solved: PART I. IDENTIFYING THE CONCLUSION. Identify the conclusion of each…

  

PART I. IDENTIFYING THE CONCLUSION. Identify the conclusion of each…PART I. IDENTIFYING THE CONCLUSION. Identify the conclusion of each of the following passages by boldfacing, italicizing or underlining it.  1.     Anthropology is the most liberating of all the sciences. Not only has it exposed the fallacies of racial and cultural superiority, but its devotion to the study of all peoples, everywhere and throughout time, has cast more light on human nature than all the reflections of sages or the studies of laboratory scientists.  2.     Education in the United States is a system in crisis. Compared to their Asian and European counterparts, American students are poor academic performers, especially in sciences and in mathematics. Despite having received an education, millions of adults are functionally and culturally illiterate. Educational funding has been cut dramatically, and many schools are in a dangerous state of repair.  3.     The Social Security system is a pay-as-you-go arrangement where contributions by today’s workers are paid out to yesterday’s retirees. If part of today’s contributions go into private retirement accounts, they cannot be paid out. To make up the shortage, the government will have to borrow massive amounts of money. Hence, Social Security privatization will cause a huge increase in the federal budget.  4.      Assume that the universe is 14 billion years old.  y by looking into great distances, we can see what parts of the universe looked like when the universe was younger.  5.     We can’t bomb our way out of nuclear proliferation. But in a world in which nuclear weapons are the badge of real nations, no self-respecting superpower is going to disarm unilaterally, and every non-nuclear state will want a seat at the table. The only way to escape this deadly cycle is for the nuclear powers to step up and lead negotiations for an international agreement abolishing nuclear weapons.    PART II. INDUCTION OR DEDUCTION? Identify the following arguments as either deductive or inductive.  1. We may define ‘God’ as that being than which none greater can be conceived. If God does not exist, then he lacks a conceivable perfection, existence, and another conceivable being, an existing God, would be greater. But that is absurd. Therefore, the greatest conceivable being must exist. Therefore, God must exist.   inductive 2. At the crime scene, muddy shoe prints from high heels were found leading from the back door and trailing to the kitchen where the victim was found. A knife was missing from the kitchen. The back door appeared to have been forced and the front door was wide open. As the lead investigator, then, I conclude that a woman entered the back door, killed the victim with a knife and left through the front door with the murder weapon. Inductive     3.  The chimpanzee population in Africa has fallen from 300,000 to 30,000 in a mere decade. In a continent short of meat supplies, chimpanzees are being used as ‘bush meat’ to supplement the diet of many people. The chimp population in zoos and laboratories is too small to sustain the species, if wild chimps vanish. There are virtually no controls on hunting chimpanzees in Africa. Therefore, unless something is done soon, the chimpanzee species will go extinct.     4.  All people who text while driving are socially and legally irresponsible. No one who is socially and legally irresponsible should be allowed to drive a school bus. Therefore, no one who texts while driving should be allowed to drive a school bus.   5.  Unpopular political speech is analogous to racial hate speech. The Constitution, according to many precedents, prohibits racial hate speech, that is, does not protect it as free speech. Therefore, the Constitution does not protect unpopular political speech.     PART III. EVALUATING INDUCTION. Each of the following arguments are inductive. After each passage, evaluate the argument as strong or weak. If the argument is strong, determine whether it is cogent or uncogent. All weak arguments are uncogent, of course. The given facts below are true. These are true facts:There are 100 marbles in this jar.The marbles are randomly distributed.All selections are random.There are 30 solid-colored marbles: of these, 10 are white, 15 are black and 5 are orange.There are 50 cat’s eye marbles: of these, 20 are green, 20 are blue, and 10 are orange.There are 20 smoky marbles: of these, 2 are orange, 11 are gray and 7 are purple.All relevant information about the marbles is given above.  There are 100 marbles in this jar. The marbles are randomly distributed. There are 30 solid-colored marbles. There are 50 cat’s eye marbles. There are 20 smoky marbles. If I were to select a marble from the jar randomly, therefore, it would probably be a cat’s eye.  There are 100 marbles in this jar. The marbles are randomly distributed. There are 30 solid-colored marbles. There are 50 cat’s eye marbles. There are 20 smoky marbles. Therefore, if I were to select a marble from the jar randomly, it would more likely be solid-colored than smoky. There are 100 marbles in this jar. The marbles are randomly distributed. There are 30 solid-colored marbles: of these, 10 are white, 15 are black and 5 are orange. There are 50 cat’s eye marbles: of these, 20 are green, 20 are blue, and 10 are orange. There are 20 smoky marbles: of these, 2 are orange, 11 are gray and 7 are purple. Therefore, if I were to select a marble from the jar randomly, there is a 17% probability that it is orange.   There are 100 marbles in this jar. The marbles are randomly distributed. There are 30 solid-colored marbles: of these, 10 are white, 15 are black and 5 are orange. There are 50 cat’s eye marbles: of these, 20 are green, 20 are blue, and 10 are orange. There are 20 smoky marbles: of these, 2 are orange, 11 are gray and 7 are purple. Therefore, if I were to select a marble from the jar randomly, there is an equal probability that the marble is either solid black or smoky gray. There are 100 marbles in this jar. The marbles are randomly distributed. There are 30 solid-colored marbles: of these, 10 are white, 15 are black and 5 are orange. There are 50 cat’s eye marbles: of these, 20 are green, 20 are blue, and 10 are orange. There are 20 smoky marbles: of these, 2 are orange, 11 are gray and 7 are purple. Therefore, if I were to select a marble from the jar randomly, there is a greater chance that the marble is green than that it is smoky. PART IV. EVALUATING DEDUCTION. Determine whether the following deductive arguments are valid or invalid. If the argument is valid, determine whether it is sound or unsound. All invalid arguments are unsound, of course.  These are true facts:Charles Sanders Peirce was a well-known logician.Peirce was an eccentric recluse.All famous logicians have been male.All the well-known ancient Greek philosophers were male.Bertrand Russell invented the logic of relations in symbolic logic.Russell lived after Aristotle.Lewis Carroll wrote Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland before Russell wrote Principia      Mathematica.Russell wrote Principia Mathematica after Aristotle wrote Posterior Analytics.A “major logician” is defined as “anyone who has made a unique contribution to the        understanding of the basic laws of thought.”Nagarjuna was a person who has made a unique contribution to the understanding of the      basic laws of thought.   Charles Sanders Peirce was a well-known logician. He was an eccentric recluse. So at least one well-known logician was an eccentric recluse.  All famous logicians have been male. All the well-known ancient Greek philosophers were male. Therefore, all well-known ancient Greek philosophers were famous logicians.  If Bertrand Russell invented the logic of relations in symbolic logic, then he lived after Aristotle. Russell lived after Aristotle. Therefore, he invented the logic of relations in symbolic logic.  Lewis Carroll wrote Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland before Russell wrote Principia Mathematica. And Russell wrote Principia Mathematica after Aristotle wrote Posterior Analytics. So, Lewis Carroll wrote Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland before Aristotle wrote Posterior Analytics.  A “major logician” is defined as “anyone who has made a unique contribution to the understanding of the basic laws of thought.” Well, Nagarjuna was a person who has made a unique contribution to the understanding of the basic laws of thought. So, Nagarjuna was a major logician.  Arts & HumanitiesPhilosophy PHI 100

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