FROM THE MOVIE? AMERICAN FACTORY? DISCUSS WHAT YOU NOTICED ABOUT THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF THE FUYAO GLASS COMPANY? PLEASE REFER THE THE TEXTBOOK AND LECTU

  

 
FROM THE MOVIE 
AMERICAN FACTORY 
DISCUSS WHAT YOU NOTICED ABOUT THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF THE FUYAO GLASS COMPANY 
PLEASE REFER THE THE TEXTBOOK AND LECTURES 

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MakingSenseofChangeManagement3rdedition.pdf

Culture and Change
Steven H Kim

Culture

“way things are done around here”

“attitudes and behaviors”

NORMS

Culture REINFORCES beliefs (over time)

Underlying CONVICTIONS and VALUES

NOT NECESSARILY the STATED VALUES

CUES or CLIMATE (“how one should behave”)

6 Ways in which Cultures EVOLVE

GENERAL evolution

SPECIFIC evolution

GUIDED evolution

PLANNED or MANAGED culture change

PARTIAL or TOTAL cultural destruction

Why Culture Change

COPE, SURVIVE, ADAPT, FIT

Should not be ‘EVERYTHING IS BAD’ mentality

Build on STRENGTHS

NEED FOR CHANGE HIGHLIGHTED thru…

SENIOR MANAGER

DECREE – “we need culture change”

RECOGNITION

That the existing culture is HINDERING CHANGE

DESIGNED CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Is present culture ALIGNED to change effort

Assessments , Frameworks, Profiles

Thoughts on ASSESSMENT EFFORTS

SCAN THE ENVIRONMENT : S. W. O . T

Deep embedded ATTTITUDES and BEHAVIORS surface when you try to change

Deeper core issues: ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTITY , VALUES, BELIEFS

Reinforced

Rituals

Ceremonies

Symbols

Traditions

SOCIAL COHESION reinforces culture

Heros

Stories

Harrison & Handy

Saw that you can categorize organizations by

CENTRALIZED or DISTRIBUTED control

FORMAL or INFORMAL

4 categories

TASK

ROLE

PERSON

POWER

Power

High Formalization

Low Centralization

POWER IN THE HANDS OF A FEW

QUICK DECISIONS

LOW BUREAUCRACY

CAN BECOME TOXIC

ENTREPRENEURIAL BUSINESS (SMALL)

ROLE

High Formalization

High Centralization

MANY RULES

HIGHLY CONTROLED

EVERYONE KNOWS THEIR “ROLE” OR “PLACE”

LONG CHAIN OF COMMAND

SLOW DECISIONS

RISK ADVERSE

BUREACRATIC

BIG BUSINESS, ORGs, COMPANIES, FOUNDATIONS, HOSPITALS

TASK

Low Formalization

High Centralization

Teams for problem solving , PROJECTS

TASK IS MOST IMPORTANT

Team dependent

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

PERSON

LOW CENTRALIZATION

LOW FORMALIZATION

Individuals

Feel superior, unique

Can be COLLECTION of INDIVIDUALS working for ORG.

Academic Professionals, firms with PROFESSIONALS (i.e. accountants, lawyers, REAL ESTATE FIRM)

Cameron & Quinn (2011): “COMPETING VALUES FRAMEWORK”

First DIMENSION

INTERNAL ORIENTATION

EXTERNAL ORIENTATION

Second DIMENSION

STABILITY

FLEXIBILITY

4 CATEGORIES

CLAN

HIERARCHY

ADHOCRACY

MARKET

CLAN

INTERNAL

FLEXIBLE

PIXAR

JAPANESE companies

HIERARCHY

INTERNAL

STABLE

Government

McDonald’s

ADHOCRACY

EXTERNAL

FLEXIBLE

Google

MARKET

EXTERNAL

STABLE

XEROX

Cameron and Quinn

Tensions created by DIMENSIONS

Do we stay

Outward or Inward

Controlling or flexible

MANY ORGANIZATIONS have ELEMENTS of each DIMENSIONS

Frameworks and Profiles

POSITIVE

Make sense of organization

If undergoing assessment, it means they are SERIOUS ABOUT CHANGE

Increase SELF AWARENESS

NEGATIVE

Some believe CULTURE CANNOT BE MEASURED (Schein)

Can be SURFACE LEVEL

Can lead to LABELING

Values

Values : Key to Understanding Culture

Beliefs, values, ideals SHARED BY MEMBERS

Influences BEHAVIOR and ATTITUDES

Its their COMPASS especially during DIFFICULT TIMES

Schein states:

Values ORGINATED W FOUNDER and SENIOR LEADERS

STRUCTURED THE ORGANIZATION

BEHAVIORS FOLLOWED

SUCCESS REINFORCED VALUES

BOURNES & JENKINS (2013) : 4 Value Types

ESPOUSED

What senior leader STATES

ATTRIBUTED

How people DESCRIBE those values

SHARED

Shared values of SMALLER UNITS

ASPIRATIONAL

In an IDEAL WORLD what everyone would embody

Core values are not necessarily Espoused

Do Personal Values have to MATCH Org. Values ?

IF ORG – INDIVIDUAL values FIT

Increase COMMITMENT

JOB SATISFACTION

Look for BEST FIT

MISFIT can cause EMOTIONAL LABOR

LOOKED GOOD ON PAPER (ESPOUSED VALUES)

BUT NOT IN PRACTICE (CORE “REAL” VALUES)

Facilitating Culture Change

McKinsey 7s model

McKinsey

DIANOSE

current INTERNAL STATE

ARTICULATE

desired FUTURE STATE

START

process for change

Johnson & Scholes (1999)

Cultural WEB – interconnected elements

Stories

Symbols

Power structures

Organization structure

Control systems

Ritual and routines

CENTER – PARADIGM: underlying ASSUMPTIONS = CULTURE

WHAT THE ORG. IS ALL ABOUT

CORE VALUES

CULTURAL WEB https://www.businessgrowthhub.com/blogs/2017/03/cultural-differences-the-importance-of-cultural-management-to-business-performance

Edgar Schein’s model of Organizational Culture

Role of Leaders

How Leaders can STIMULATE / REINFORCE CULTURE CHANGE

2006

Higgs

60 % of business performance attributed to CULTURE

80 % of CULTURE can be attributed to LEADER (behavior , attitude)

2014

UK poll

Only 1/3 of staff see their “managers” or leaders as ROLE MODELS

Primary

PAY ATTENTION controls, measures

REACTION to crisis

RESOURCE allocation

ROLE – MODELING values

TEACHING, COACHING

RECRUITMENT, PROMOTION, EXCOMMUNICATION

Secondary ( ineffective if no primary )

ORG STRUCTURE

ORG SYSTEMS and PROCEDURES

RITES / RITUALS

DESIGN (space, building)

STORIES

FORMAL STATEMENTS (creeds, charters, policies)

Gladwell (2000) TIPPING POINT 80/20 PRINCIPLE

Connectors

Mavens (info specialists)

Salesperson

HERRERO (2008): VIRAL CHANGE Behavior change leads to culture change

Uncover and articulate

SMALL SET OF NON NEGOTIABLE BEHAVIORS

IDENTIFY and REACH OUT

Well connected, influential employees

ON GOING

coaching and support to key employees

TRACK CHANGE

Tell “success” stories

Keys

STORYTELLING

Purposeful, organic

NUDGE

Subtle changes

Architecture

Meeting room

COMMUNICATION

People learn best from each other

Social media

Know the difference AUTHORITY vs INFLUENCE

,

Praise for the previous editions of Making Sense of Change Management
‘I commend it highly. It has a good coverage of relevant theoretical work while at the same time giving plenty of practical examples. It is written in an accessible style that engages the reader and it is full of useful ideas without being overly prescriptive or formulaic.’ Philip Sadler, author of a number of acclaimed business titles and former chief executive of Ashridge Business School
‘I really enjoyed this book. I like the straightforward approach, the inclusion of the author’s opinion and the insight provided by the case studies. This book will be very useful for those business managers in my organization who need to prepare themselves for tackling major organizational change.’ Andy Houghton, Managing Director of YSC and former Head of Organization Development, Retail Direct, Royal Bank of Scotland Group
‘There has long been a need for a readable, practical but theoretically under-pinned book on Change which recognized a multiplicity of perspectives. By combining the behavioural, humanistic, organizational and cognitive perspectives and by helping the reader make sense of what each perspective brings to understanding Change, this book should help students and practitioners. By linking in work on personality tests such as MBTI™ the book breaks new ground from a practitioner point of view not least because these tests are widely used in practice. I thoroughly recommend it.’ Professor Colin Carnall, Chief Executive, Executive Education, Cass Business School
‘If you’re interested in successfully managing and leading change, then read this book! It not only covers change from both the individual and organizational perspective, but also increases the number of options available to you.’ Judi Billing, former Director of IDeA Leadership Academy, Improvement and Development Agency
‘Change is a huge thing wherever you work. The key is to make change happen, and make it happen well – with everyone on side, and everyone happy. This book
i

provides an extremely stimulating and accessible guide to doing just that. There are a few people at the Beeb who could do with this. I’ll definitely be placing copies on a couple of desks at White City.’ Nicky Campbell, Presenter Radio Five Live and BBC1’s The Big Questions
‘This book is a great resource for managers thrown into the midst of change, who need to gain understanding of what happens when you try to make significant changes in a business, and how best to manage people through it. The authors have tackled a complex topic in a lively and engaging way, leading readers through the maze of theory available and offering just the right amount of practical advice.’ Andy Newall, Group HR Director United Biscuits and former Organizational Effectiveness Director, Allied Domecq plc
‘This impressive book on change is an essential read for any professional manager who is serious about getting to grips with the important issues of making change happen.’ Dr Jeff Watkins, former MSc Course Director, Management Research Centre, University of Bristol
‘This practical handbook, combining contemporary management theory with very practical suggestions, is an indispensable tool for any manager involved in change processes. And aren’t we all …’ Adriaan Vollebergh, Director, Tata Steel Europe
‘This is a book which lives up to its title. By combining a guide to the ideas of key thinkers on change and useful tips for making change happen, it really does provide a toolkit to help us to make sense of change. It is useful to see a focus on the individual, team and organizational levels, and in particular, on the role of the leader in the change process. It is written in a way that makes the book interesting to read both at length as well as to dip into.’ Dr Richard McBain, Head of Postgraduate Post Experience Programmes, Henley Business School
ii

MAKING SENSE OF CHANGE
MANAGEMENT
iii

iv
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

MAKING SENSE OF CHANGE
MANAGEMENT A complete guide to the models, tools
and techniques of organizational change
3rd edition
Esther Cameron and Mike Green
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
v

Publisher ’s note Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is accurate at the time of going to press, and the publishers and authors cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions, however caused. No responsibility for loss or damage occasioned to any person acting, or refraining from action, as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by the editor, the publisher or either of the authors.
First published in Great Britain and the United States in 2004 by Kogan Page Limited Second edition 2009 Third edition 2012
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be repro- duced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licences issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned addresses:
120 Pentonville Road London N1 9JN United Kingdom www.koganpage.com
1518 Walnut Street, Suite 1100 Philadelphia PA 19102 USA
4737/23 Ansari Road Daryaganj New Delhi 110002 India
© Esther Cameron and Mike Green, 2004, 2009, 2012
The right of Esther Cameron and Mike Green to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
ISBN 978 0 7494 6435 6 E-ISBN 978 0 7494 6436 3
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Cameron, Esther. Making sense of change management : a complete guide to the models, tools, and techniques of organizational change / Esther Cameron, Mike Green. – 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7494-6435-6 – ISBN 978-0-7494-6436-3 1. Organizational change–Management. 2. Teams in the workplace–Management. 3. Reengineering (Management) 4. Information technology–Management. I. Green, Mike, 1959- II. Title. HD58.8.C317 2012 658.4’06–dc23 2011048827
Typeset by Graphicraft Ltd, Hong Kong Printed and bound in India by Replika Press Pvt Ltd
vi

Contents
Acknowledgements xi
Introduction 1 Who this book is aimed at 2; The basic content of the book 3; Why explore different approaches to change? 4; Overview of structure 6; Message to readers 9
PART ONE: THE UNDERPINNING THEORY 11
1 Individual change 14 Introduction 14; Learning and the process of change 16; The behavioural approach to change 22; The cognitive approach to change 28; The psychodynamic approach to change 36; The humanistic psychology approach to change 45; Personality and change 56; Managing change in self and others 58; Summary and conclusions 66
Contents Contents vii Acknowledgements xi WHO THIS BOOK IS AIMED AT 2 THE BASIC CONTENT OF THE BOOK 3 WHY EXPLORE DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO CHANGE? 4 OVERVIEW OF STRUCTURE 6 MESSAGE TO READERS 9 The underpinning theory 11 INTRODUCTION 14 LEARNING AND THE PROCESS OF CHANGE 16 THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH TO CHANGE 22 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CHANGE 28 THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO CHANGE 36 T H E H U M A N I S T I C P S Y C H O L O G Y A P P R O A C H TO CHANGE 45 PERSONALITY AND CHANGE 56 MANAGING CHANGE IN SELF AND OTHERS 58 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 66 Team change 69 INTRODUCTION 69 WHAT IS A GROUP AND WHEN IS IT A TEAM? 70 WHY WE NEED TEAMS 72 THE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL TEAMS 73 HOW TO IMPROVE TEAM EFFECTIVENESS 82 WHAT TEAM CHANGE LOOKS LIKE 85 THE LEADERSHIP ISSUES IN TEAM CHANGE 91 HOW INDIVIDUALS AFFECT TEAM DYNAMICS 95 HOW WELL TEAMS INITIATE AND ADAPT TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 101 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 105 Organizational change 107 HOW ORGANIZATIONS REALLY WORK 108 M O D E L S O F A N D A P P R O A C H E S T O ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 119 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 147 Leading change 151 INTRODUCTION 151 VISIONARY LEADERSHIP 156 ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY 166 LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS 174 D I F F E R E N T L E A D E R S H I P F O R D I F F E R E N T PHASES OF CHANGE 184 T H E I M P O R T A N C E O F S E L F – K N O W L E D G E A N D INNER RESOURCES 192 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 197 The change agent 201 INTRODUCTION 201 MODELS OF CHANGE AGENCY 202 THE CONSULTING PROCESS 205 CHANGE AGENT TOOLS AND FRAMEWORKS 215 COMPETENCIES OF THE CHANGE AGENT 226 DEEPER ASPECTS OF BEING A CHANGE AGENT 233 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 252 The applications 255 STRATEGIC CHANGE PROCESS 256 OVERVIEW OF STRUCTURE 258 Restructuring 261 REASONS FOR RESTRUCTURING 263 THE RESTRUCTURING PROCESS 264 R E S T R U C T U R I N G F R O M A N I N D I V I D U A L C H A N G E P E R S P E C T I V E : THE SPECIAL CASE OF REDUNDANCY 285 E N A B L I N G T E A M S T O A D D R E S S ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 290 CONCLUSION 296 Mergers and acquisitions 297 T H E P U R P O S E O F M E R G E R AND ACQUISITION ACTIVITY 298 LESSONS FROM RESEARCH INTO SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS 304 A P P L Y I N G T H E C H A N G E T H E O R Y : GUIDELINES FOR LEADERS 319 SUMMARY 332 G U I D E L I N E S F O R A C H I E V I N G S U C C E S S F U L CULTURAL CHANGE 338 CASE STUDY ONE: ALIGNING THE ORGANIZATION 341 CASE STUDY TWO: REBRANDING THE ORGANIZATION 348 CASE STUDY THREE: CREATING AN EMPLOYER BRAND 356 STRATEGY AND IT 365 THE ROLE OF IT MANAGEMENT 369 THE NEED FOR IT CHANGE MANAGERS 373 ACHIEVING PROCESS CHANGE 378 CHANGING THE INFORMATION CULTURE 385 NEW RULES FOR A NEW AGE 388 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 389 Emerging inquiries 391 Complex change 393 INTRODUCTION 393 WHEN IS CHANGE COMPLEX? 394 U N D E R S T A N D I N G H O W C O M P L E X I T Y S C I E N C E APPLIES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 395 TOOLS THAT SUPPORT COMPLEX CHANGE 405 THE ROLE OF LEADERS IN COMPLEX CHANGE 411 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 414 INTRODUCTION 416 T H E I M P A C T O F U N C E R T A I N T Y O N OUR WORKING LIVES 418 DECISION MAKING IN AN UNCERTAIN WORLD 430 S K I L L S A N D T O O L S T O S U P P O R T L E A D I N G CHANGE THROUGH UNCERTAINTY 442 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 452 Conclusion 455 H O W T O G E T I N T O U C H W I T H T H E A U T H O R S OF THIS BOOK 456 References 457 Index 471
vii

Contents ___________________________________________________________________
viii
2 Team change 69 Introduction 69; What is a group and when is it a team? 70; Why we need teams 72; The types of organizational teams 73; How to improve team effectiveness 82; What team change looks like 85; The leadership issues in team change 91; How individuals affect team dynamics 95; How well teams initiate and adapt to organizational change 101; Summary and conclusions 105
3 Organizational change 107 How organizations really work 108; Models of and approaches to organizational change 119; Summary and conclusions 147
4 Leading change 151 Introduction 151; Visionary leadership 156; Roles that leaders play 166; Leadership styles, qualities and skills 174; Different leadership for different phases of change 184; The importance of self-knowledge and inner resources 192; Summary and conclusions 197
5 The change agent 201 Introduction 201; Models of change agency 202; The consulting process 205; Change agent tools and frameworks 215; Competencies of the change agent 226; Deeper aspects of being a change agent 233; Summary and conclusions 252
PART TWO: THE APPLICATIONS 255
Strategic change process 256; Overview of structure 258
6 Restructuring 261 Reasons for restructuring 263; The restructuring process 264; Restructuring from an individual change perspective: the special case of redundancy 285; Enabling teams to address organizational change 290; Conclusion 296

___________________________________________________________________ Contents
ix
7 Mergers and acquisitions 297 The purpose of merger and acquisition activity 298; Lessons from research into successful and unsuccessful mergers and acquisitions 304; Applying the change theory: guidelines for leaders 319; Summary 332
8 Cultural change 334 Guidelines for achieving successful cultural change 338; Case study one: aligning the organization 341; Case study two: rebranding the organization 348; Case study three: creating an employer brand 356
9 IT-based process change 362 Strategy and IT 365; The role of IT management 369; The need for IT change managers 373; Achieving process change 378; Changing the information culture 385; New rules for a new age 388; Summary and conclusions 389
PART THREE: EMERGING INQUIRIES 391
10 Complex change 393 Introduction 393; When is change complex? 394; Understanding how complexity science applies to organizational change 395; Tools that support complex change 405; The role of leaders in complex change 411; Summary and conclusions 414
11 Leading change in uncertain times 416 Introduction 416; The impact of uncertainty on our working lives 418; New organizational forms and ways of doing business 424; New careers and the need for ‘managing oneself’ 428; Decision making in an uncertain world 430; Skills and tools to support leading change through uncertainty 442; Summary and conclusions 452

Contents ___________________________________________________________________
x
Conclusion 455 How to get in touch with the authors of this book 456
References 457 Index 471

Acknowledgements
We want to start by acknowledging the many people in organizations with whom we have worked over the years. You are all in here in some shape or form! We have worked with many generous, courageous and inspiring managers of change who we thank for the privilege of working alongside them to make real change happen. Without these experiences the book would be a dry catalogue of theory, devoid of life and character.
Then of course there are our colleagues who challenge and support us every day as we reflect on our work and make decisions about what to do next. Particular thanks go from Mike to Andy Holder, Mhairi Cameron, Philip Darley and Tim Hockridge, who probably do not know how much they are appreciated, and to Mike’s MBA and Executive Education Pro- gramme Members at Henley Business School for a never-ending supply of ideas and challenges. Esther wants to specially acknowledge Nick Mayhew for his encouragement, wisdom and sensitive feedback, particu- larly in relation to Chapter 11, Anne-Marie Saunders and Alex Clark for their humour, friendship and generosity in sharing their expertise; so many of their insights are embedded in this book. Also, thanks go to Esther’s learning set who really boosted the leadership chapter in particular.
xi

xii
Acknowledgements __________________________________________________________
Thanks too to Bill Critchley for his ideas on linking metaphor and change, which form the bedrock of the organizational change chapter.
Really special thanks go to Ailsa Cameron for her wonderful pictures, which soften the pages so beautifully.
We also want to thank from the bottom of our hearts the hard-working reviewers who squeezed the time out of their busy agendas to read draft versions of these chapters. Special thanks go to Louise Overy, Steve Summers, Duncan Cameron, Mervyn Smallwood, Peter Hyson, Richard Lacey and Richard Smith for their timely and thoughtful suggestions throughout the iterative process of writing the book.
Our families have helped too by being very patient and supportive. So love and thanks from Mike to his children Lewin, Oliver and Brigit, who make it all worthwhile. Love and thanks too from Esther to Duncan, Ailsa, Ewan and Katka amongst many others who have walked dogs and cleaned-up when I’ve had my head in my PC.
We also want to thank each other. We have learnt a lot from this rich and sometimes rocky process of writing a book together. We do not always see things the same way, and we do not work from an identical set of assumptions about change, so the book is the culmination of much healthy airing of views. Let’s hope we are still writing, talking and enjoy- ing each other’s company many years from now.
Note: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator™ and MBTI™ are registered trade- marks of Consulting Psychologists Press. Anyone interested in knowing more about Myers-Briggs should contact Consulting Psychologists Press in the United States (800-624-1765) and OPP in the UK (08708 728 727).

Introduction
I balance on a wishing well that all men call the world. We are so small between the stars, so large against the sky, and lost amongst the subway crowd I try and catch your eye.
L Cohen
This book is about making sense of change management. The world we live in continues to change at an intense rate. Not a day goes by, it seems, with- out another important discovery or boundary-pushing invention in the scientific fields. The economics of global- ization seems to dominate much of our political and corporate thinking, while the shadow side of globalization – re- fugees, exploitation, terrorism and the like – develops at an equally alarming pace.
1

Making sense of change management ___________________________________________
2
The rate of change and discovery outpaces our individual ability to keep up with it. The organizations we work in or rely on to meet our needs and wants are also changing dramatically, in terms of their strate- gies, their structures, their systems, their boundaries and of course their expectations of their staff and their managers.
WHO THIS BOOK IS AIMED AT
Making Sense of Change Management is aimed at anyone who wants to begin to understand why change happens, how change happens and what needs to be done to make change a more welcoming concept. In particular we hope that leaders and managers in organizations might appreciate a book that does not give them the one and only panacea, but offers insights into different frameworks and ways of approaching change at an individual, team and organizational level.
We are mindful of the tremendous pressures and priorities of prac- tising managers – in both the private and the public sector – and Making Sense of Change Management is our attempt at making their lives that little bit easier. It is also our attempt at convincing them that addressing the issues that cause change to be so poorly managed in organizations will lead not only to more satisfying experiences for them, but to more fulfill- ing lives for their staff.
Framework: an essential supporting structure; Model: a simplified description of a system; Tool: a thing used in an occupation or pursuit; Technique: a means of achieving one’s purpose.
Concise Oxford Dictionary
Students of learning – be they MBA or MSc programme members, or individuals who just want to do things better – will hopefully find some models, tools and techniques that bridge the gap between the purely academic and the more pragmatic aspects of management theory and

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