explain 3 different types of support for children with special needs that were discussed.You must us


explain 3 different types of support for children with special needs that were discussed.You must use at least 8 sentences.

share 2 DIFFERENT ways on how teachers can get parents involved in their children’s education, that were discussed. least 6 sentences for each 

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Parent Involvement

Benefits for children

Children of parents who are involved in their education:

 have a more positive attitude about school,

 have improved attendance,

 and show better homework habits

than do children whose families are less involved.

Benefits for the parent

The parent also benefits from being involved in their child’s education/school. The parent who is involved in

their child’s school:

 understands what their child is being taught,

 shows increased self-confidence in parenting, (how to become effective parents)

 shows more knowledge of child development, (learn more about their children)

 has an expanded understanding of the home as an environment for student learning.

 is more likely to report that they feel they should help their child at home,

So why don’t parents come to school? Some of the barriers include:

1. Availability – Many parents feel like intruders on school grounds.

2. Awkwardness – Feelings of inadequacy in knowing how to help their children. They may feel that their

assistance is not needed by the teacher/school. The tendency for teachers to communicate only if there is

trouble ALSO may contribute to the parent’s general reluctance to approach the school uninvited.

3. Timing- Time constraints and conflicts in the work schedules. Therefore flexibility is a must for teachers!

These guiding questions can be used by the teacher for self-evaluation:

Does what I am about to do……

1. welcome families as partners in their children’s schooling?

2. communicate clearly with everyone?

3. involve each parent in his or her child’s learning?

4. include clear information about how and why their help is needed?

5. allow for a variety of times and ways to participate?

6. exclude anyone for any reason?


Communicating with Parents: One Way and Two Way Modes of Communication

What is the difference between one way communication and two way communication?

One way= merely informs parents about the school’s plans and happenings.

Two way= requires interactions among participants, allows parents to give feedback to the school on their

knowledge, concerns, and desires.

The ideal is to achieve effective communication. There are a number of strategies to do this.

Examples of One Way Communication:

1. A newsletter is a simple form of one-way communication.

2. Notes and letters (ie: send home a note to let parents know how child is doing). They can establish good


3. Newspapers can help disseminate information effectively

4. District newsletters keep the community up to date on school events

5. Suggestion boxes encourage parents to share their concerns and pleasures with the school anonymously.

6. Handbooks sent home before child enters school are greatly appreciated by parents. They can reinforce

policies, etc.

7. Bulletin boards

Examples of Two Way Communication:

1. Homework hot line. People can volunteer for a set number of hours at a special volunteer number.

2. Computer information line (emails)

3. Telephone calls. If it is impossible to visit a person in person, rely on a telephone call. Beware, however,

that most parents will wonder what is wrong when their child’s teacher calls. This is quite an indictment

of our communication methods; parents are generally contacted only when something is wrong or gone


4. Home visits. Not all parents are receptive to them (afraid teacher is judging home)

5. Visits to classroom. Parents can come and volunteer at special events, regularly, etc.

6. Participation visits. Directions will help a parent feel more comfortable helping in the classroom (in

form of a handbook or brief dialogue)

7. Visits by invitation (“parents of the week”)

8. Student-parent exchange day (have parent come in role of their child to see what school is like)

9. Breakfasts. If you have a cooperative cafeteria staff or volunteers who are willing to make a simple


10. A brief note

11. Talking daily


Developing Relationships with Parents

How might a teacher develop a strong relationship with parents?

1. Let parents know you are sincerely interested in them as individuals. How might this look?

2. Show interest in the family as a whole, not just the child. How might this look?

3. Show interest in their personal interests and problems. How might this look?

4. Provide opportunities for developing social relationships with other families in the school. How might

this look?

5. Listen to their suggestions and opinions.

6. Follow up each written communication or invitation with a call to those who don’t respond.

7. Enlist the aid of parents to contact other parents and to help involve them in the program.

8. Send information home to let parents know what is happening at school.

9. Hold workshops where parents can come together informally. How might this look?

10. Offer programs to help parents know more about developmental needs of children.

11. Enlist the aid of parents in gathering free materials either from their own scrap collections or from

neighborhood businesses.

12. Ask parents to suggest topics for study groups, workshops, trips and programs.

13. Send out newsletters at regular intervals.

14. Invite parents to observe and participate at school. Teachers can create a classroom climate that

welcomes families (it’s a partnership!) Invite parents to share a vocation/job or hobby/interest with the

class. Have a surprise secret reader. Activities like these validate and empower the parents. They help

the connection between home and school form on positive notes.

15. Vary the times and opportunities for family members to become involved. How might this work?

16. Be sensitive to the unique characteristics and circumstances of individual families. How might this look?


How might teachers get parents involved in their children’s education?

1. Prepare parents for what they can expect from their child’s school experience – Parents should be

provided with a handbook, a school year calendar. Parents should know what their responsibilities are.

2. Contact parents frequently and on a regular basis. Keep the lines of communication open and flowing

between school and home. Know and call the parents by name. Talk to them briefly as they leave and

pick up their children.

3. Respect parents for the difficult job they have, the role they play, and the persons they are. Let them

know that you are sincerely interested in them as individuals.

4. Respect the parents’ religious, cultural, social and ethnic backgrounds – this means be supportive of

dietary restrictions, special holidays, and customs that parents choose to share.

5. Listen to parents. Try to hear what they are saying from their point of view. Listen to parents without

judging them.

6. Create a classroom climate that welcomes families (it’s a partnership!) Invite parents to share a strength

or hobby (guitar playing) or vocation (fire fighter) with the class….or have a surprise secret reader.

Activities like these validate and empower the parents.

7. Use frequent, two-way, and clear communication with families. Vary the form of communication. Also

try to get the information in the language they can understand, if possible.

8. Offer varied times and opportunities for parental involvement. Be sensitive to parent diversity. Vary the

times and opportunities for family members to become involved (ie: Dad’s night).

9. Be sensitive to the unique characteristics and circumstances of individual families. Accommodate

working schedules; provide child care for evening activities, etc.

10. Support all parents, even those with differing opinions. Find ways to acknowledge them and what they

are trying to do even though you may disagree with their child rearing practices.

11. Respect the values of families. Social, cultural, and religious differences and a variety of life styles,

child-rearing methods, and educational philosophies are reflected in every classroom. It is important

that parents feel accepted. Focus on the similarities among parents and develop an anti-bias approach to


12. Ask parents instead of telling them. Avoid telling parents what to do. Help parents clarify their goals

for their children and identify the trouble spots. Teachers then encourage and support parents as they

work together to solve the problem. Parents will feel overwhelmed and inadequate if they think they

must change their whole child rearing style.

13. Accept parents for what they are. Parents’ feelings can get easily hurt if they think they are being

judged or criticized by teachers and school personnel. Keep in mind that parents just want to be

accepted for who and what they are. We are good about accepting the individuality of each child – must

transfer that practice to parents.


Conferencing: How to have a successful/productive conference:

1. Schedule conferences on a regular basis.

2. Be prepared.

3. Select a private place free from interruption.

4. Have a clear purpose.

5. Put parents at ease.

6. Use up-to-date- information and examples – cite examples from teacher observations, etc.

7. Be sure to tell parents what children to well, focus on the child’s strengths.

8. Avoid blaming parents.

9. Know where and how to secure community resources and referrals.

10. Make a date for a follow up conference if needed.

11. Write a brief report after the conference.

What is your plan to ensure your parent-teacher conferences are effective?

 How can you be prepared?

 How can you prepare the physical space in the room?

 How should you welcome the parents?

 What will you provide to keep the parents occupied while they are waiting for their


 How will you adjust the conference to the parent’s level of understanding?

 How many objectives will you have for the conference?

 How will you summarize and agree upon the results of the conference?

 How should you start the conference?

 What type of body language should you have?

 Will you begin and end on time?

 What type of follow up should you have?

Special Needs Conditions

The term Special Needs includes children with physical, sensory, or cognitive impairments, as
well as those with health care needs such as asthma and emotional health issues.

The term Disabilities refers to physical or mental impairments that limit a child’s movements,

senses, or activities. Disability describes the person’s limitation, their condition and inability;

while handicap refers to the impact the person’s disability has on normal life activities.

Conditions Descriptions

1 Visual Impairment Ranges from total lack of vision to correctable vision

2 Hearing Impairment Ranges from total hearing loss to correctible hearing.

3 Learning Disability Average or above intellectually but has difficulty learning.
Characterized by attention, memory, and perceptual
problems. Difficulties with Language use, writing, reading

4 Neurological Impairment Neuromuscular disorder (such as cerebral palsy) or
neurological disorder (such as epilepsy)

5 Attention Deficit Disorder

Inattentive, disorganized, off task; may be overly active
and lacking in self-control

6 Orthopedic Handicap May have one or more missing limbs or limbs that do not
function properly.

7 Speech and Language

Speech difficulty may be an articulation problem.
Language problems include slow or delayed speech
development, lack of comprehension, stuttering,
articulation problems, etc.

8 Emotional and Behavioral

Unable to adjust, unhappy, has behavior problems

9 Autism Effects communication, imagination, and socialization;
child appear to avoid social interaction

10 Giftedness High intelligence and/or creativity and special talents

11 Cultural Differences Child’s culture is not the mainstream model

12 Environmentally Induced

Abusive treatment, malnutrition, cultural differences

13 Intellectual Disability
(Note: The term Mental
Retardation is
politically incorrect, hurtful and

Intellectual challenge based on multiple criteria, including
IQ score, level of functional adaptive behavior (ie:
dressing, toileting, feeding), and level of social adaptive

14 Polydrug (marijuana,
alcohol, tobacco) Exposed
(which refers to the use of
combined psychoactive
substances to achieve a
particular effect)

Cognitive, motor, and perceptual deficits. Possible
behavior problems. Central nervous system damage.

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