accumulator machine, where would the memory access stage go? You…accumulator machine, where would the memory accessstage go?You are to advise on the selection of an operating system on which networkaccessible services are to be provided. Each service must be capable of supportinga specified number of simultaneous clients and multiprocessor hardware may beused.Define and evaluate each of the following styles of support for multi-threadedprocesses:(a) user threads only [10 marks](b) kernel threads only [10 marks][Hint: include selected data held in process and thread descriptors; mention callssupported at the thread-package and kernel interfaces.]9 Operating System FunctionsMultimedia applications may be characterised by their requirement for timelycompletion of their computation or data processing in order to function usefully.Why are traditional operating systems unable to deliver such guarantees? Commenton the features which an operating system should implement in order to supportsuch applications successfully, considering issues of memory management, deviceaccess, and scheduling techniques.State, with justification, whether each of the following statements is true or false.(a) The set of natural numbers, N = {0, 1, 2, . . .}, equipped with the usualless-than-or-equal relation, 6, is a domain. [3 marks](b) The set of all subsets of N, equipped with the relation of subset inclusion, is adomain. [4 marks](c) For any domain D and element d ? D with d 6= ?fd(x) = > if d v x,? otherwisedefines a strict continuous function fd from D to the flat domain {>}?.[4 marks](d) For any domain D and element d ? D with d 6= ?gd(x) = ? if x v d,> otherwisedefines a strict continuous function gd from D to {>}?. [4 marks](e) For any continuous functions h : D ? E and k : E ? D between domains Dand E, fix (k ? h) v k (fix (h ? k)).Consider Shannon’s third theorem, the Channel Capacity Theorem, for a continuouscommunication channel having bandwidth W Hertz, perturbed by additive whiteGaussian noise of power spectral density N0, and average transmitted power P.(a) Is there any limit to the capacity of such a channel if its signal-to-noise ratioPN0Wcan be arbitrarily increased? If so, what is that limit? [2 marks](b) Is there any limit to the capacity of such a channel if, leaving N0 and Punchanged, its bandwidth W in Hertz can be arbitrarily increased? If so,what is that limit? [3 marks]Explain why smoothing a signal, by low-pass filtering it before sampling it, canprevent aliasing. Draw a graph in the Fourier domain which illustrates the originof aliasing, and also show in the picture how smoothing solves the problem. Whatwould be the most effective low-pass filter to use for this purpose? Draw it in theFourier domain. [10 marks]Suppose that women who live beyond the age of 70 outnumber men in the sameage bracket by three to one. How much information, in bits, is gained by learningthat a certain person who lives beyond 70 happens to be male?It could be said that the central problem of pattern recognition is the relationbetween the within-class variability and the between-class variability for thepatterns that one would like to recognise. Explain this problem in the case offace recognition, treating separately the problems of(a) face detection (distinguishing faces from non-faces)(b) face identification(c) face interpretation (classifying the expression and pose angle of the face)How do the forms of variability for faces influence each of the three tasks? Iswithin-class variability ever helpful, and between-class variability ever harmful, tothe performance of the task? What role can statistical decision-theory play informalising and solving these problems?[20 marks] Explain briefly the role played by structural congruence in defining the reactionrules of the p-calculus. Give the structural congruence rules which involverestriction, or composition, or both. [7 marks]A p-calculus term of the form new~z (M1| · · · |Mm|! Q1| · · · |! Qn), where m, n > 0 andeach Miis a summation, is said to be in standard form. Give an argument (whichneed not be fully formal) to show that every term of the p-calculus is structurallycongruent to a standard form. [6 marks]Consider the termP = xhai | newa (! ahci | (a(b).b(c).chxi + x(y).y(z).zhai)) .Convert P to standard form by the rules of structural congruence, indicating whichrules are used. Hence write down all the possible reactions P ? P0, and the possiblereactions of each resulting P0. For each result which has no further reactions,write down the simplest term to which it is strongly equivalent (~), giving a briefjustification.Image transcription text2. Use the figure below for the questions thatfollow. Assume the panels are connected inseries vertically and in parallel hor… Show more… Show more Computer ScienceEngineering & TechnologyNetworking INFORMATIO NETWORKING

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