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Systematic Review

Topic  Diabetes, Obesity

Recommended (suf�cient evidence)

Audience  Adults, Older Adults

Setting  Clinical/Health Systems, Community

Strategy  Counseling, Health Education

Diabetes Management: Intensive Lifestyle Interventions
for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

October 2016

This webpage summarizes information available in the CPSTF Findings and Rationale Statement, located under the Snapshot tab.

The Community Guide (https://www.thecommunityguide.org)

Summary of CPSTF Finding

The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) recommends intensive lifestyle interventions for

patients with type 2 diabetes to improve glycemic control and reduce risk factors for cardiovascular

disease.

Intervention

CPSTF Finding and Rationale Statement

Intensive lifestyle interventions provide ongoing counseling, coaching, or individualized guidance to

patients with type 2 diabetes to help them change their diet, level of physical activity, or both. Patients

must interact with program staff multiple times for a period of six months or longer.

Dietary components may include tailored advice, and physical activity components may include

structured and personalized guidance or supervised exercise training. Programs may have weight loss

goals or include additional components related to weight loss or maintenance.

The largest and longest trial to date provided intensive individual and group counseling and extended

interpersonal support for dietary changes, regular physical activity, and weight management.

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 2/8

Read the full CPSTF Finding and Rationale Statement [PDF – 793 KB] for details including implementation

issues, possible added benefits, potential harms, and evidence gaps.

Promotional Materials

Community Guide News

One Pager:

Users who viewed this also viewed

About The Systematic Review

Summary of Results

Intensive Lifestyle Interventions Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Among People with Type 2 Diabetes

Intensive Lifestyle Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Mental Health: Targeted School-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Programs to Reduce Depression and

Anxiety Symptoms

Violence Prevention: Primary Prevention Interventions to Reduce Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

and Sexual Violence Among Youth

Diabetes Prevention: Interventions Engaging Community Health Workers

The CPSTF uses recently published systematic reviews to conduct accelerated assessments of

interventions that could provide program planners and decision-makers with additional, effective

options. The following published review was selected and evaluated by a team of specialists in

systematic review methods, and in research, practice, and policy related to diabetes management

Huang XL, Pan JH, Chen D, Chen J, Hu TT. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in patients with type 2

diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016;27;37-
47.

The systematic review and meta-analysis included 17 studies (Huang et al., 2016; search period

through July 15, 2014). The CPSTF finding is based on results from a subset of 7 studies that evaluated

intensive physical activity programs (5 studies) and intensive dietary programs (3 studies) in addition

to expert input from team members and the CPSTF. The largest and longest study (Look AHEAD trial)

evaluated both intensive dietary and physical activity programs.

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 3/8

Summary of Economic Evidence

Huang et al. did not consider evidence or information on the economic benefits of these interventions.

An economic evaluation of the Look AHEAD trial reported lower health-care costs over 10 years.

Applicability

Based on evidence from the review, the CPSTF finding is applicable to interventions offered to adults

with type 2 diabetes through healthcare settings in the United States.

Evidence Gaps

Detailed results from the systematic review are available in the CPSTF Finding and Rationale Statement [PDF –

793 KB].

The systematic review included 7 studies. The largest and longest study (Look AHEAD trial) evaluated

both intensive dietary and physical activity programs.

Dietary Programs (3 studies)

Intensive dietary programs led to favorable changes in reported outcomes.

Body Mass Index: non-significant decrease

Blood glucose (A1c): significant decrease

Systolic blood pressure: significant decrease

Diastolic blood pressure: significant decrease

LDL cholesterol: non-significant decrease

HDL cholesterol: significant increase

Physical Activity Programs (5 studies)

Intensive physical activity programs led to favorable changes in reported outcomes.

Body Mass Index: non-significant decrease

Blood glucose (A1c): significant decrease

Systolic blood pressure: non-significant decrease

Diastolic blood pressure: significant decrease

LDL cholesterol: non-significant decrease

HDL cholesterol: non-significant increase

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 4/8

Study Characteristics

Analytic Framework

No content is available for this section.

Summary Evidence Table

A summary evidence table for this Community Guide review is not available because the CPSTF finding

is based on the following published systematic review:

The CPSTF identified several areas that have limited information. Additional research and evaluation

could help answer the following questions and fill remaining gaps in the evidence base. (What are

evidence gaps?)

How does effectiveness vary between specific programs in different populations (e.g., by race,

SES, educational attainment, age, cognitive or physical disabilities)?

How effective are programs delivered through the internet, email, apps, or social networking?

What is the relative effectiveness of individual and group sessions?

What structures and systems are needed to maintain program effectiveness and help participants

continue their improvements to diet and physical activity following program completion?

What are long-term effects on participants’ glycemic control, weight loss, cardiovascular disease

risk factors, morbidity, and mortality?

What are program attrition rates? Why do participants drop out, and how can they be retained?

Are these interventions effective with children and adolescents?

All included studies were randomized controlled trials.

Evaluated interventions provided a median of 11 sessions that were individual (3 studies) or a

combination of individual and group sessions (4 studies).

Studies evaluated interventions that provided patients specific, tailored instruction on lifestyle

changes through multiple interactions over extended periods of time.

Four of the programs provided additional, extended telephone contact and 2 of the programs had

frequent, ongoing contact with patients through regular exercise sessions.

The median intervention duration was 12 months. All 7 studies established clear goals for

patients’ dietary changes (3 studies), physical activity levels (5 studies), or weight loss (2 studies).

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 5/8

Huang XL, Pan JH, Chen D, Chen J, Hu TT. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in patients with type 2

diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016;27;37-
47.

Included Studies

The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies

or one study may be explained in several publications).

Effectiveness Review

Studies from Huang et al. (2016) Included in this Review

Ali M, Schifano F, Robinson P, Phillips G, Doherty L, Melnick P, et al. Impact of community pharmacy

diabetes monitoring and education programme on diabetes management: a randomized controlled

study. Diabet Med 2012;29(9):e326–33.

Balducci S, Zanuso S, Nicolucci A, De Feo P, Cavallo S, Cardelli P, et al. Effect of an intensive exercise

intervention strategy on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes

mellitus: a randomized controlled trial: the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES). Arch Intern Med
2010;170:1794–803.

Chan CW, Siu SC, Wong CK, Lee VW. A pharmacist care program: positive impact on cardiac risk in

patients with type 2 diabetes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2012;17:57–64.

Coppell KJ, KataokaM, Williams SM, Chisholm AW, Vorgers SM, Mann JI. Nutritional intervention in

patients with type 2 diabetes who are hyperglycaemic despite optimised drug treatment—Lifestyle

Over and Above Drugs in Diabetes (LOADD) study: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2010;341:c3337.

Crasto W, Jarvis J, Khunti K, Skinner TC, Gray LJ, Brela J, et al. Multifactorial intervention in individuals

with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria: the Microalbuminuria Education and Medication

Optimisation (MEMO) study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011;93: 328–36.

Dobrosielski DA, Gibbs BB, Ouyang P, Bonekamp S, Clark JM,Wang NY, et al. Effect of exercise on blood

pressure in type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med 2012;27:1453–9.

Ko GT, Li JK, Kan EC, LoMK. Effects of a structured health education programme by a diabetic education

nurse on cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients: a 1-year prospective

randomized study. Diabet Med 2004;21:1274–9.

Kirk A, Mutrie N, MacIntyre P, Fisher M. Effects of a 12-month physical activity counselling

intervention on glycaemic control and on the status of cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2

diabetes. Diabetologia 2004;47:821–32.

Krein SL, Klamerus ML, Vijan S, Lee JL, Fitzgerald JT, Pawlow A, et al. Case management for patients

with poorly controlled diabetes: a randomized trial. Am J Med 2004;116:732–9.

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 6/8

Search Strategies

Refer to the existing systematic review for information about the search strategy:

Huang XL, Pan JH, Chen D, Chen J, Hu TT. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in patients with type 2

diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016;27;37-
47.

Review References

Huang XL, Pan JH, Chen D, Chen J, Hu TT. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in patients with type 2

diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016;27;37-47.

Considerations for Implementation

Look ARG, Wing RR. Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk

factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial. Arch

Intern Med 2010;170:1566–75.

Mohamed H, Al-Lenjawi B, Amuna P, Zotor F, Elmahdi H. Culturally sensitive patient-centred

educational programme for self-management of type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Prim

Care Diabetes 2013;7:199–206.

Salinero-Fort MA, Carrillo-de Santa Pau E, Arrieta-Blanco FJ, Abanades-Herranz JC, Martin-Madrazo

C, Rodes-Soldevila B, et al. Effectiveness of PRECEDE model for health education on changes and level

of control of HbA1c, blood pressure, lipids, and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes

mellitus. BMC Public Health 2011;11:267.

Sevick MA, Korytkowski M, Stone RA, Piraino B, Ren D, Sereika S, et al. Biophysiologic outcomes of the

Enhancing Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes (ENHANCE) trial. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112:1147–57.

Sone H, Tanaka S, Iimuro S, Tanaka S, Oida K, Yamasaki Y, et al. Long-term lifestyle intervention

lowers the incidence of stroke in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide multicentre

randomised controlled trial (the Japan Diabetes Complications Study). Diabetologia 2010;53:419–28.

Trento M, Passera P, Bajardi M, Tomalino M, Grassi G, Borgo E, et al. Lifestyle intervention by group

care prevents deterioration of type II diabetes: a 4-year randomized controlled clinical trial.

Diabetologia 2002;45:1231–9.

Uusitupa M, Laitinen J, Siitonen O, Vanninen E, Pyorala K. The maintenance of improved metabolic

control after intensified diet therapy in recent type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1993;19:227–38.

Wisse W, Boer Rookhuizen M, de Kruif MD, van Rossum J, Jordans I, ten Cate H, et al. Prescription of

physical activity is not sufficient to change sedentary behavior and improve glycemic control in type 2

diabetes patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010;88:e10–3.

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 7/8

Crosswalks

Healthy People 2030

Healthy People 2030 includes the following objectives related to this CPSTF recommendation.

The following considerations are drawn from studies included in the evidence review, the broader

literature, and expert opinion.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued the following in 2015:

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for abnormal blood glucose as part of

cardiovascular risk assessment in adults aged 40 to 70 years who are overweight or obese. Clinicians should

offer or refer patients with abnormal blood glucose to intensive behavioral counseling interventions to

promote a healthful diet and physical activity. (B recommendation: October 2015)

This recommendation will likely increase demand for early intervention to support patients in

making lifestyle changes and adopting long-term self-management behaviors.

Close coordination between healthcare systems, healthcare providers, and community-based

programs will likely be an essential element of sustainable community-based services.

Healthcare coverage for preventive services recommended by the USPSTF will likely be an

important source of funding for community-based programs once barriers to billing and

reimbursement are addressed.

Patients with, or at increased risk for, cardiovascular disease may need pre-intervention

assessments before initiating changes in physical activity, diet, and weight management.

Patients will need regular, ongoing diabetes care and medication management, which may

require adjustment as lifestyle changes are adopted.

Participants may be at increased risk for injuries associated with changes in physical

activity. This risk can be reduced if walking is emphasized as the primary mode of physical

activity with gradually increasing activity levels added as tolerated.

Reduce the proportion of adults with diabetes who have an A1c value above 9 percent — D‑03
(https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/diabetes/reduce-proportion-adults-

diabetes-who-have-a1c-value-above-9-percent-d-03)

Increase the proportion of people with diabetes who get formal diabetes education — D‑06
(https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/diabetes/increase-proportion-

people-diabetes-who-get-formal-diabetes-education-d-06)

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 8/8

The Community Guide

Page last reviewed: September 03, 2020

Page last updated: December 22, 2021

Content Source: The Guide to Community Preventive Services

Disclaimer:The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive
Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task force evidence-based

recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide

information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining

which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and

constraints of their constituents.

Sample Citation:
Guide to Community Preventive Services. Diabetes Management: Intensive Lifestyle Interventions

for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-

intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes. Page last updated: December 22,

2021. Page accessed: March 2, 2022

@CPSTF (https://twitter.com/cpstf)

(404) 498-1827

[email protected]

Citation and Disclaimer

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 1/8

Systematic Review

Topic  Diabetes, Obesity

Recommended (suf�cient evidence)

Audience  Adults, Older Adults

Setting  Clinical/Health Systems, Community

Strategy  Counseling, Health Education

Diabetes Management: Intensive Lifestyle Interventions
for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

October 2016

This webpage summarizes information available in the CPSTF Findings and Rationale Statement, located under the Snapshot tab.

The Community Guide (https://www.thecommunityguide.org)

Summary of CPSTF Finding

The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) recommends intensive lifestyle interventions for

patients with type 2 diabetes to improve glycemic control and reduce risk factors for cardiovascular

disease.

Intervention

CPSTF Finding and Rationale Statement

Intensive lifestyle interventions provide ongoing counseling, coaching, or individualized guidance to

patients with type 2 diabetes to help them change their diet, level of physical activity, or both. Patients

must interact with program staff multiple times for a period of six months or longer.

Dietary components may include tailored advice, and physical activity components may include

structured and personalized guidance or supervised exercise training. Programs may have weight loss

goals or include additional components related to weight loss or maintenance.

The largest and longest trial to date provided intensive individual and group counseling and extended

interpersonal support for dietary changes, regular physical activity, and weight management.

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 2/8

Read the full CPSTF Finding and Rationale Statement [PDF – 793 KB] for details including implementation

issues, possible added benefits, potential harms, and evidence gaps.

Promotional Materials

Community Guide News

One Pager:

Users who viewed this also viewed

About The Systematic Review

Summary of Results

Intensive Lifestyle Interventions Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Among People with Type 2 Diabetes

Intensive Lifestyle Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Mental Health: Targeted School-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Programs to Reduce Depression and

Anxiety Symptoms

Violence Prevention: Primary Prevention Interventions to Reduce Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

and Sexual Violence Among Youth

Diabetes Prevention: Interventions Engaging Community Health Workers

The CPSTF uses recently published systematic reviews to conduct accelerated assessments of

interventions that could provide program planners and decision-makers with additional, effective

options. The following published review was selected and evaluated by a team of specialists in

systematic review methods, and in research, practice, and policy related to diabetes management

Huang XL, Pan JH, Chen D, Chen J, Hu TT. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in patients with type 2

diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016;27;37-
47.

The systematic review and meta-analysis included 17 studies (Huang et al., 2016; search period

through July 15, 2014). The CPSTF finding is based on results from a subset of 7 studies that evaluated

intensive physical activity programs (5 studies) and intensive dietary programs (3 studies) in addition

to expert input from team members and the CPSTF. The largest and longest study (Look AHEAD trial)

evaluated both intensive dietary and physical activity programs.

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 3/8

Summary of Economic Evidence

Huang et al. did not consider evidence or information on the economic benefits of these interventions.

An economic evaluation of the Look AHEAD trial reported lower health-care costs over 10 years.

Applicability

Based on evidence from the review, the CPSTF finding is applicable to interventions offered to adults

with type 2 diabetes through healthcare settings in the United States.

Evidence Gaps

Detailed results from the systematic review are available in the CPSTF Finding and Rationale Statement [PDF –

793 KB].

The systematic review included 7 studies. The largest and longest study (Look AHEAD trial) evaluated

both intensive dietary and physical activity programs.

Dietary Programs (3 studies)

Intensive dietary programs led to favorable changes in reported outcomes.

Body Mass Index: non-significant decrease

Blood glucose (A1c): significant decrease

Systolic blood pressure: significant decrease

Diastolic blood pressure: significant decrease

LDL cholesterol: non-significant decrease

HDL cholesterol: significant increase

Physical Activity Programs (5 studies)

Intensive physical activity programs led to favorable changes in reported outcomes.

Body Mass Index: non-significant decrease

Blood glucose (A1c): significant decrease

Systolic blood pressure: non-significant decrease

Diastolic blood pressure: significant decrease

LDL cholesterol: non-significant decrease

HDL cholesterol: non-significant increase

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 4/8

Study Characteristics

Analytic Framework

No content is available for this section.

Summary Evidence Table

A summary evidence table for this Community Guide review is not available because the CPSTF finding

is based on the following published systematic review:

The CPSTF identified several areas that have limited information. Additional research and evaluation

could help answer the following questions and fill remaining gaps in the evidence base. (What are

evidence gaps?)

How does effectiveness vary between specific programs in different populations (e.g., by race,

SES, educational attainment, age, cognitive or physical disabilities)?

How effective are programs delivered through the internet, email, apps, or social networking?

What is the relative effectiveness of individual and group sessions?

What structures and systems are needed to maintain program effectiveness and help participants

continue their improvements to diet and physical activity following program completion?

What are long-term effects on participants’ glycemic control, weight loss, cardiovascular disease

risk factors, morbidity, and mortality?

What are program attrition rates? Why do participants drop out, and how can they be retained?

Are these interventions effective with children and adolescents?

All included studies were randomized controlled trials.

Evaluated interventions provided a median of 11 sessions that were individual (3 studies) or a

combination of individual and group sessions (4 studies).

Studies evaluated interventions that provided patients specific, tailored instruction on lifestyle

changes through multiple interactions over extended periods of time.

Four of the programs provided additional, extended telephone contact and 2 of the programs had

frequent, ongoing contact with patients through regular exercise sessions.

The median intervention duration was 12 months. All 7 studies established clear goals for

patients’ dietary changes (3 studies), physical activity levels (5 studies), or weight loss (2 studies).

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 5/8

Huang XL, Pan JH, Chen D, Chen J, Hu TT. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in patients with type 2

diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016;27;37-
47.

Included Studies

The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies

or one study may be explained in several publications).

Effectiveness Review

Studies from Huang et al. (2016) Included in this Review

Ali M, Schifano F, Robinson P, Phillips G, Doherty L, Melnick P, et al. Impact of community pharmacy

diabetes monitoring and education programme on diabetes management: a randomized controlled

study. Diabet Med 2012;29(9):e326–33.

Balducci S, Zanuso S, Nicolucci A, De Feo P, Cavallo S, Cardelli P, et al. Effect of an intensive exercise

intervention strategy on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes

mellitus: a randomized controlled trial: the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES). Arch Intern Med
2010;170:1794–803.

Chan CW, Siu SC, Wong CK, Lee VW. A pharmacist care program: positive impact on cardiac risk in

patients with type 2 diabetes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2012;17:57–64.

Coppell KJ, KataokaM, Williams SM, Chisholm AW, Vorgers SM, Mann JI. Nutritional intervention in

patients with type 2 diabetes who are hyperglycaemic despite optimised drug treatment—Lifestyle

Over and Above Drugs in Diabetes (LOADD) study: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2010;341:c3337.

Crasto W, Jarvis J, Khunti K, Skinner TC, Gray LJ, Brela J, et al. Multifactorial intervention in individuals

with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria: the Microalbuminuria Education and Medication

Optimisation (MEMO) study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011;93: 328–36.

Dobrosielski DA, Gibbs BB, Ouyang P, Bonekamp S, Clark JM,Wang NY, et al. Effect of exercise on blood

pressure in type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med 2012;27:1453–9.

Ko GT, Li JK, Kan EC, LoMK. Effects of a structured health education programme by a diabetic education

nurse on cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients: a 1-year prospective

randomized study. Diabet Med 2004;21:1274–9.

Kirk A, Mutrie N, MacIntyre P, Fisher M. Effects of a 12-month physical activity counselling

intervention on glycaemic control and on the status of cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2

diabetes. Diabetologia 2004;47:821–32.

Krein SL, Klamerus ML, Vijan S, Lee JL, Fitzgerald JT, Pawlow A, et al. Case management for patients

with poorly controlled diabetes: a randomized trial. Am J Med 2004;116:732–9.

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 6/8

Search Strategies

Refer to the existing systematic review for information about the search strategy:

Huang XL, Pan JH, Chen D, Chen J, Hu TT. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in patients with type 2

diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016;27;37-
47.

Review References

Huang XL, Pan JH, Chen D, Chen J, Hu TT. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in patients with type 2

diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016;27;37-47.

Considerations for Implementation

Look ARG, Wing RR. Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk

factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial. Arch

Intern Med 2010;170:1566–75.

Mohamed H, Al-Lenjawi B, Amuna P, Zotor F, Elmahdi H. Culturally sensitive patient-centred

educational programme for self-management of type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Prim

Care Diabetes 2013;7:199–206.

Salinero-Fort MA, Carrillo-de Santa Pau E, Arrieta-Blanco FJ, Abanades-Herranz JC, Martin-Madrazo

C, Rodes-Soldevila B, et al. Effectiveness of PRECEDE model for health education on changes and level

of control of HbA1c, blood pressure, lipids, and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes

mellitus. BMC Public Health 2011;11:267.

Sevick MA, Korytkowski M, Stone RA, Piraino B, Ren D, Sereika S, et al. Biophysiologic outcomes of the

Enhancing Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes (ENHANCE) trial. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112:1147–57.

Sone H, Tanaka S, Iimuro S, Tanaka S, Oida K, Yamasaki Y, et al. Long-term lifestyle intervention

lowers the incidence of stroke in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide multicentre

randomised controlled trial (the Japan Diabetes Complications Study). Diabetologia 2010;53:419–28.

Trento M, Passera P, Bajardi M, Tomalino M, Grassi G, Borgo E, et al. Lifestyle intervention by group

care prevents deterioration of type II diabetes: a 4-year randomized controlled clinical trial.

Diabetologia 2002;45:1231–9.

Uusitupa M, Laitinen J, Siitonen O, Vanninen E, Pyorala K. The maintenance of improved metabolic

control after intensified diet therapy in recent type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1993;19:227–38.

Wisse W, Boer Rookhuizen M, de Kruif MD, van Rossum J, Jordans I, ten Cate H, et al. Prescription of

physical activity is not sufficient to change sedentary behavior and improve glycemic control in type 2

diabetes patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010;88:e10–3.

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 7/8

Crosswalks

Healthy People 2030

Healthy People 2030 includes the following objectives related to this CPSTF recommendation.

The following considerations are drawn from studies included in the evidence review, the broader

literature, and expert opinion.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued the following in 2015:

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for abnormal blood glucose as part of

cardiovascular risk assessment in adults aged 40 to 70 years who are overweight or obese. Clinicians should

offer or refer patients with abnormal blood glucose to intensive behavioral counseling interventions to

promote a healthful diet and physical activity. (B recommendation: October 2015)

This recommendation will likely increase demand for early intervention to support patients in

making lifestyle changes and adopting long-term self-management behaviors.

Close coordination between healthcare systems, healthcare providers, and community-based

programs will likely be an essential element of sustainable community-based services.

Healthcare coverage for preventive services recommended by the USPSTF will likely be an

important source of funding for community-based programs once barriers to billing and

reimbursement are addressed.

Patients with, or at increased risk for, cardiovascular disease may need pre-intervention

assessments before initiating changes in physical activity, diet, and weight management.

Patients will need regular, ongoing diabetes care and medication management, which may

require adjustment as lifestyle changes are adopted.

Participants may be at increased risk for injuries associated with changes in physical

activity. This risk can be reduced if walking is emphasized as the primary mode of physical

activity with gradually increasing activity levels added as tolerated.

Reduce the proportion of adults with diabetes who have an A1c value above 9 percent — D‑03
(https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/diabetes/reduce-proportion-adults-

diabetes-who-have-a1c-value-above-9-percent-d-03)

Increase the proportion of people with diabetes who get formal diabetes education — D‑06
(https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/diabetes/increase-proportion-

people-diabetes-who-get-formal-diabetes-education-d-06)

3/2/22, 1:22 PM Diabetes: Lifestyle Programs for Type 2 | The Community Guide

https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes 8/8

The Community Guide

Page last reviewed: September 03, 2020

Page last updated: December 22, 2021

Content Source: The Guide to Community Preventive Services

Disclaimer:The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive
Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task force evidence-based

recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide

information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining

which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and

constraints of their constituents.

Sample Citation:
Guide to Community Preventive Services. Diabetes Management: Intensive Lifestyle Interventions

for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/diabetes-

intensive-lifestyle-interventions-patients-type-2-diabetes. Page last updated: December 22,

2021. Page accessed: March 2, 2022

@CPSTF (https://twitter.com/cpstf)

(404) 498-1827

[email protected]

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