top answer:   Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 15 Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 15Assigned Readings:C

  

 

Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 15

Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 15Assigned Readings:Chapter. 15 Agile Project ManagementChapter. 16 International ProjectsInitial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding in each assigned textbook chapter.Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion.Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

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  1. Use an Internet search engine to find the most recent International Corruptions Perceptions Index (CPI) released by the Berlin-based organization Transparency International.
    • Check your predictions with the Index.
    • How well did you do? What countries surprised you? Why?

[Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. Postings must be in the student’s own words – do not provide quotes!] 

 

Activity 15

After reviewing/reading Chapters 15 & 16 of the textbook, access UC’s online Library and conduct research within the “Business Source Premier (EBSCO Host)” search engine and locate a Project Management Journal article among the thousands of journal articles made available within the many years of publications the Library holds.  The Project Management Journal article should tie directly into at least one highlight from the assigned chapters (Chapters 15 & 16) reading/review material for the week.  This weekly research paper should include at least 2 pages, but not more than 3 pages, in the narrative and it should be typed in APA formatting (title page, reference page, no abstract page, double-spacing, Times New Roman 12 font, 1 inch margins, in-text citations, etc…). Your paper should contain the following headings:

  •      Introduction
  •      Summary of the article
  •      Relevant points made by the author
  •      Critique of the article
  •      Application of the concepts in the article

Chapter Fifteen

International Projects

15–1

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

15–2

Where We Are Now

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–2

Learning Objectives

Describe environmental factors that affect project management in different countries

Identify factors that typically are considered in selecting a foreign location for a project

Understand cross-cultural issues that impact working on international projects

Describe culture shock and strategies for coping with it

Understand how organizations select and prepare people to work on international projects

15–3

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter Outline

15-1 Environmental Factors

15-2 Project Site Selection

15-3 Cross-Cultural Considerations: A Closer Look

15-4 Selection and Training for International

Projects

15–4

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

15–5

International Projects

Issues in Managing International Projects

Environmental factors affecting projects

Global expansion considerations

Challenges of working in foreign cultures

Selection and training of overseas managers

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–5

15–6

International Assignments

Positives

Increased income

Increased responsibilities

Career opportunities

Foreign travel

New lifetime friends

Negatives

Absence from home and friends, and family

Personal risks

Missed career opportunities

Difficulties with foreign language, culture, and laws

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–6

15–7

FIGURE 15.1

Environmental Factors Affecting
International Projects

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–7

15–8

Environmental Factors

Legal/Political

Political stability

National and local laws and regulations

Federal, state and local bureaucracies

Government interference or support

Government corruption

Security

International terrorism

National and local security

Local crime and kidnapping

Risk management

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–8

15–9

Environmental Factors (cont’d)

Geography

Climate and seasonal differences

Natural geographical obstacles

Economic

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Protectionist strategies and policies

Balance of payments

Local labor force: supply, educational and skill levels

Currency convertibility and exchange rates

Inflation rates

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–9

15–10

Environmental Factors (cont’d)

Infrastructure

Telecommunication networks

Transportation systems

Power distribution grids

Unique local technologies

Educational systems

Culture

Customs and social standards

Values and philosophies

Language

Multicultural environments

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–10

15–11

Assessment Matrix Project Site Selection

FIGURE 15.2

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–11

15–12

Evaluation Matrix Breakdown for Infrastructure

FIGURE 15.3

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–12

15–13

Cross-Cultural Considerations:
A Closer Look

Culture

A system of shared norms, beliefs, values, and customs that bind people together, creating shared meaning and a unique identity.

Cultural Differences:

Geographic regions

Ethnic or religious groups

Language

Economic

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–13

15–14

Cross-Cultural Considerations… (cont’d)

Ethnocentric Perspective

The tendency to believe that one’s cultural values and ways of doing things are superior to all others

Wanting to conduct business only on your terms and stereotyping other countries

Ignoring the “people factor” in other cultures by putting work ahead of building relationships

Adjustments Required:

Relativity of time and punctuality

Culture-related ethical differences

Personal and professional relationships

Attitudes toward work and life

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–14

15–15

Cross-Cultural Considerations (cont’d)

Working in
Mexico

Working in
Saudi Arabia

Working in
France

Working in
China

Working in the United States

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–15

15–16

Cross-Cultural Orientations

Relation to Nature

How people relate to the natural world around them and to the supernatural

Time Orientation

The culture focus on the past, present, or future.

Activity Orientation

How to live: “being” or living in the moment, doing, or controlling

Basic Nature of People

Whether people viewed as good, evil, or some mix of these two

Relationships among People

The degree of responsibility one has for others

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–16

15–17

Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck’s Cross-Cultural Framework

FIGURE 15.4

Note: The line indicates where the United States tends to fall along these issues.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–17

15–18

The Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Framework

Individualism versus Collectivism

Identifies whether a culture holds individuals or the group responsible for each member’s welfare.

Power Distance

Describes degree to which a culture accepts status and power differences among its members.

Uncertainty Avoidance

Identifies a culture’s willingness to accept uncertainty and ambiguity about the future.

Masculinity-Femininity

Describes the degree to which the culture emphasizes competitive and achievement-oriented behavior or displays concerns for relationships.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–18

15–19

Sample Country Clusters on Hofstede’s Dimensions
of Individualism-Collectivism and Power Distance

FIGURE 15.5

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–19

15–20

Working in Different Cultures

Relying on Local Intermediaries

Translators

Social connections

Expeditors

Cultural advisors and guides

Culture Shock

The natural psychological disorientation that most people suffer when they move into a different culture.

A breakdown in a person’s selective perception and effective interpretation system induced by foreign stimuli and the inability to function effectively in a strange land

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–20

15–21

Culture Shock Cycle

FIGURE 15.6

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–21

15–22

Working in Different Cultures (cont’d)

Coping with Culture Shock

Engage in regular physical exercise programs, practice meditation and relaxation exercises,
and keep a journal

Create “stability zones” that closely re-creates home

Modify expectations and behavior

Redefine priorities and develop realistic expectations

Focus on most important tasks and relish small accomplishments

Use project work as a bridge until adjusted to the new environment

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–22

15–23

Selection and Training for
International Projects

Selection Factors

Work experience with cultures other than one’s own

Previous overseas travel

Good physical and emotional health

Knowledge of a host nation’s language

Recent immigration background or heritage

Ability to adapt and function in the new culture

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–23

15–24

Selection and Training for
International Projects (cont’d)

Areas for Training to Increase Understanding of a Foreign Culture:

Religion

Dress codes

Education system

Holidays—national and religious

Daily eating patterns

Family life

Business protocols

Social etiquette

Equal opportunity

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–24

15–25

Selection and Training for
International Projects (cont’d)

Learning Approaches to Cultural Fluency

The “information-giving” approach—the learning of information or skills from a lecture-type orientation

The “affective approach”—the learning of information/skills that raise the affective responses on the part of the trainee and result in cultural insights

The “behavioral/experiential” approach—a variant of the affective approach technique that provides the trainee with realistic simulations or scenarios

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–25

15–26

Relationship between Length and Rigor of Training
and Cultural Fluency Required

FIGURE 15.7

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–26

15–27

Key Terms

Cross-cultural orientations

Culture

Culture shock

Infrastructure

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

15–27

Chapter Sixteen

An Introduction to Agile Project Management

16-1

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

16–2

Where We Are Now

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–2

Project Management 6e.

Learning Objectives

Recognize the conditions in which traditional project management versus agile project management should be used

Understand the value of incremental, iterative development for creating new products

Identify core Agile principles

Understand the basic methodology used in Scrum

Recognize the limitations of Agile project management

16–3

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter Outline

16-1 Traditional versus Agile Methods

16-2 Agile PM

16-3 Agile PM in Action: Scrum

16-4 Applying Agile PM to Large Projects

16-5 Limitations and Concerns

16–4

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

16–5

Traditional versus Agile Methods

Traditional Project Management Approach

Concentrates on thorough, upfront planning of the entire project.

Requires a high degree of predictability to be effective.

Agile Project Management (Agile PM)

Relies on incremental, iterative development cycles
to complete projects.

Is ideal for exploratory projects in which requirements need to be discovered and new technology tested.

Focuses on active collaboration between the project team and customer representatives.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–5

Project Management 6e.

16–6

Agile Project Management

Agile PM

Is related to the rolling wave planning and scheduling project methodology.

Uses iterations (“time boxes”) to develop a workable product that satisfies the customer and other key stakeholders.

Allows stakeholders and customers review progress and re-evaluate priorities to ensure alignment with customer needs and company goals.

Is cyclical in that adjustments are made and a different iterative cycle begins that subsumes the work of the previous iterations and adds new capabilities to the evolving product.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–6

Project Management 6e.

16–7

Project Uncertainty

FIGURE 16.1

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17–7

Project Management 6e.

16–8

The Waterfall Approach to Software Development

FIGURE 16.2

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–8

Project Management 6e.

16–9

Traditional Project Management versus
Agile Project Management

TABLE 16.1

Traditional Agile
Design up front Continuous design
Fixed scope Flexible
Deliverables Features/requirements
Freeze design as early as possible Freeze design as late as possible
Low uncertainty High uncertainty
Avoid change Embrace change
Low customer interaction High customer interaction
Conventional project teams Self-organized project teams

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–9

Project Management 6e.

16–10

Iterative, Incremental Product Development

FIGURE 16.3

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–10

Project Management 6e.

16–11

Agile Project Management (cont’d)

Advantages of Agile PM

Useful in developing critical breakthrough technology or defining essential features

Continuous integration, verification, and validation of the evolving product

Frequent demonstration of progress to increase the likelihood that the end product will satisfy customer needs

Early detection of defects and problems

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–11

Project Management 6e.

16–12

Agile PM Principles

Focus on customer value

Iterative and incremental delivery

Experimentation and adaptation

Self-organization

Continuous improvement

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–12

Project Management 6e.

16–13

Popular Agile PM Methods

Agile PM Methods

Crystal Clear

RUP (Rational Unified Process)

Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)

Scrum

Extreme
Programming

Agile Modeling

Rapid Product Development (PRD)

Lean Development

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–13

Project Management 6e.

16–14

Agile PM in Action: Scrum

Scrum Methodology

Is a holistic approach for use by a cross-functional team collaborating to develop a new product.

Defines product features as deliverables and prioritizes them by their perceived highest value to the customer.

Re-evaluates priorities after each iteration (sprint) to produce fully functional features.

Has four phases: analysis, design, build, test.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–14

Project Management 6e.

16–15

Scrum Development Process

FIGURE 16.4

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–15

Project Management 6e.

16–16

Key Roles and Responsibilities
in the Scrum Process

Product Owner

Acts on behalf of customers/end users to represent their interests.

Development Team

Is a team of five to nine people with cross-functional skill sets responsible for delivering the product.

Scrum Master (aka Project Manager)

Facilitates scrum process and resolves impediments at the team and organization level by acting as a buffer between the team and outside interference.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–16

Project Management 6e.

16–17

Scrum Meetings

FIGURE 16.5

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–17

Project Management 6e.

16–18

Partial Product Backlog

FIGURE 16.6

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–18

Project Management 6e.

16–19

Partial Sprint Backlog

FIGURE 16.7

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17–19

Project Management 6e.

16–20

Sprint Burndown Chart

FIGURE 16.8

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17–20

Project Management 6e.

16–21

Release Burndown Chart After Six Sprints

FIGURE 16.9

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–21

Project Management 6e.

16–22

Applying Agile PM to Large Projects

Scaling

Uses several teams to work on different features of a large scale project at the same time.

Staging

Requires significant up-front planning to manage the interdependences of different features to be developed.

Involves developing protocols and defining roles to coordinate efforts and assure compatibility and harmony.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–22

Project Management 6e.

16–23

Hub Project Management Structure

FIGURE 16.10

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–23

Project Management 6e.

16–24

Limitations and Concerns of Agile PM

It does not satisfy top management’s need for budget, scope, and schedule control.

Its principles of self-organization and close collaboration can be incompatible with corporate cultures.

Its methods appear to work best on small projects that require only five to nine dedicated team members to complete the work.

It requires active customer involvement and cooperation.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–24

Project Management 6e.

16–25

Key Terms

Agile PM

Feature

Iterative incremental development (IID)

Product backlog

Product owner

Release burndown chart

Scaling

Self-organizing team

Sprint backlog

Sprint burndown chart

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17–25

Project Management 6e.

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