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After studying the assigned reading 
21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook, 

Chapter 54

: “Traditional and New Media,” and the assigned reading “The Impact of New Media on Intercultural Communication in Global Context,” complete the following assignment by synthesizing the readings. Considering the statement “technologies are simply tools” write a short essay that incorporates answers to the following prompts: 

Do not include the questions in the essay.

A) Explain how that statement relates to the keywords describing new media: “manipulate, converge, and instant.” 

B) How does the concept of intercultural impact of new media increase the complexity of the statement? You should especially consider the new experiences, for human beings that the convergences of new media and globalization bring about.

Support your responses with research from the Learning Resources. Use 
APA in-text citations
 where necessary and cite any outside sources. Create an 
APA reference list
 at the end of the document.

Submit your responses in the file submission area for this assignment. If you choose to “add a file” by attaching an MS Word  document, please also copy and paste your response into the comments area.

400 to 500 words

Below are the required learning resources for this week.

What is New Media? Defining New Media Isn’t Easy.

Consult this resource to understand all the many ways that new media encompass digital forms of media and communication.

Harmon, A. (2020). New media. Salem Press Encyclopedia.

The Impact of New Media on Intercultural Communication in Global Context.

This journal article explores the impact of the convergence of new media and globalization on various aspects of intercultural communication. There is also a discussion of how culture impacts development of new media.

21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook: Chapter 54: Traditional and New Media

This is a good intro article on traditional and new media.

Michael Lockrey: Citizen Journalism and the Democratisation of News Coverage

Watch this 14-minute video on citizen journalism and the democratization of journalism.

Digital Trends: The History of Social Networking

A brief history of social networking.

Creative Commons: About

Creative Commons is a license that allows you to share knowledge and creative content. Explore the link and determine what uses you might have for Creative Commons.

Creative Commons: About

Professor Lawrence Lessig: Copyright and Creative Commons

This video discusses how schools use Creative Commons.

Professor Lawrence Lessig: Copyright and Creative Commons
, on the YouTube website, is available under a
 Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
 UMGC has modified this work and it is available under the original license.



Copyright and Creative Commons


Media and Culture Theory


The media directly influences individuals. It makes individuals aware of the things that happen on a global and national level. The media influences individuals directly because it presents new norms to them. It might persuade individuals to accept the new norms. The media can influence the beliefs and views of a person by presenting new information to them. People are likely to make their decisions based on the information they get from the media. They can have good norms and values of the media promote such norms. The media might affect people positively or negatively. TRUE The positive effects include being informed and learning new things (Eadie et al.,2009). The negative effects include getting fed with false information. The media might encourage individuals to engage in bad practices such as abusing drugs or being promiscuous YES, IT COULD BUT A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE WOULD HELP HERE. . It might encourage individuals to spend their money unwisely through the advertisements of various products and services. AGAIN, A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE, A SOURCE, WOULD HELP FOR CLARIFICATION.


The cultivation theory under the socialization theories accurately portrays my media experiences. SO, WHAT IS IT? CLARIFY.  I spend a lot of time on various social media platforms such as WhatsApp and Facebook. Spending more time on social media platforms has caused behavior and lifestyle changes. I have been able to obtain news through social media platforms such as Twitter. I have found news about the Russian-Ukraine war via Twitter. News channels such as CNN, NBC News, and New York Times have social media pages. One can receive news of what has been happening in various parts of the world if they follow the social media handles of such news channels (Berger et al., 2010). Even though the use of social media has been helpful in gaining new information, it has been more difficult to engage in physical exercises and study because a lot of time is spent on social media platforms.  HAVEN’T EXPLAINED THE THEORY. GERBNER, THE CREATOR OF THE THEORY, HIS FOCUS WAS ON HEAVY WATCHING AND SHOWS THAT WERE PRONE TO VIOLENCE OR EXTREME EMOTION.FOR THOSE WHO DO, THEY TEND TO SEE THE WORLD IN A MORE MEAN WAY, OR THE MEAN WORLD INDEX, AND BECOME FEARFUL OF SITUTATIONS THAT THEY HAVE SEEN ON TV, THINKING THE SAME THING IS HAPPENING IN THE WORLD.


The government should protect citizens by setting laws. There should be laws to the media companies to help protect members of the public from the media effects. The government should have laws that ban indecent videos and photos (Berger et al., 2010). It should also have laws that penalize media companies for posting false information and giving fake news. IF THE FAIRNESS DOCTRINE WERE BROUGHT BACK, UNTRUE AND OR BIASED NEWS STORIES COULD BE HANDLED WITH THAT.

Giving opinions on general issues should be termed free speech. Free speech is when individuals follow the government laws on posting information. Indecency is when individuals use abusive words ONLY? THAT SEEMS LIMITING. . It is when a specific group is targeted through the media. The media should not be used for targeting individuals that come from specific groups. Censorship is sometimes warranted. It is warranted because of the risk of fake news, racism, and violation of values. There has to be censorship to ensure that the media does not promote violence or hate against other groups. THE SUPREME COURT IS  VERY WARY OF  ANY THING THAT SMACKS OF CENSORSHIP VERSUS FREE SPEECH. THEY HAVE ALSO STATED, OVER AND OVER, UNFORTUNATELY, THAT HATE SPEECH IS PROTECTED UNDER THE FIRST AMENDMENT (SO IS LYING) UNLESS THE WORDS ARE “FIGHTING WORDS,” WHICH MEANS IT CAN’T LEAD TO “VIOLENT ALTERCATIONS.”








Berger, C. R., Roloff, M. E., & Ewoldsen, D. R. (Eds.). (2010). The handbook of communication science. Sage.

Eadie, W. F. (Ed.). (2009). 21st-century communication: a reference handbook. Sage Publications.



Some good points but there is no definition for Cultivation theory and that is needed. Please see my notes above in CAPS for more specifics.

Nature of News

An example of a current news story  NOT THAT CURRENT. THAT IS FROM 4 YEARS AGO LASHUNDA.  CURRENT MEANS THE LAST 90 DAYS OR SO. is the story of a family that was served a blood-stained Frappuccino from Starbucks. One of the family members noticed that there were red stains on her drink. She also noticed that there were red stains on her daughter’s drink. She explained that there was a strange metallic smell from the Frappuccino. At first, the woman thought that they were bleeding. She later realized that they had not been bleeding, and the Frappuccino had blood (Moye, 2018). She reported the matter to Starbucks. The woman explained that she had discovered an employee bleeding before being removed from the workstation. Starbucks offered the family $1000 as compensation.

The story was compelling because it covered a topic that affected many people. Most people are likely to order drinks from Starbucks. They might be surprised after hearing that someone was served drinks that had blood. The story connects with the audience because it covers something they might experience. One of the concepts that the story exemplifies is human interest (Eadie, 2018). People would be interested to read a story about their favorite drinks or coffee house. The story also talks about a kid who drank coffee with blood. It is likely to catch the interest of people who are concerned about the rights of children.

There is the concept of unusualness in the story. It is unusual for coffee to contain blood. One would have expected Starbucks employees to ensure that the drinks served to customers are not contaminated. The story is unusual for individuals from diverse backgrounds. There is conflict in the story (Eadie, 2018). The family explains that Starbucks did not care about their well-being. However, Starbucks explains that it cared for their wellbeing because there was compensation. The impact was a lack of trust among the Starbucks customers. The customers would have to double-check their drinks to ensure that they did not have unusual ingredients.

The concepts have been challenged by the advent of immediacy in a news release. BUT, THIS HAPPENED 4 YEARS AGO. The Internet has challenged concepts such as timeliness. Many people can share news through blogs, YouTube, and live feeds. They can use their smartphones to share the news. Reporters and journalists might not be the first ones to get news. Human interest is; however, the inclusive bridge (Eadie, 2018). Human interest actives the emotions of people and connects them through their similarities.

Social media platforms are used for sharing news stories today. Many people have become active social media users; therefore, they are likely to get news stories almost immediately. Social media users are likely to get the news of what has happened in other countries quickly. The advent of immediacy challenges concepts such as timeliness and proximity because people can share news quickly and across borders.




Eadie, W. F. (Ed.). (2018). 21st-century communication: a reference handbook. Sage Publications.

Moye, D. (2018). LA Family’s Lawsuit Says Starbucks Served Blood-Stained Frappuccino. HUFFPOST. Retrieved from


A good analysis but not a current news story but one from 4 years ago. Current means last 60 to 90 days, not over 4 years ago, so keep that in mind when another assignment asks for a current news item.


Parasocial Relationships

Parasocial relationships are one-sided relations where an individual can extend emotional energy, and interest in time with the persona not being aware of the existence of the other person. VERY GOOD!These relations are common in television stars, celebrities, or sportsmen/women. This is a normal and healthy relationship (Bernhold, 2019).  This has happened to me because I have felt so close to various characters in television shows and sportsmen/women. This shows screens have dominated part of my life.

During the Covid-19 period, I watched the ITALICIZE THE TITLE Breaking Bad television series. One of the characters I developed a parasocial relationship with Walter White who is starring in the TV series. I REWATCHED THE SERIES AS WELL. Although he is a fictitious character in the series, his qualities and love for family and his profession are appealing. He is presented as a character who had recently been diagnosed with cancer. He has a young family and thinks about his families’FAMILY’S welfare after his death. He wants his young boy and unborn child to have all they need for their education. He thinks about how he can make money within a short period before he dies.

Outside entertainment, Walter White is seen as a professional who is great knowledge in his field of practice. He is a professional chemistry teacher and we see him attending classes to teach the younger generation preparing them to be better people in the future. He is bold enough to keep working despite his disease condition. He values his family and he is always fighting to protect them. He does not give up on the goals he set for himself. It is clear that for an individual to become successful in life, it takes a great level of sacrifice, hard work, and consistency. He keeps inspiring the younger people as well see it from how he handles his disabled son. He wants him to learn new things like driving which the boy initially thought he could not make it. It is good always work hard to achieve what you believe in (Bond, 2018). Through Walter White, I get to know the importance of mastering my profession to be outstanding in the job market. It is good that people should always be guided by facts in life and embrace their situations. GOOD JOB! I LIKE THIS CHARACTER TOO.




Bernhold, Q. S. (2019). Parasocial relationships with disliked television characters, depressive symptoms, and loneliness among older adults. Journal of Applied Communication Research47(5), 548-570.

Bond, B. J. (2018). Parasocial relationships with media personae: Why they matter and how they differ among heterosexual, lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents. Media Psychology21(3), 457-485.



Good job! A strong analysis.

Please comment on at least 2 to 3 of your classmates’ postings with questions or thoughtful, respectful, thorough responses.


A) After reading under the categories in New Media and Globalization and The Impact of New Media on Intercultural Communication, apply critical thinking techniques to help Shan (2010) answer this question, “Is intercultural communication possible?” under the context of new media in global society.

Intercultural communication in a global society is possible, and there are even translation apps that allow you to communicate with different countries. However, some words are not translatable, and cultural differences will always give a different perspective on the originally intended meaning. Therefore, even different generations within the same culture have trouble communicating with the new media. I found it interesting that this cultural gap has caused a problem in understanding or even communication between generations and people in the same culture (Chen, 2012). Even though it is possible to communicate interculturally, it is hard to say how effective the communication is and if your point is getting across. 

B) Also, has digital media influenced music? What are your music habits and how do you listen to music and buy it? How have your habits changed in the way you access and buy music?

Digital media for music has changed so much since I was a kid. From relying on non-digital options to transitioning to the iPod to now just using the apple music feature on my iPhone or Spotify, digital media has never been easier to access and use. I like Spotify to build playlists and listen for free, and I have an apple music subscription. Digital media has taken off, and there are so many digital media apps that you can add to your phone or even your tv. There are many options and ways to customize your digital music, and the possibilities are truly endless. As long as you have your phone, you will have a way to access music digitally. 

C) After watching “
Citizen Journalism and the Democratisation of News Coverage,
” provide an example of how citizen journalism has been effective. Explain how it was effective and explain how citizen journalism can also be problematic. 

Citizen Journalism is a double-edged sword. It can be problematic and effective in delivering the message. It effectively provides insight into areas that many people would not have been able to see, but it is also a significant risk to the individuals who are reporting if they are caught. We have seen some of this in North Korea, where citizen journalists go and record what North Korea wants them to see, but they can sneak footage of what is going on behind the scenes. Again, this information can come at significant risk and cost to the individual reporting. 

It can also be problematic; however well-intended the information may be, it can permanently be changed to make it appeal a certain way. According to Jesse Singal (2016), citizen journalism is a good idea in theory only since they paraphrase information to suit their needs. Furthermore, he states that information is misleading and unreliable (Singal, 2016). I find it interesting since the news and the journalist reporting it seems to have the same issues if you ask me. Whether you are a citizen journalist or a journalist, the problem remains the same.

A positive is a behind-the-scenes information that a citizen journalist can provide and first-hand accounts. For example, an editor and publisher from Japan, Ishimaru Jiro, works with North Korean “citizen journalists” after years of attempting to report North Korea as a foreign journalist (Chui, 2010). Mr. Jiro records the first-hand account and documents the pictures he receives from undercover citizens journalists. They are not afraid to get caught and want people to know what is happening behind the scenes in North Korea.


Chen, G. (2012). The Impact of New Media on Intercultural Communication in Global Context. [email protected] | University of Rhode Island Research.

Chiu, J. (2010, June 29). North Korea’s citizen journalism. The Nation.

Singal, J. (2016, October 19). ‘Citizen journalism’ is a catastrophe right now, and It’ll only get worse. Intelligencer.


A. Yes, intercultural communication is possible. It allows people to post content that is accessible around the world. It also allows more learning opportunities. I work in a warehouse with tons of language barriers to go through. A simple google translate we can communicate where we both understand. However, based on the article “The Impact of New Media on Intercultural Communication in Global Context” it can create problems with cultural values among some users. “The convergence of new media and globalization brings about at least six new experiences for human beings, including new textual experiences, new ways of representing the world, new relationships between users and new media technologies, new conceptions of the biological body’s relationship to technological media, and new patterns of organization and production.” (Chen, 2012) Which means new media is changing cultural identity by weakening or strengthening the relationship of people in the community. (Chen, 2012) It does allow people a glimpse in how people around the world live their lives though in an instance.


A. Yes, digital media has influenced music in many aspects. When I was young listening to favorite songs meant waiting by the radio for them to come on. You could by the CD and play it on a CD player. Then the iPod shuffle came out and I got one in the 6th grade. Now you can download CDs, songs, anything directly on your smartphone. A person can use a music service such as apple music, Spotify, and Pandora and have access to any song they want. It is easier to find songs and people who are not famous singing on YouTube. I use Apple Music and by using it I can share it with my husband on the family plan and it kept all the music I bought since I was growing up. I love music and I enjoy the easy access to all my favorite songs.


A. I believe citizen journalism can be both effective and problematic in different ways. Depending on the subject matter and what they might be leaving out. With the current war going on between Russia and Ukraine I believe it could be useful for citizens to offer the rest of the world a glimpse of what they are going through. It is a tragic event and citizens documenting their stories with the war can offer the world a look into what they are dealing with so we can help better. However, it can be problematic too. During the Covid-19 Pandemic there was false information being posted about the pandemic that gave users the wrong information and led to confusion of what is true and what is not. Now even false information regarding the vaccine Pfizer is being put out that it causes heart attacks.


Chen, Guo-Ming. (2012). “The impact of new media on intercultural communication in global context.” China Media Research, vol. 8, no. 2, 2012, pp. 1-10. Available at:

Kochi, S., & TODAY, U. (2022, March 14). Fact check: False claim that FDA said vaccines are linked to heart attacks, deaths. Retrieved from

Lockrey, M. (2010). Citizen Journalism and the Democratisation of News Coverage [Video]. Retrieved from

Stanford University. (2022, March 17). Reporting the war in Ukraine. Retrieved from

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