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 1)    Was race identified with slavery before the era of European exploration? Why or why not? How did slavery’s association with race change the institution’s character?
2)    What is meant by the Columbian Exchange? Who was affected the most by the exchange?
 You must CITE all sources used within the text of your write up (using in-text citations) and provide a Works Cited Page of those sources 

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Preface 1
The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492 7 Introduction 7 1.1 The Americas 8 1.2 Europe on the Brink of Change 17 1.3 West Africa and the Role of Slavery 23 Key Terms 28 Summary 28 Review Questions 29 Critical Thinking Questions 30
Early Globalization: The Atlantic World, 1492–1650 31 Introduction 31 2.1 Portuguese Exploration and Spanish Conquest 32 2.2 Religious Upheavals in the Developing Atlantic World 39 2.3 Challenges to Spain’s Supremacy 42 2.4 New Worlds in the Americas: Labor, Commerce, and the Columbian Exchange 47 Key Terms 53 Summary 53 Review Questions 54 Critical Thinking Questions 56
Creating New Social Orders: Colonial Societies, 1500–1700 57 Introduction 57 3.1 Spanish Exploration and Colonial Society 58 3.2 Colonial Rivalries: Dutch and French Colonial Ambitions 60 3.3 English Settlements in America 64 3.4 The Impact of Colonization 76 Key Terms 82 Summary 82 Review Questions 83 Critical Thinking Questions 84
Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763 85 Introduction 85 4.1 Charles II and the Restoration Colonies 86 4.2 The Glorious Revolution and the English Empire 92 4.3 An Empire of Slavery and the Consumer Revolution 95 4.4 Great Awakening and Enlightenment 99 4.5 Wars for Empire 103 Key Terms 107

Summary 107 Review Questions 108 Critical Thinking Questions 110
Imperial Reforms and Colonial Protests, 1763-1774 111 Introduction 111 5.1 Confronting the National Debt: The Aftermath of the French and Indian War 112 5.2 The Stamp Act and the Sons and Daughters of Liberty 116 5.3 The Townshend Acts and Colonial Protest 122 5.4 The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts 128 5.5 Disaffection: The First Continental Congress and American Identity 131 Key Terms 134 Summary 134 Review Questions 135 Critical Thinking Questions 136
America’s War for Independence, 1775-1783 139 Introduction 139 6.1 Britain’s Law-and-Order Strategy and Its Consequences 140 6.2 The Early Years of the Revolution 146 6.3 War in the South 152 6.4 Identity during the American Revolution 155 Key Terms 161 Summary 161 Review Questions 162 Critical Thinking Questions 163
Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790 165 Introduction 165 7.1 Common Sense: From Monarchy to an American Republic 166 7.2 How Much Revolutionary Change? 169 7.3 Debating Democracy 176 7.4 The Constitutional Convention and Federal Constitution 182 Key Terms 188 Summary 188 Review Questions 189 Critical Thinking Questions 190
Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1820 191 Introduction 191 8.1 Competing Visions: Federalists and Democratic-Republicans 192 8.2 The New American Republic 198 8.3 Partisan Politics 203 8.4 The United States Goes Back to War 209 Key Terms 214 Summary 214 Review Questions 215
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Critical Thinking Questions 216
Industrial Transformation in the North, 1800–1850 217 Introduction 217 9.1 Early Industrialization in the Northeast 218 9.2 A Vibrant Capitalist Republic 226 9.3 On the Move: The Transportation Revolution 232 9.4 A New Social Order: Class Divisions 235 Key Terms 240 Summary 240 Review Questions 241 Critical Thinking Questions 242
Jacksonian Democracy, 1820–1840 243 Introduction 243 10.1 A New Political Style: From John Quincy Adams to Andrew Jackson 244 10.2 The Rise of American Democracy 250 10.3 The Nullification Crisis and the Bank War 252 10.4 Indian Removal 256 10.5 The Tyranny and Triumph of the Majority 261 Key Terms 265 Summary 265 Review Questions 266 Critical Thinking Questions 268
A Nation on the Move: Westward Expansion, 1800–1860 269 Introduction 269 11.1 Lewis and Clark 270 11.2 The Missouri Crisis 276 11.3 Independence for Texas 278 11.4 The Mexican-American War, 1846–1848 282 11.5 Free or Slave Soil? The Dilemma of the West 289 Key Terms 293 Summary 293 Review Questions 294 Critical Thinking Questions 296
Cotton is King: The Antebellum South, 1800–1860 297 Introduction 297 12.1 The Economics of Cotton 298 12.2 African Americans in the Antebellum United States 303 12.3 Wealth and Culture in the South 310 12.4 The Filibuster and the Quest for New Slave States 319 Key Terms 322 Summary 322 Review Questions 323 Critical Thinking Questions 324

Antebellum Idealism and Reform Impulses, 1820–1860 325 Introduction 325 13.1 An Awakening of Religion and Individualism 326 13.2 Antebellum Communal Experiments 332 13.3 Reforms to Human Health 337 13.4 Addressing Slavery 340 13.5 Women’s Rights 345 Key Terms 348 Summary 348 Review Questions 349 Critical Thinking Questions 350
Troubled Times: the Tumultuous 1850s 353 Introduction 353 14.1 The Compromise of 1850 354 14.2 The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Republican Party 362 14.3 The Dred Scott Decision and Sectional Strife 368 14.4 John Brown and the Election of 1860 371 Key Terms 375 Summary 375 Review Questions 376 Critical Thinking Questions 377
The Civil War, 1860–1865 379 Introduction 379 15.1 The Origins and Outbreak of the Civil War 380 15.2 Early Mobilization and War 385 15.3 1863: The Changing Nature of the War 389 15.4 The Union Triumphant 398 Key Terms 404 Summary 404 Review Questions 405 Critical Thinking Questions 406
The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877 407 Introduction 407 16.1 Restoring the Union 408 16.2 Congress and the Remaking of the South, 1865–1866 412 16.3 Radical Reconstruction, 1867–1872 416 16.4 The Collapse of Reconstruction 423 Key Terms 431 Summary 431 Review Questions 432 Critical Thinking Questions 433
Go West Young Man! Westward Expansion, 1840-1900 435
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Introduction 435 17.1 The Westward Spirit 436 17.2 Homesteading: Dreams and Realities 441 17.3 Making a Living in Gold and Cattle 444 17.4 The Assault on American Indian Life and Culture 449 17.5 The Impact of Expansion on Chinese Immigrants and Hispanic Citizens 454 Key Terms 458 Summary 458 Review Questions 460 Critical Thinking Questions 461
Industrialization and the Rise of Big Business, 1870-1900 463 Introduction 463 18.1 Inventors of the Age 464 18.2 From Invention to Industrial Growth 469 18.3 Building Industrial America on the Backs of Labor 475 18.4 A New American Consumer Culture 483 Key Terms 486 Summary 486 Review Questions 487 Critical Thinking Questions 489
The Growing Pains of Urbanization, 1870-1900 491 Introduction 491 19.1 Urbanization and Its Challenges 492 19.2 The African American “Great Migration” and New European Immigration 500 19.3 Relief from the Chaos of Urban Life 504 19.4 Change Reflected in Thought and Writing 511 Key Terms 516 Summary 516 Review Questions 517 Critical Thinking Questions 518
Politics in the Gilded Age, 1870-1900 521 Introduction 521 20.1 Political Corruption in Postbellum America 522 20.2 The Key Political Issues: Patronage, Tariffs, and Gold 528 20.3 Farmers Revolt in the Populist Era 535 20.4 Social and Labor Unrest in the 1890s 539 Key Terms 545 Summary 545 Review Questions 546 Critical Thinking Questions 547
Leading the Way: The Progressive Movement, 1890-1920 549 Introduction 549 21.1 The Origins of the Progressive Spirit in America 550

21.2 Progressivism at the Grassroots Level 552 21.3 New Voices for Women and African Americans 559 21.4 Progressivism in the White House 565 Key Terms 574 Summary 574 Review Questions 576 Critical Thinking Questions 577
Age of Empire: American Foreign Policy, 1890-1914 579 Introduction 579 22.1 Turner, Mahan, and the Roots of Empire 580 22.2 The Spanish-American War and Overseas Empire 586 22.3 Economic Imperialism in East Asia 592 22.4 Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Foreign Policy 594 22.5 Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” 599 Key Terms 601 Summary 601 Review Questions 602 Critical Thinking Questions 603
Americans and the Great War, 1914-1919 605 Introduction 605 23.1 American Isolationism and the European Origins of War 606 23.2 The United States Prepares for War 612 23.3 A New Home Front 617 23.4 From War to Peace 622 23.5 Demobilization and Its Difficult Aftermath 627 Key Terms 632 Summary 632 Review Questions 633 Critical Thinking Questions 635
The Jazz Age: Redefining the Nation, 1919-1929 637 Introduction 637 24.1 Prosperity and the Production of Popular Entertainment 638 24.2 Transformation and Backlash 643 24.3 A New Generation 650 24.4 Republican Ascendancy: Politics in the 1920s 656 Key Terms 660 Summary 660 Review Questions 661 Critical Thinking Questions 662
Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? The Great Depression, 1929-1932 665 Introduction 665 25.1 The Stock Market Crash of 1929 666
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25.2 President Hoover’s Response 676 25.3 The Depths of the Great Depression 681 25.4 Assessing the Hoover Years on the Eve of the New Deal 687 Key Terms 691 Summary 691 Review Questions 693 Critical Thinking Questions 694
Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1941 695 Introduction 695 26.1 The Rise of Franklin Roosevelt 696 26.2 The First New Deal 700 26.3 The Second New Deal 709 Key Terms 720 Summary 720 Review Questions 721 Critical Thinking Questions 722
Fighting the Good Fight in World War II, 1941-1945 723 Introduction 723 27.1 The Origins of War: Europe, Asia, and the United States 724 27.2 The Home Front 730 27.3 Victory in the European Theater 741 27.4 The Pacific Theater and the Atomic Bomb 745 Key Terms 750 Summary 750 Review Questions 751 Critical Thinking Questions 752
Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960 753 Introduction 753 28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime 754 28.2 The Cold War 757 28.3 The American Dream 764 28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media 770 28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights 773 Key Terms 779 Summary 779 Review Questions 780 Critical Thinking Questions 782
Contesting Futures: America in the 1960s 783 Introduction 783 29.1 The Kennedy Promise 784 29.2 Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society 791 29.3 The Civil Rights Movement Marches On 797 29.4 Challenging the Status Quo 805

Key Terms 810 Summary 810 Review Questions 811 Critical Thinking Questions 812
Political Storms at Home and Abroad, 1968-1980 815 Introduction 815 30.1 Identity Politics in a Fractured Society 815 30.2 Coming Apart, Coming Together 822 30.3 Vietnam: The Downward Spiral 829 30.4 Watergate: Nixon’s Domestic Nightmare 834 30.5 Jimmy Carter in the Aftermath of the Storm 838 Key Terms 842 Summary 842 Review Questions 843 Critical Thinking Questions 845
From Cold War to Culture Wars, 1980-2000 847 Introduction 847 31.1 The Reagan Revolution 848 31.2 Political and Cultural Fusions 852 31.3 A New World Order 857 31.4 Bill Clinton and the New Economy 864 Key Terms 874 Summary 874 Review Questions 875 Critical Thinking Questions 876
The Challenges of the Twenty-First Century 877 Introduction 877 32.1 The War on Terror 878 32.2 The Domestic Mission 884 32.3 New Century, Old Disputes 890 32.4 Hope and Change 894 Key Terms 902 Summary 902 Review Questions 903 Critical Thinking Questions 904
Appendix A The Declaration of Independence 905 Appendix B The Constitution of the United States 909 Appendix C Presidents of the United States of America 925 Appendix D U.S. Political Map 929 Appendix E U.S. Topographical Map 931 Appendix F United States Population Chart 933 Appendix G Further Reading 935 Answer Key 947 Index 957
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Preface Welcome to U.S. History, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high- quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost.
About OpenStax
OpenStax is a nonprofit based at Rice University, and it’s our mission to improve student access to education. Our first openly licensed college textbook was published in 2012, and our library has since scaled to over 25 books for college and AP® courses used by hundreds of thousands of students. OpenStax Tutor, our low-cost personalized learning tool, is being used in college courses throughout the country. Through our partnerships with philanthropic foundations and our alliance with other educational resource organizations, OpenStax is breaking down the most common barriers to learning and empowering students and instructors to succeed.
About OpenStax resources
U.S. History is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license, which means that you can distribute, remix, and build upon the content, as long as you provide attribution to OpenStax and its content contributors.
Because our books are openly licensed, you are free to use the entire book or pick and choose the sections that are most relevant to the needs of your course. Feel free to remix the content by assigning your students certain chapters and sections in your syllabus, in the order that you prefer. You can even provide a direct link in your syllabus to the sections in the web view of your book.
Instructors also have the option of creating a customized version of their OpenStax book. The custom version can be made available to students in low-cost print or digital form through their campus bookstore. Visit your book page on for more information.
Art Attribution in U.S. History
To maximize readability and content flow, art does not include attribution in the text. The art is openly licensed and can be reused. If you are also reusing portions of the OpenStax textbook, you must give attribution to OpenStax.
All OpenStax textbooks undergo a rigorous review process. However, like any professional-grade textbook, errors sometimes occur. Since our books are web based, we can make updates periodically when deemed pedagogically necessary. If you have a correction to suggest, submit it through the link on your book page on Subject matter experts review all errata suggestions. OpenStax is committed to remaining transparent about all updates, so you will also find a list of past errata changes on your book page on
You can access this textbook for free in web view or PDF through, and in low-cost print editions.
About U.S. History
U.S. History is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of most introductory courses. The text brings forth the people, events, and ideas that have shaped the United States from both the top down (politics, economics, diplomacy) and bottom up (eyewitness accounts, lived experience). U.S. History covers key forces that form the American experience, with particular attention to issues of race, class, and gender. It is designed to provide a balanced approach, both confronting difficult and oppressive aspects of our history and celebrating those who overcame them.
Preface 1

Coverage and scope
To develop U.S. History, we solicited ideas from historians at all levels of higher education, from community colleges to PhD-granting universities. They told us about their courses, students, challenges, resources, and how a textbook can best meet the needs of them and their students.The result is a book that covers the breadth of the chronological history of the United States and also provides the necessary depth to ensure the course is manageable for instructors and students alike.
The pedagogical choices, chapter arrangements, and learning objective fulfillment were developed and vetted with feedback from educators dedicated to the project. They thoroughly read the material and offered critical and detailed commentary. Reviewer feedback centered on achieving equilibrium between the various political, social, and cultural dynamics that permeate history.
While the book is organized primarily chronologically, as needed, material treating different topics or regions over the same time period is spread over multiple chapters. For example, chapters 9, 11, and 12 look at economic, political, social, and cultural developments during the first half of the eighteenth century in the North, West, and South respectively, while chapters 18 to 20 closely examine industrialization, urbanization, and politics in the period after Reconstruction.
In improvements to the originally published version of the text, new contributors have clarified historical events and government policies, and have detailed the related impacts on people. The chapters exploring America’s relationship with and mistreatment of Native American people have been revised to improve the accuracy of the descriptions, remove historical myths, and employ more authentic language. In other parts of the text, additions highlight the contributions of Black women to the Suffrage and the Civil Rights movements. Other additions deepen the descriptions of anti-LGBTQ discrimination and the struggle for LGBTQ rights. Finally, the sections discussing the 1980s have been expanded with additional aspects of the war on drugs, mass incarceration, and more detailed explorations of cultural and political developments.
Throughout the textbook, specific language and terminology have been changed in order to provide a more inclusive, humanizing, and accurate portrayal of identity and experience.
Pedagogical foundation
U.S. History features material that takes topics one step further to engage students in historical inquiry.Our features include:
• Americana. This feature explores the significance of artifacts from American pop culture and considers what values, views, and philosophies are reflected in these objects.
• Defining “American”. This feature analyzes primary sources, including documents, speeches, and other writings, to consider important issues of the day while keeping a focus on the theme of what it means to be American.
• My Story. This feature presents first-person accounts (diaries, interviews, letters) of significant or exceptional events from the American experience.
• Click and Explore. This feature is a very brief introduction to a website with an interactive experience, video, or primary sources that help improve student understanding of the material.
Questions for each level of learning
U.S. History offers two types of end-of-module questions for students:
• Review Questions are simple recall questions from each module in the chapter and are in either multiple- choice or open-response format. The answers can be looked up in the text.
• Critical Thinking Questions are higher-level, conceptual questions that ask students to demonstrate their understanding by applying what they have learned in each module to the whole of the chapter. They ask for outside-the-box thinking and reasoning about the concepts pushing students to places they wouldn’t have thought of going themselves.
2 Preface
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About the authors
Senior contributing authors
P. Scott Corbett, Ventura College Dr. Corbett’s major fields of study are recent American history and American diplomatic history. He teaches a variety of courses at Ventura College, and he serves as an instructor at California State University’s Channel Islands campus. A passionate educator, Scott has also taught history to university students in Singapore and China.
Jay Precht, Pennsylvania State University, Fayette Jay Precht is an associate professor of history at Penn State Fayette, where he teaches courses in history and American studies. He earned his doctorate in American history from Arizona State University and worked with the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana Heritage Department as a post-doctoral researcher before accepting his current position. His early research focused on the Coushatta community during the twentieth century and led to publications in Native South, Ethnohistory, and the American Indian Quarterly. Precht is currently researching Native American communities that were legally terminated without authorization from the U.S. Congress.
Volker Janssen, California State University–Fullerton Born and raised in Germany, Dr. Janssen received his BA from the University of Hamburg and his MA and PhD from the University of California, San Diego. He is a former Fulbright scholar and an active member of Germany’s advanced studies foundation “Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes.” Volker currently serves as Associate Professor at California State University’s Fullerton campus, where he specializes in the social, economic, and institutional history of California, and more recently, the history of technology.
John M. Lund, Keene State College Dr. Lund’s primary research focuses on early American history, with a special interest in oaths, Colonial New England, and Atlantic legal cultures. John has over 20 years of teaching experience. In addition to working with students at Keene State College, he lectures at Franklin Pierce University, and serves the online learning
Preface 3

community at Southern New Hampshire University.
Todd Pfannestiel, Clarion University Dr. Pfannestiel is a Professor in the history department of Clarion University in Pennsylvania, where he also holds the position of Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. Todd has a strong history of service to his institution, its students, and the community that surrounds it.
Paul Vickery, Oral Roberts University Educating others is one of Dr. Vickery’s delights, whether in the classroom, through authoring books and articles, or via informal teaching during his travels. He is currently Professor of History at Oral Roberts University, where his emphasis is on the history of ideas, ethics, and the role of the church and theology in national development. Paul reads Portuguese, Italian, French, and Hebrew, and has taught on five continents.
Sylvie Waskiewicz, Lead Editor Dr. Waskiewicz received her BSBA from Georgetown University and her MA and PhD from the Institute of French Studies at New York University. With over 10 years of teaching experience in English and French history and language, Sylvie left academia to join the ranks of higher education publishing. She has spent the last eight years editing college textbooks and academic journals.
Amy Bix, Iowa State University Edward Bond, Alabama A&M University Tammy Byron, Dalton State College Benjamin Carp, Brooklyn College, CUNY Sharon Deubreau, Rhodes State College Gene Fein, Fordham University Joel Franks, San Jose State University Raymond Frey, Centenary College Richard Gianni, Indiana University Northwest Larry Gragg, Missouri University of Science and Technology Laura Graves, South Plains College Elisa Guernsey, Monroe Community College Thomas Chase Hagood, University of Georgia Charlotte Haller, Worcester State University David Head, Spring Hill College Tamora Hoskisson, Salt Lake Community College Jean Keller, Palomar College Kathleen Kennedy, Missouri State University Mark Klobas, Scottsdale Community College Ann Kordas, Johnson & Wales University Stephanie Laffer, Miami International University of Art and Design Jennifer Lang, Delgado Community College Jennifer Lawrence, Tarrant County College Wendy Maier-Sarti, Oakton Community College Jim McIntyre, Moraine Valley Community College Marianne McKnight, Salt Lake Community College Brandon Morgan, Central New Mexico Community College Caryn Neumann, Miami University of Ohio Michelle Novak, Houston Community College Lisa Ossian, Des Moines Area Community College Paul Ringel, High Point University
4 Preface
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Jason Ripper, Everett Community College Silvana Siddali, Saint Louis University Brooks Simpson, Arizona State University Steven Smith, California State University, Fullerton David Trowbridge, Marshall University Eugene Van Sickle, University of North Georgia Hubert van Tuyll, Augusta State University
Preface 5

6 Preface
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