top answer: Review Table 2.1 titled “What Is Distinctive Between Global Education and Multicultural Education”

  
  • Review Table 2.1 titled “What Is Distinctive Between Global Education and Multicultural Education” from your Visions in Global Education text. Select two of the six parameters, such as origin or justification and discuss how the differences in parameters could affect leadership skills.
  • Select one of the approaches in shared discourse, Table 2.2, monoculturism, particularism, and so on, about global education, and formulate your own version of how leaders of this approach would implement diversity practices.

Notes and Power Point attached!

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EDU562, Week 2: Terrains of Global and Multicultural Education: What is Distinctive,
Contested, and Shared?

Slide # Topics Narration

Slide 1 Introduction Welcome to Global Leaders in Education.

In this lesson, we will discuss the Terrains of Global and
Multicultural Education: What is Distinctive, Contested,
and Shared?

Next slide.

Slide 2 Topics The following topics will be covered in this lesson:

Origins and Contexts of Global and Multicultural
Education;
Legal and Philosophical Justifications;
Different Beneficiaries, Proponents, Opponents, and
Scope;
Similarities between Multicultural and Global Education;
Monocultural Approaches: Defending Against Diversity;

Next slide.

Slide 3 Topics, Continued The following topics will also be covered in this lesson:

Particularistic Approaches: Defending Diversity;
Pluralistic Approaches: Resourcing Diversity;
Liberal Approaches: Negotiating Diversity;
Critical Approaches: Intersecting Diversity with
Oppression;

Next slide.

Slide 4 Topics, Continued The following topics will also be covered in this lesson:

Joining the Fields through Poststructuralist Pragmatist
Citizenship Education; and
A Call for a New Political-Personal Citizenship.

Next slide.

Slide 5 Origins and
Contexts of Global
and Multicultural
Education

Let‘s get started by discussing what is distinctive between
global education and multicultural education. Global
education and multicultural education have very different
origins. Global education developed in response to
international and national politics and global issues. It
emerged as a coherent educational field in the 1960s
owing to four interrelated contexts; An American domestic
sphere increasingly dominated by foreign policy issues,
the emergence of global jurisprudence and global
economic systems exemplified by the United Nations and
Bretton Woods financial institutions in the wake of World
War II, the emergencing ecology and environmental
education movement, and the influence of a global focus
in disciplinary academic study in areas ranging from
anthropology to geography, world literature to history, and
political science.

Multicultural education developed as an aspect of national
minority struggles in the context of national political
issues. An example of this would be the push for the
growing civil rights movementand the legal challenge of
the National Association of the Advancement of Colored
People (NAACP), the Supreme Court declared racial
segregation in education to be unconstitutional in Brown
v. Board of Education. This history making triumph set
the stage for a major new development in American
education, the desegregation of Southern schools. By the
1980s, equity was increasingly interpreted not just as
having access to equally funded and openly available
schooling but much more deeply as having equitable
access to curriculum and instruction. James Banks, one of
the major architects of multicultural education, argued that
in order to obtain a multicutural school environment all
aspects of the school had to be examined and transformed
including policies, teachers‘ attitudes, instructional
materials, assessment methods, counseling, and teaching
styles. He concluded that multicultural moved through
many stages before becoming complete. It has gone from
ethnic studies to multiethnic education designed to bring
about structural and systematic changes in schools, into
the third phase that introduced other monority groups,
especially women, into the conceptualization and, finally,
into the fourth and current phase that keeps at the
forefront the development of theory, research, and practice

Slide 6 Legal and
Philosophical
Justifications

One of the most important differences between
multicultural education and global education is the fact the
multicultural education policies are often mandated by
law, and they have a judicial constitutional protection.
Multicultural education is justified as necessary to assure
justice, liberty, and freedom of expression, which are
foundational to democracies and central to individual lives
and micro-politics. Because democracy requires the just
distribution of public goods and opportunities and equal
treatment under the law, multiculturalism and diversity are
perennial issues in our debates about our largest national
policy concerns. All democracies have some kind of
multicultural education policy. Yet there are also
differences in democracies and in their corresponding
multicultural policies.

Multicultural education emerges as part of a wider social
movement for minority rights, which include not only the
right to capital goods such as fair wages, housing, and
equal spending on education, but more broadly, the right
to include cultural values and curriculum in nation states
that previously had de facto identity. Nations are not
considered multicultural by virtue of diversity alone.
Many nations states in Africa, Asia, and the Americas are
culturally diverse and have long been multicultural in the
sense that people from different cultures live there, but
they are not multicultural if diverse people do not have
equal rights to participate in society and to have their
cultures recognized as worthy.

Global education has no legal or procedural basis in the
way that multicultural education has. Global education
takes on two forms. One has to do with the perspectives
needed for active citizenship; the other with the
philosophical perspectives needed for democratic
thinking. One is formal and policy oriented; the other is
more oriented to culture and philosophy. From the
knowledge perspective it can be argued that global
education is a practical necessity for citizens who vote
about matters affecting the world. From this perspective,
many of the pressing issues of our time, from terrorism to
global warming, are world problems and commitment to
both a global civic culture and the skills of global
citizenship.

Slide 7 Different
Beneficiaries,
Proponents,
Opponents, and
Scope

Different legal and philosophical positions have separated
people into two groups; those who support or do not
support multicultural and global education. Often the
leaders of multicultural education are minority and native
people and scholars. It tends to attract support from social
progressive and liberal scholars and both are generally
opposed by conservatives and nationalists. Given the legal
ethical context of multicultural education, its curricula are
often the products of contentious public debates and
ultimately formulate resolutions. Multicultural education
as a movement is not only focused on curricula but also
concerned with
instructional techniques for specific real children and
explicit school policies.

Multicultural education is a lively discourse and contested
practice in liberal nations. Critiques of liberalism on the
one hand, and of identity politics on the other hand, have
had a real influence in how culture is understood in
education policy, alternatively justifying common schools,
the study of traditional American history, English only
policies, and, alternatively, public funding for private
schools, Afrocentric schools, and home schooling. The
richness and complexity of this philosophical engagement
with the nature of culture, equity, and identity is mostly
absent from global education discourse, curriculum, and
policy.

Next slide.

Slide 8 Beneficiaries,
Proponents cont.

The leaders of global education have tended to be
educated white elites who have had a significant
international or global experience. This movement tends
to also attract support from social progressives and liberal
scholars and is also generally opposed by conservatives
and nationalists. In the field of global education,
instruction and school policy are comparatively marginal
aspects. Global education tends to engage in issues in
nations that are external to a student’s country of
residence. Global education is sometimes perceived as
being championed by white liberal elites, to benefit elites,
even potentially to take attention away from national
minorities and national multiculturalism.

Global education tends not to delve into the toughest
issues of national culture and diversity. One form of
cosmopolitan global education endorses a form of post-
identity and post-national citizenship and seeks to shift
authority from the local and national community to a
world community that is a loose network of international
organizations and subnational political actors not bound
within any clear democratic constitutional framework.

Next slide.

Slide 9 Similarities between
Multicultural and
Global Education

Multicultural education addresses cultural diversity,
individual and human rights, prejudice reduction, and
social justice within the particular legal political and
social context of the nation in which the student resides.
Global education is about us and the other. However, these
distinctions are becoming less and less clear, especially
with increased immigration, deepening global
communications, and the proliferation of transnational
identities. A hot topic in both multicultural and global
education is respecting other cultures and protecting one’s
own, and in finding the boundary between tolerance and
critical judgment.

Next slide.

Slide 10 Shared Discourse Monocultural approach is both an old approach that
defends against diversity and a very current one as the
need for nation making in new emerging democracies is
inevitable. It is also a common reactionary approach to
diversity in many contemporary societies. Particularistic
multiculturalism defends against diversity. It fosters the
cultural, linguistic, and religious autonomy of major
minority groups and helps to reify their cultural attributes.
The Pluralistic approach does not deny or defend against
culture differences; instead they see diversity as inevitable
and as something to understand, use, and learn from, as a
resource that can enhance the individual, the dominant
culture, and the economy. Pluralistic approaches are
common in both global and multicultural education. In the
Liberal approach, cultures are not to be consumed as a
resource, accepted at face value, or tolerated but
something very different. Diversity is to be encountered
critically and negotiated. The Critical approach on
diversity questions the neutrality of any exploration of
diversity and draws attention to the socially constructed
nature of race and the difference of the power laden nature
of the public sphere.

Next slide.

Slide 11 Check for
Understanding

Slide 12 Summary We have now reached the end of this lesson. Let’s take a
look at what we’ve covered.

First, we learned the origins of global and multicultural
education. Global education developed in response to
international and national politics and global issues.
Multicultural education developed as an aspect of national
minority struggles in the context of national political
issues

Next, discussed the differences of global and multicultural
education. We learned that the multicultural education
policies are often mandated by law, and they have a
judicial constitutional protection. Global education has no
legal or procedural basis in the way that multicultural
education has. Global education takes on two forms. One
has to do with the perspectives needed for active
citizenship; the other with the philosophical perspectives
needed for democratic thinking. One is formal and policy
oriented; the other is more oriented to culture and
philosophy. From the knowledge perspective it can be
argued that global education is a practical necessity for
citizens who vote about matters affecting the world. From
this perspective, many of the pressing issues of our time,
from terrorism to global warming, are world problems and
commitment to both a global civic culture and the skills of
global citizenship.

Then, we became acquainted with the leaders of both
global and multicultural education. Often the leaders of
multicultural education are minority and native people and
scholars. It tends to attract support from social progressive
and liberal scholars and both are generally opposed by
conservatives and nationalists. The leaders of global
education have tended to be educated white elites who
have had a significant international or global experience.
This movement tends to also attract support from social
progressives and liberal scholars and is also generally
opposed by conservatives and nationalists.

Finally, discussed and looked at the distinctive
approaches to global and multicultural education and to
the general issue of diversity. They included

Global Leaders in Education

EDU 562

Terrains of Global and Multicultural Education: What is Distinctive, Contested, and Shared?

*

Welcome to Global Leaders in Education.

In this lesson, we will discuss the Terrains of Global and Multicultural Education: What is Distinctive, Contested, and Shared?

Next slide.

Topics

  • Origins and Contexts of Global and Multicultural Education
  • Legal and Philosophical Justifications
  • Different Beneficiaries, Proponents, Opponents, and Scope
  • Similarities between Multicultural and Global Education
  • Monocultural Approaches: Defending Against Diversity

The following topics will be covered in this lesson:

Origins and Contexts of Global and Multicultural Education;

Legal and Philosophical Justifications;

Different Beneficiaries, Proponents, Opponents, and Scope;

Similarities between Multicultural and Global Education;

Monocultural Approaches: Defending Against Diversity;

Next slide.

*

Topics, Continued

  • Particularistic Approaches: Defending Diversity
  • Pluralistic Approaches: Resourcing Diversity
  • Liberal Approaches: Negotiating Diversity
  • Critical Approaches: Intersecting Diversity with Oppression

The following topics will also be covered in this lesson:

Particularistic Approaches: Defending Diversity;

Pluralistic Approaches: Resourcing Diversity;

Liberal Approaches: Negotiating Diversity;

Critical Approaches: Intersecting Diversity with Oppression;

Next slide.

*

Topics, Continued

  • Joining the Fields through Poststructuralist Pragmatist Citizenship Education
  • A Call for a New Political-Personal Citizenship

The following topics will also be covered in this lesson:

Joining the Fields through Poststructuralist Pragmatist Citizenship Education; and

A Call for a New Political-Personal Citizenship.

Next slide.

*

Origins and Contexts of Global and Multicultural Education

  • Global Education
  • Develops in response to international and national politics and global issues
  • Multicultural Education
  • Develops as an aspect of national minority struggles in the context of national political issues

Let‘s get started by discussing what is distinctive between global education and multicultural education. Global education and multicultural education have very different origins. Global education developed in response to international and national politics and global issues. It emerged as a coherent educational field in the 1960s owing to four interrelated contexts; An American domestic sphere increasingly dominated by foreign policy issues, the emergence of global jurisprudence and global economic systems exemplified by the United Nations and Bretton Woods financial institutions in the wake of World War II, the emergencing ecology and environmental education movement, and the influence of a global focus in disciplinary academic study in areas ranging from anthropology to geography, world literature to history, and political science.

Multicultural education developed as an aspect of national minority struggles in the context of national political issues. An example of this would be the push for the growing civil rights movementand the legal challenge of the National Association of the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Supreme Court declared racial segregation in education to be unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education. This history making triumph set the stage for a major new development in American education, the desegregation of Southern schools. By the 1980s, equity was increasingly interpreted not just as having access to equally funded and openly available schooling but much more deeply as having equitable access to curriculum and instruction. James Banks, one of the major architects of multicultural education, argued that in order to obtain a multicutural school environment all aspects of the school had to be examined and transformed including policies, teachers‘ attitudes, instructional materials, assessment methods, counseling, and teaching styles. He concluded that multicultural moved through many stages before becoming complete. It has gone from ethnic studies to multiethnic education designed to bring about structural and systematic changes in schools, into the third phase that introduced other monority groups, especially women, into the conceptualization and, finally, into the fourth and current phase that keeps at the forefront the development of theory, research, and practice that focus on the interplay of race, gender, and class.

Next slide.

*

Legal and Philosophical Justifications

  • Multicultural Education Justifications
  • Principals of democracy and is supported by laws
  • Focuses on interpersonal and community relations
  • Global Education Justifications
  • Principals of national and global citizenship and human rights
  • Focuses on participating in global economics and politics
  • Global Accomplishments

One of the most important differences between multicultural education and global education is the fact the multicultural education policies are often mandated by law, and they have a judicial constitutional protection. Multicultural education is justified as necessary to assure justice, liberty, and freedom of expression, which are foundational to democracies and central to individual lives and micro-politics. Because democracy requires the just distribution of public goods and opportunities and equal treatment under the law, multiculturalism and diversity are perennial issues in our debates about our largest national policy concerns. All democracies have some kind of multicultural education policy. Yet there are also differences in democracies and in their corresponding multicultural policies.

Multicultural education emerges as part of a wider social movement for minority rights, which include not only the right to capital goods such as fair wages, housing, and equal spending on education, but more broadly, the right to include cultural values and curriculum in nation states that previously had de facto identity. Nations are not considered multicultural by virtue of diversity alone. Many nations states in Africa, Asia, and the Americas are culturally diverse and have long been multicultural in the sense that people from different cultures live there, but they are not multicultural if diverse people do not have equal rights to participate in society and to have their cultures recognized as worthy.

Global education has no legal or procedural basis in the way that multicultural education has. Global education takes on two forms. One has to do with the perspectives needed for active citizenship; the other with the philosophical perspectives needed for democratic thinking. One is formal and policy oriented; the other is more oriented to culture and philosophy. From the knowledge perspective it can be argued that global education is a practical necessity for citizens who vote about matters affecting the world. From this perspective, many of the pressing issues of our time, from terrorism to global warming, are world problems and commitment to both a global civic culture and the skills of global citizenship.

From a philosophical perspective it can be argued that Americans need to recognize the human rights of everyone on the planet. Although there is not yet any formal global citizenship, there are increasing venues for global rights and global cooperation such as the United Nations and its Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR), the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the Universal Postal Union (UPU).

The philosophical recognition of global human rights has actually led to an increasing number of institutions for and examples of practical and legally negotiated tolerance. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is widely endorsed, there are international standards for the rights of individuals and the treatment of prisoners of war and international agreements about biological diversity, endangered species, and sustainability. There is also increasing agreement about global standards in trade, communication, transportation, and environmental safety, and about global moral standards in such areas as child soldiers, child brides, international prostitution, torture, and child pornography. Although agreements are unevenly negotiated and enforced, agreement among diverse nations is a real global accomplishment considering that no such agreements existed at all 100 years ago.

Next slide.

*

Different Beneficiaries, Proponents, Opponents, and Scope

  • Multicultural Education
  • Benefits national minorities
  • Led by minorities and native people
  • Opposed by nationalists
  • Includes issues of curriculum, instruction, and the learner’s culture

Different legal and philosophical positions have separated people into two groups; those who support or do not support multicultural and global education. Often the leaders of multicultural education are minority and native people and scholars. It tends to attract support from social progressive and liberal scholars and both are generally opposed by conservatives and nationalists. Given the legal ethical context of multicultural education, its curricula are often the products of contentious public debates and ultimately formulate resolutions. Multicultural education as a movement is not only focused on curricula but also concerned with

instructional techniques for specific real children and explicit school policies.

Multicultural education is a lively discourse and contested practice in liberal nations. Critiques of liberalism on the one hand, and of identity politics on the other hand, have had a real influence in how culture is understood in education policy, alternatively justifying common schools, the study of traditional American history, English only policies, and, alternatively, public funding for private schools, Afrocentric schools, and home schooling. The richness and complexity of this philosophical engagement with the nature of culture, equity, and identity is mostly absent from global education discourse, curriculum, and policy.

Next slide.

*

Beneficiaries, Proponents cont.

  • Global Education
  • Perceived to people outside of the nation and every citizen to some degree
  • Led mostly by first world whites and scholars.
  • Opposed by nationalists
  • Usually low profile unless national interests are evoked
  • Focuses primarily on curriculum.

The leaders of global education have tended to be educated white elites who have had a significant international or global experience. This movement tends to also attract support from social progressives and liberal scholars and is also generally opposed by conservatives and nationalists. In the field of global education, instruction and school policy are comparatively marginal aspects. Global education tends to engage in issues in nations that are external to a student’s country of residence. Global education is sometimes perceived as being championed by white liberal elites, to benefit elites, even potentially to take attention away from national minorities and national multiculturalism.

Global education tends not to delve into the toughest issues of national culture and diversity. One form of cosmopolitan global education endorses a form of post-identity and post-national citizenship and seeks to shift authority from the local and national community to a world community that is a loose network of international organizations and subnational political actors not bound within any clear democratic constitutional framework.

Next slide.

*

Similarities between Multicultural and Global Education

  • Multicultural Education is about the “us”
  • Global Education is about the “us and the other”

Multicultural education addresses cultural diversity, individual and human rights, prejudice reduction, and social justice within the particular legal political and social context of the nation in which the student resides. Global education is about us and the other. However, these distinctions are becoming less and less clear, especially with increased immigration, deepening global communications, and the proliferation of transnational identities. A hot topic in both multicultural and global education is respecting other cultures and protecting one’s own, and in finding the boundary between tolerance and critical judgment.

Next slide.

*

Shared Discourse

  • Monocultural Approaches
  • Particularistic Approaches
  • Pluralistic Approaches
  • Liberal Approaches
  • Critical Approaches

Monocultural approach is both an old approach that defends against diversity and a very current one as the need for nation making in new emerging democracies is inevitable. It is also a common reactionary approach to diversity in many contemporary societies. Particularistic multiculturalism defends against diversity. It fosters the cultural, linguistic, and religious autonomy of major minority groups and helps to reify their cultural attributes. The Pluralistic approach does not deny or defend against culture differences; instead they see diversity as inevitable and as something to understand, use, and learn from, as a resource that can enhance the individual, the dominant culture, and the economy. Pluralistic approaches are common in both global and multicultural education. In the Liberal approach, cultures are not to be consumed as a resource, accepted at face value, or tolerated but something very different. Diversity is to be encountered critically and negotiated. The Critical approach on diversity questions the neutrality of any exploration of diversity and draws attention to the socially constructed nature of race and the difference of the power laden nature of the public sphere.

Next slide.

*

EDU562_CheckYourUnderstanding

*

Summary

  • Origins and Contexts of Global and Multicultural Education
  • Legal and Philosophical Justifications
  • Different Beneficiaries, Proponents, Opponents, and Scope
  • Similarities between Multicultural and Global Education
  • Monocultural Approaches: Defending Against Diversity

We have now reached the end of this lesson. Let’s take a look at what we’ve covered.

First, we learned the origins of global and multicultural education. Global education developed in response to international and national politics and global issues. Multicultural education developed as an aspect of national minority struggles in the context of national political issues

Next, discussed the differences of global and multicultural education. We learned that the multicultural education policies are often mandated by law, and they have a judicial constitutional protection. Global education has no legal or procedural basis in the way that multicultural education has. Global education takes on two forms. One has to do with the perspectives needed for active citizenship; the other with the philosophical perspectives needed for democratic thinking. One is formal and policy oriented; the other is more oriented to culture and philosophy. From the knowledge perspective it can be argued that global education is a practical necessity for citizens who vote about matters affecting the world. From this perspective, many of the pressing issues of our time, from terrorism to global warming, are world problems and commitment to both a global civic culture and the skills of global citizenship.

Then, we became acquainted with the leaders of both global and multicultural education. Often the leaders of multicultural education are minority and native people and scholars. It tends to attract support from social progressive and liberal scholars and both are generally opposed by conservatives and nationalists. The leaders of global education have tended to be educated white elites who have had a significant international or global experience. This movement tends to also attract support from social progressives and liberal scholars and is also generally opposed by conservatives and nationalists.

Finally, discussed and looked at the distinctive approaches to global and multicultural education and to the general issue of diversity. They included monoculturalism, particularism, pluralism, liberalism, and criticality.

This completes the lesson.

*

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