What are some of the responsibilities of interviewers aside from conducting the actual interviews? Name five of these responsibilities.?

  

  
Week 4 Assignment 3 Chapter 7
What are some of the responsibilities of interviewers aside from conducting the actual interviews? Name five of these responsibilities. 

BA333Ch.7.pptx

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BA333VCWeek4Assignment3Chapter7.docx

Qualitative Research
Chapter 7

McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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This chapter explains how qualitative methods differ from quantitative methods. It also provides examples of the types of research that may use qualitative methods and introduces the primary qualitative methodologies.

Learning Objectives
Understand . . .
How qualitative methodologies differ from quantitative methodologies.
The controversy surrounding qualitative research.
The types of decisions that use qualitative methodologies.
The different qualitative research methodologies.

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Qualitative Research and the Research Process

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Exhibit 7-3

Exhibit 7-3 emphasizes the portions of the research process which use qualitative research.
The qualitative researcher starts with an understanding of the manager’s problem but the management-research question hierarchy is rarely developed prior to the design of research methodology. Rather, the research is guided by a broader question more similar in structure to the management question.

Qualitative research is also critically different during the data collection sage as it often includes debriefing and pre-tasking activities.
At the data collection stage, the possible techniques include focus groups, individual depth interviews (IDIs), case studies, ethnography, grounded theory, action research, and observation.
Qualitative research is different than qualitative at the analysis stage as it includes the use of different software, and the search for more subjective meaning and understanding drives the process.
During analysis, the qualitative researcher uses content analysis of written or recorded materials drawn from personal expressions by participants, behavioral observations, and debriefing of observers, as well as the study of artifacts and trace evidence from physical environment.

Qualitative Research
Ethnography

Observation

Data
Collection
Techniques
IDIs

Action Research

Group
Interviews

Grounded Theory

Focus Groups
Case Studies

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This slide highlights many of the qualitative techniques that are useful for data collection.

Qualitative Research
Trace Evidence

Artifacts

Other
Techniques
Behavioral Observations

Textual Analysis
Debriefings

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This slide highlights many of the qualitative tools useful for data collection or data analysis.

Qualitative Research in Business
Job Analysis
Advertising Concept Development
Productivity Enhancement
New Product Development
Benefits Management
Retail Design
Process Understanding
Union Representation
Market Segmentation
Sales Analysis

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Exhibit 7-1 lists some uses of qualitative research in business. The full exhibit is provided below.

Data Sources
People
Organizations
Texts
Environments
Events and happenings
Artifacts/ media products

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Qualitative research draws data from people and organizations. Whether the source is people or organization, we can use their behavior, texts, events and so on as data. Chapter 9 focuses on observation methods.

The Roots of Qualitative Research
Psychology
Anthropology
Communication
Sociology
Semiotics
Economics
Qualitative
Research

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Qualitative research methodologies have roots in a variety of disciplines. These are named in the slide.
Some believe that qualitative data are too subjective and susceptible to human error and bias in data collection and interpretation. The fact that results cannot be generalized from a qualitative study to a larger population is considered a fundamental weakness.
Despite these limitations, managers are returning to these techniques as quantitative techniques fall short of providing the insights needed to make those ever-more-expensive decisions.

Managers must deal with the issue of trustworthiness of qualitative data using the following techniques:
Using literature searches to build probing questions,
Justifying the method chosen,
Using a field setting,
Choosing sample participants for relevance rather than representation of target population,
Using questions that will find the exception to the rule,
Carefully structuring the data analysis,
Comparing data across multiple sources and contexts,
And conducting peer-researcher debriefing on results for added clarity, insights, and reduced bias.

Distinction between Qualitative & Quantitative

Theory
Testing
Theory
Building

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This slide reflects information from exhibit 7-2

Quantitative research is the precise count of some behavior, knowledge, opinion or attitude. While the survey is not the only quantitative method, it is the dominant one. Quantitative research is often used for theory testing. For example, it might answer the question “Will a $1-off instant coupon or a $1.50 mail-in rebate generate more sales for Kellogg’s Special K?” It requires that the researcher maintain a distance from the research so as not to bias the results.
Qualitative research is sometimes called interpretive research because it seeks to develop understanding through detailed description. It builds theory but rarely tests it. Several key distinctions exist between qualitative and quantitative research and these are elaborated on in Exhibit 7-2. The next several slides highlight these distinctions.

Focus of Research
Qualitative
Understanding
Interpretation
Quantitative
Description
Explanation

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This slide reflects information from exhibit 7-2

As mentioned in the previous slide, quantitative research is used to describe and explain. It can also be used to predict. However, qualitative research is focused on understanding and interpretation.

Researcher Involvement
Qualitative
High
Participation-based
Quantitative
Limited
Controlled

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This slide reflects information from exhibit 7-2
Researcher involvement in quantitative research should be minimal lest bias be introduced. However, in qualitative research, the researcher must have a high level of involvement to probe for understanding. In quantitative research, for instance, participants may never see or speak to a member of the research team. They may simply answer a self-administered survey. In qualitative research, participants may be interviewed by the researcher or spend several hours with the researcher.

Time Duration
Qualitative
Longitudinal
Multi-method
Quantitative
Cross-sectional or longitudinal
Single method

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This slide reflects information from exhibit 7-2.

Quantitative studies are usually single mode. In other words, they will usually rely on one data collection technique whether it be a telephone survey, email survey, or experiment. However, qualitative studies may use several methods in one study to increase the researcher’s ability to interpret and justify the results.

Sample Design and Size

Qualitative
Non-probability
Purposive
Small sample
Quantitative
Probability
Large sample

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This slide reflects information from exhibit 7-2.

Quantitative studies prefer samples greater than 200 and samples that are representative of the target population. Not all quantitative studies meet these criteria but these are desirable. Qualitative studies rely on small sample sizes – less than 25 people is common. The emphasis on selecting the sample is to include people with heterogeneous opinions, attitudes, and experiences.

Data Type and Preparation

Qualitative
Verbal or pictorial
Reduced to verbal codes
Quantitative
Verbal descriptions
Reduced to numeric codes

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This slide reflects information from exhibit 7-2.

How qualitative and quantitative researchers would treat these ads as research would be very different.

Qualitative research can also use software to conduct content analysis but words and pictures are used as codes, rather than numbers. The researcher would take the copy and images in these ads and look for themes and patterns…for example, that they all contain people, that they all contain Web URLs, that one of three is promoting a particular proprietary research service while the others are more general.
Quantitative studies take verbal descriptions of consumer behavior, attitudes, and opinions and they use numbers to represent those descriptions in a database. The researcher would take the copy and images of these ads and code them with numbers. People in ads would get a 1 for male, 2 for female, 3 for indeterminate gender. Ad themes might be “1” for proprietary research service (Conceptor for Decision Analyst), “2” for institutional theme (like ‘curiosity’ for Synovate), a “3” might be assigned for general capabilities (like qualitative research services for Harris Interactive).

Turnaround
Qualitative
Shorter turnaround possible
Insight development ongoing
Quantitative
May be time-consuming
Insight development follows data entry

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This slide reflects information from exhibit 7-2.

Quantitative studies are traditionally time-consuming, but new methods such as web surveys are allowing for fast turnaround. The key is to recognize whether those methods are appropriate for the study at hand. Qualitative research can be faster due to the small sample sizes, but coding and analyzing hours of interviews can also be time consuming. One advantage of qualitative research is that insight development goes on throughout the study so interviews can be stopped when the appropriate answers are identified. This is not the case with quantitative studies.

Data Analysis

Qualitative
Nonquantitative
Human judgment mixed with fact
Emphasis on themes
Quantitative
Computerized analysis
Facts distinguished
Emphasis on counts

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This slide reflects information from exhibit 7-2.

Quantitative data analysis is conducted using statistical software programs such as SAS, SPSS, or Jump. The analysis focuses on the facts identified in the study.
Qualitative research is not coded into numeric values. Human interpretation and judgment are critical in creating insight from the data.
Content analysis…especially with the development of software like XSight…is a primary computerized analytical approach. It is far more than a count of words; such software can help reveal themes and underlying emphasis within texts.
When researchers work with focus group and IDI transcripts, the content analysis software can assist the moderator in debriefing. The ability of video to be ‘marked’ with such software as Video Marker from FocusVision makes the analytical process better able to link interpretations to specific content from a qualitative method participant.

Qualitative Research and the Research Process

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Exhibit 7-3
Exhibit 7-3 Is reintroduced here as a means of review and connection, after going into detail on the process issues.

Exhibit 7-3 emphasizes the portions of the research process which use qualitative research.
The qualitative researcher starts with an understanding of the manager’s problem but the management-research question hierarchy is rarely developed prior to the design of research methodology. Rather, the research is guided by a broader question more similar in structure to the management question.

Qualitative research is also critically different during the data collection sage as it often includes debriefing and pre-tasking activities.
At the data collection stage, the possible techniques include focus groups, individual depth interviews (IDIs), case studies, ethnography, grounded theory, action research, and observation.
Qualitative research is different than qualitative at the analysis stage as it includes the use of different software, and the search for more subjective meaning and understanding drives the process.
During analysis, the qualitative researcher uses content analysis of written or recorded materials drawn from personal expressions by participants, behavioral observations, and debriefing of observers, as well as the study of artifacts and trace evidence from physical environment.

Pretasking Activities

Use product in home
Bring visual stimuli
Create collage
Keep diaries
Construct a story
Draw pictures

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Much of qualitative research involves the deliberate preparation of the participant, called pre-exercises or pretasking. This step is important due to the desire to extract detail and meaning from the participant. A variety of creative and mental exercises draw participants’ understanding of their own thought processes and ideas to the surface. Some of these are listed on the slide.
Pretasking is rarely used in observation studies and is considered a major source of error in quantitative studies.
In this slide people were asked to bring pictures from magazines that would reflect their ideal home interior design, spaces as well as furniture and interior design elements to architectural elements.
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Pretasking Activities

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You could use this slide to discuss what the researcher might ask the participant in order to gain insight from these photos. If you don’t want to do this, please hide this slide.
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Formulating the Qualitative Research Question

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Exhibit 7-4

Choosing the Qualitative Method
Types of participants

Researcher characteristics

Factors
Schedule

Budget
Topics

Project’s purpose

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The researcher chooses a qualitative methodology based on the project’s purpose, its schedule including the speed with which insights are needed; its budget, the issue(s) or topic(s) being studied; the types of participants needed; and the researcher’s skill, personality, and preferences.

NonProbability Sampling

Purposive
Sampling

Snowball
Sampling
Convenience
Sampling

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Sample sizes for qualitative research vary by technique but are generally small. A study might include just two or three focus groups or a few dozen individual depth interviews.
Qualitative research involves non-probability sampling, where little attempt is made to generate a representative sample. There are several common types.
Purposive sampling means that the researchers choose participants arbitrarily for their unique characteristics or their experiences, attitudes, or perceptions.
Snowball sampling means that participants refer researchers to others who have characteristics, experiences, or attitudes similar to or different from their own.
Convenience sampling means that researchers select any readily available individuals as participants.

Qualitative Sampling
General sampling rule:
Keep conducting interviews until no new insights are gained.

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The general sampling guideline for qualitative research is to keep sampling as long as your breadth and depth of knowledge of the issue under study is expanding, and stop when you gain no new knowledge or insights. In other words, a qualitative researcher will stop sampling when he or she has reached data redundancy.

The Interview Question Hierarchy

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Exhibit 7-6
Interviewing requires a trained interviewer (often called a moderator for group interviews).
The interviewer must be able to make participants feel comfortable and probe for details without upsetting the participants.
The actual interviewer is usually responsible for generating the interview or discussion guide, the list of topics to be discussed, or the questions to be asked, and in what order. In building this guide, many interviewers employ a hierarchical questioning structure. This structure is shown in Exhibit 7-6.
Broader questions start the interview, designed to put participants at ease and give them a sense that they have a lot to contribute, followed by increasingly more specific questions to draw out detail.

Interviewer Responsibilities
Recommends topics and questions
Controls interview
Plans location and facilities
Proposes criteria for drawing sample
Writes screener
Recruits participants
Develops pretasking activities
Prepares research tools
Supervises transcription
Helps analyze data
Draws insights
Writes report

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The interviewer is generally responsible for many tasks related to the interview. Several of these tasks are listed in the slide.

Elements of a Recruitment Screener
Heading
Screening requirements
Identity information
Introduction
Security questions
Demographic questions
Behavior questions
Lifestyle questions
Attitudinal and knowledge questions
Articulation and creative questions
Offer/ Termination

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One of the tasks listed in the last slide was that of writing the recruitment screener.
The recruitment screener is a semistructured or structured interview guide designed to assure the interviewer that the prospect will be a good participant for the planned qualitative research.
Exhibit 7-7 provides the various elements necessary for a comprehensive recruitment screener.
Each question is designed to reassure the researcher that the person who has the necessary information and experiences, as well as the social and language skills to relate the desired information, is invited to participate.

Interview Formats

Unstructured
Semi-structured
Structured

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In an unstructured interview, there are no specific questions or order of topics to be discussed. Each interview is customized to each participant.
In a semistructured interview, there are a few standard questions but the individual is allowed to deviate based on his or her answers and thought processes. The interviewer’s role is to probe.
In a structured interview, the interview guide is detailed and specifies question order, and the way questions are to be asked. These interviews permit more direct comparability of responses and maintain interviewer neutrality.
Most qualitative research relies on the unstructured or semistructured interview format. The next slide highlights the differences between unstructured or semistructured and structured interviews.

Requirements: Unstructured Interviews
Distinctions
Developed dialog
Interviewer skill
Probe for
answers
Interviewer
creativity

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Unstructured or semi-structured interviews rely on developing a dialog between interviewer and participant. Without this dialog and comfort between the two people, the interview will not result in valuable data. Because the researcher is seeking information that the participant may not be willing to share or may not even recognize consciously, the researcher must be creative. Further, interviewer skill is necessary to extract more and a greater variety of data. Finally, interviewer experience and skill generally result in greater clarity and more elaborate answers.

The Interview Mode

Group
Individual

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The interview is the primary data collection technique for gathering data in qualitative methodologies. Interviews may vary based on the number of people involved during the interview, the level of structure, the proximity of the interviewer to the participant, and the number of interviews conducted during the research. An interview can be conducted in groups or individually.
Exhibit 7-5 compares the individual and the group interview as a research methodology. Both are important in qualitative research. This exhibit is provided on the next slide.

IDI vs Group

Individual Interview
Group Interview

Explore life of individual in depth Create case histories through repeated interviews over time Test a survey
Orient the researcher to a field of inquiry and the language of the field Explore a range of attitudes, opinions, and behaviors Observe a process of consensus and disagreement

Detailed individual experiences, choices, biographies Sensitive issues that might provoke anxiety
Issues of public interest or common concern Issues where little is known or of a hypothetical nature

Time-pressed participants or those difficult to recruit (e.g., elite or high-status participants) Participants with sufficient language skills (e.g., those older than seven) Participants whose distinctions would inhibit participation
Participants whose backgrounds are similar or not so dissimilar as to generate conflict or discomfort Participants who can articulate their ideas Participants who offer a range of positions on issues

Research Objective
Topic Concerns
Participants

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Exhibit 7-5

Research Using IDIs
Cultural interviews

Sequential interviewing

Types
Life histories

Critical incident techniques
Oral histories

Ethnography

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Exhibit 7-8
An individual depth interview (IDI) is an interaction between an individual interviewer and a single participant. Individual depth interviews generally take between 20 minutes and 2 hours to complete, depending on the issues and topics of interest and the contact method used. Some techniques, such as life histories, may take as long as 5 hours.
Exhibit 7-8 highlights some types of research using IDIs.
Oral histories (narratives) ask participants to relate their personal experiences and feelings related to historical events or past behavior.
Cultural interviews ask participants to relate his or her experiences with a culture or subculture.
Life histories extract from a single participant memories and experiences from childhood to the present day regarding a product or service category, brand, or firm.
In a critical incident technique, the participant describes what led up to the incident, what he or she did or did not do, and the outcome of the action.
Convergent interviewing involves experts as participants in a sequential series of IDIs.
Sequential interviewing approaches the participant with questions formed around an anticipated series of activities.
Ethnography involves a field-setting and unstructured interview.
Grounded theory uses a structured interview but adjusts each interview based on findings from those that came before.

Projective Techniques
MET

Sensory sorts

Semantic Mapping

Data
Collection
Techniques
Sentence Completion

Cartoons
Thematic Apperception

Laddering

Association
Component Sorts
Imagination
Exercises

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Within interview structures, projective techniques may be used to identify hidden or suppressed meanings. Some projective techniques are named in the slide.
In word or picture association, participants are asked to match images, experiences, emotions, products, services, people, and places to whatever is being studied.
In sentence completion, participants are asked to complete a sentence.
In cartoons or empty balloons, participants are asked to write the dialog for a cartoonlike picture.
With the Thematic Apperception Test, participants are confronted with a picture and asked to describe how

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