common igniter is a match, but arsonists can construct many other types of devices to start a fire, including burning cigarettes, firearms, ammunition, a mechanical match-striker, electrical sparking devices, and a “Molotov cocktail.”

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Indicators of Arson (5 of 5)

Fortunately, combustible liquids are rarely entirely consumed during a fire.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Flash Over (1 of 3)

Flashover occurs when all the combustible fuels simultaneously ignite to engulf the entire structure.

A fire that starts in one area of a structure could, through flashover, could create the illusion of or more unrelated fires, a sign mistaken for arson.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Flash Over (2 of 3)

Irregular patterns are common in post-flashover conditions; hence, if the presence of ignitable liquids is suspected to have caused a fire pattern, supporting evidence from the laboratory for the presence of accelerant residues must confirm its existence.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Flash Over (3 of 3)

Many factors can contribute to the deviation of a fire from normal behavior using burn patterns, such as depth of char, a V-shaped pattern, or low intense burn area, as indicators of a fire’s origin can prove to be misleading when flash over has occurred.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Collection of Fire Scene Evidence
(1 of 2)

At the suspect point of origin of a fire, ash and soot, along with porous materials which may contain excess accelerant, should be collected and stored in airtight containers such as new paint cans or wide-mouth glass jars, leaving an airspace to remove samples. Never use plastic containers to store fire scene evidence.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Collection of Fire Scene Evidence
(2 of 2)

Traces of flammable liquid residues may be located with a vapor detector (sniffer) or a trained canine.

The collection of all materials suspected of containing volatile liquids must be accompanied by a thorough sampling of similar but uncontaminated control specimens from another area of the fire scene, called a substrate control.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Laboratory Recovery of Flammable Residues (1 of 3)

The easiest way to recover accelerant residues from fire-scene debris is to heat the airtight container in which the sample is sent to the laboratory.

When the container is heated, any volatile residue in the debris is driven off and trapped in the container’s enclosed airspace.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Laboratory Recovery of Flammable Residues (2 of 3)

The vapor or headspace is then removed with a syringe.

When the vapor is injected into the gas chromatograph, it is separated into its components, and each peak is recorded on the chromatogram.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Laboratory Recovery of Flammable Residues (3 of 3)

In the vapor concentration technique, a charcoal strip is placed in the airtight debris container when it is heated.

The charcoal strip absorbs much of the vapors during heating.

The strip is washed with a solvent which will recover the accelerant vapors.

The solvent is then injected into the gas chromatograph for analysis.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

31

FIGURE 17–13
Apparatus for accelerant recovery by vapor concentration. The vapor in the enclosed container is exposed to charcoal, a chemical absorbent, where it is trapped for later analysis.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Gas Chromatography (1 of 3)

In the laboratory, the gas chromatograph is the most sensitive and reliable instrument for detecting and characterizing flammable residues.

The vast majority of arsons are initiated by petroleum distillates such as gasoline and kerosene.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Gas Chromatography (2 of 3)

The gas chromatograph separates the hydrocarbon components and produces a chromatographic pattern characteristic of a particular petroleum product.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Gas Chromatography (3 of 3)

By comparing select gas chromatographic peaks recovered from fire-scene debris to known flammable liquids, a forensic analyst may be able to identify the accelerant used to initiate the fire. The chromatographic pattern of the unknown is compared to patterns produced by known petroleum products.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Accelerant Identification (1 of 3)

Typically a forensic analyst compares the pattern generated by the sample to chromatograms from accelerant standards obtained under the same conditions.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

36

Accelerant Identification (2 of 3)

The pattern of gasoline, as with many other accelerants, can easily be placed in a searchable library. An invaluable reference known as the Ignitable Liquids Reference Hydrocarbon Collection (ILRC) is found on the Internet at http://ilrc.ucf.edu.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

37

Accelerant Identification (3 of 3)

Complex chromatographic patterns can be simplified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

38

FIGURE 17–12
(Top) Gas chromatograph of vapor from a genuine gasoline sample. (Bottom) Gas chromatograph of vapor from debris recovered at a fire site. Note the similarity of the known gasoline to vapor removed from the debris.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Source: Richard Saferstein, Criminalistics:An Introduction to Forensic Science, 12e, © 2018. Pearson Education, Inc., New York, NY.

39

Chromatogram of a residue sample collected at a fire scene (a) shows a pattern somewhat like that of gasoline (b). However, a definitive conclusion that the unknown contained gasoline could be obtained only after extraneous peaks were eliminated from the unknown by the use of GC/MS (c).

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Explosions

Explosives are substances that undergo a rapid oxidation reaction with the production of large quantities of gases.

It is this sudden buildup of gas pressure that constitutes the nature of an explosion.

The speed at which explosives decompose permits their classification as high or low explosives.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Low Explosives (1 of 2)

The most widely used explosives in the low-explosive group are black powder and smokeless powder.

Black powder is a mixture of potassium or sodium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur.

Smokeless powder consists of nitrated cotton (nitrocellulose) or nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Low Explosives (2 of 2)

Low explosives are confined to a container like a pipe. The speed of decomposition is called deflagration causing the walls of the container to fragment and fly outward in all directions.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

High Explosives (1 of 4)

Among the high explosives:

Primary explosives are ultra-sensitive to heat, shock, or friction and provide the major ingredients found in blasting caps or primers used to detonate other explosives.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

High Explosives (2 of 4)

Among the high explosives:

Secondary explosives are relatively insensitive to heat, shock, or friction and will normally burn rather than detonate if ignited in small quantities in the open air.

This group comprises the majority of commercial and military blasting, such as dynamite, TNT, PETN, and RDX.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

High Explosives (3 of 4)

Secondary explosives must be detonated by a primary explosive.

The speed of decomposition is known as detonation. Its extremely rapid producing a supersonic shock wave creating a blast effect with an outward rush of gases at speeds as high as 7,000 miles per hour.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

High Explosives (4 of 4)

In recent years, nitroglycerin-based dynamite has all but disappeared from the industrial explosive market and has been replaced by ammonium nitrate-based explosives.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Military and Peroxide Explosives
(1 of 2)

In many countries outside the United States, the accessibility of military high explosives to terrorist organizations makes them very common constituents of homemade bombs.

RDX is the most popular and powerful of the military explosives, often encountered in the form of pliable plastic known as C-4.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Military and Peroxide Explosives
(2 of 2)

Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is a homemade explosive that has been used by terrorist organizations.

TATP can be made by combining acetone and peroxide in the presence of an acid.

Its existence has led to the banning of most liquids on commercial aircraft.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Collection and Analysis (1 of 4)

The entire bomb site must be systematically searched with great care given to recovering any trace of a detonating mechanism or any other item foreign to the explosion site.

Objects located at or near the origin of the explosion must be collected for laboratory examination.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

50

Collection and Analysis (2 of 4)

Often a crater is located at the origin and loose soil and other debris must be preserved from its interior for laboratory analysis.

One approach for screening objects for the presence of explosive residues is the ion mobility spectrometer

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

51

Schematic diagram of an ion mobility spectrometer. A sample is introduced into an ionization chamber, where bombardment with radioactive particles emitted by an isotope of nickel converts the sample to ions. The ions move into a drift region where ion separation occurs based on the speed of the ions as they move through an electric field.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Schematic diagram of an ion mobility spectrometer. A sample is introduced into an ionization chamber, where bombardment with radioactive particles emitted by an isotope of nickel converts the sample to ions. The ions move into a drift region where ion separation occurs based on the speed of the ions as they move through an electric field.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Schematic diagram of an ion mobility spectrometer. A sample is introduced into an ionization chamber, where bombardment with radioactive particles emitted by an isotope of nickel converts the sample to ions. The ions move into a drift region where ion separation occurs based on the speed of the ions as they move through an electric field.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Collection and Analysis (3 of 4)

All materials collected for the examination by the laboratory must be placed in sealed air-tight containers and labeled with all pertinent information.

Debris and articles collected from different areas are to be packaged in separate air-tight containers.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Collection and Analysis (4 of 4)

It has been demonstrated that some explosives can diffuse through plastic and contaminate nearby containers.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Back at the Lab (1 of 2)

Typically, in the laboratory, debris collected at explosion scenes will be examined microscopically for unconsumed explosive particles.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Back at the Lab (2 of 2)

Recovered debris may also be thoroughly rinsed with organic solvents and analyzed by testing procedures that include color spot tests, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

Confirmatory identification tests may be performed on unexploded materials by infrared spectrophotometry.

Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
colle writers

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code ESSAYSHELP