PLEASE READ THIS ARTICLE BEFORE ANSWERING QUESTIONS TOKYO In the…PLEASE READ THIS ARTICLE BEFORE ANSWERING QUESTIONS   TOKYO ­­ In the four years since the March 2011 earthquake, Japanese companies havefocused on ways to keep business going after a disaster, taking steps ranging from buildingstronger supply chains through outsourcing to stockpiling fuel.RenesasThe quake devastated Renesas Electronics’ Naka plant, which handled a sizable portion of automotive microcontroller production. Shipments ground to a halt, dealing a blow to automobile output. Though Toyota Motor, Nissan Motor and other major automakers sent technicians to the facility to help with rebuilding, it took three months for production to resume.  Seeing a serious risk in concentrating so much capacity at one location, Renesas outsourced some production of cutting­edge automotive microcontrollers to chip foundry Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing from 2013. It also set up a system to share information on-chip inventories with clients.Meanwhile, automakers have taken steps of their own. With the help of its suppliers, Toyota built a production status database covering 30,000 sites run by 13,000 companies. In a disaster, the database will let Toyota quickly determine which sites are down and what products are unavailable.Suzuki Motor’s motorcycle production is currently split among three sites: a technical center in a coastal area of Iwata, Shizuoka Prefecture; an assembly plant in Toyokawa, Aichi Prefecture; and an engine factory in the city of Hamamatsu. It plans to consolidate these in February 2019 into one facility in an elevated area of Hamamatsu. Seven & I, KomatsuProduction stoppages were not the only problems companies faced after the earthquake. Roads, ports, and other transportation infrastructure were destroyed, preventing goods from being shipped.Seven & I Holdings built a facility beneath an Ito­Yokado distribution center in Saitama Prefecture to store the fuel for delivery vehicles. It has stockpiled enough fuel to cover 10 days’ worth of deliveries to more than 5,000 convenience stores and supermarkets in the greater Tokyo area. It is considering building similar storage stations elsewhere. The earthquake also resulted in shortages in electricity supply, which is a prerequisite for any business operation. This led Komatsu to strive to cut its domestic power use to half of fiscal 2010 levels by fiscal 2015.The company is spending around 40 billion yen ($327 million) to renovate aging domestic facilities, mainly to revamp production and boost renewable­energy use. At one assembly facility at its Awazu plant, which turns out products such as hydraulic shovels, Komatsu slashed yearly electricity purchases by 92% by installing cutting­edge energy­efficient machinery and solar panels.A government survey announced last year found that 53.6% of major companies have laid out a business­continuity plan, the first time that figure has exceeded 50%. More than 70% either have a plan or are making one.  But the number of companies saying they do not intend to set up such a plan or are unfamiliar with the concept is also rising, particularly among midsize businesses.(Nikkei)(c) 2015 Nihon Keizai Shimbun America, Inc. QUESTIONS a. Indicate an example of a risk control option being discussed in this article.[2 points] b. For your answer to part [a], indicate what specific risk control option is being illustrated by the example. In other words, is your answer an example of avoidance, loss prevention, etc.? [2 points]  c. For your answer to part [b], explain why your answer is an example of risk control. In other words, explain how it fits into the goals of risk control options if the specific risk control option is properly implemented. [2 points]  THIS QUESTION YOU DO NOT NEED TO ANSWER FROM AN ARTICAL. 2. Bonus: Consider the following two scenarios [Option A and Option B]:?Shepherd Inc. has a total of 600 computers. Currently, Shepherd Inc. has all 600 computers stored in one warehouse. There is a 5% chance that a fire could occur. If this fire occurs, then Shepherd will lose all 600 computers. [Option A]Alternatively, Shepherd is considering separating their computers evenly into two different warehouses:  300 computers stored in Warehouse I and 300 computers stored in Warehouse II. Once again, there is a 5% chance that a fire could occur in each warehouse. If a fire occurs, then Shepherd would once again lose their entire computers in that particular warehouse. [Option B]Read about this concept in Chapter 5 of your textbook under the heading ‘Separation’ on pages 5.9 – 5.12 in order to answer this question properly. a. First, consider Option A. Derive the probability distribution for a total number of lost computers under Option A. Hint: Think about the definition of a probability distribution and apply it in this case. [2 points]b. Now consider Option B. Derive the probability distribution for total number of lost computers under Option B. Hint: In the case of Option B, you need to consider all the possible outcomes in terms of number of lost computers, recognizing that Shepherd now has two warehouses. Further hint: consider the rules of probability as discussed in class when you derive your probability distribution. [4 points]   c. Compare the amount of risk Shepherd faces under Option A vs. Option B. Which option has more risk? Justify and demonstrate your answer. [4 points]  Engineering & TechnologyIndustrial EngineeringOperations Management RMI 2101

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