One thing that increased cheating in our experiments was making the prospect ofa monetary payoff more “distant,” in psychological terms. In one variation ofthe matrix task, we tempted students to cheat for tokens (which wouldimmediately be traded in for cash). Subjects in this token condition cheatedtwice as much as those lying directly for money.a) How does this result support their “rationalization” theory, rather than the “rational gain-loss theory?”b) For each example below, identify the manipulated variable and the measured variable.c) What causal statement can each study make?Explain how the experimental nature of each of the studies helps support the causal claim.Social SciencePsychology PSYCHOLOGY 92
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